The Enzyme Database

Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (NC-IUBMB)

Proposed Changes to the Enzyme List

The entries below are proposed additions and amendments to the Enzyme Nomenclature list. They were prepared for the NC-IUBMB by Kristian Axelsen, Richard Cammack, Ron Caspi, Masaaki Kotera, Andrew McDonald, Gerry Moss, Dietmar Schomburg, Ida Schomburg and Keith Tipton. Comments and suggestions on these draft entries should be sent to Dr Andrew McDonald (Department of Biochemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland). The date on which an enzyme will be made official is appended after the EC number. To prevent confusion please do not quote new EC numbers until they are incorporated into the main list.

An asterisk before 'EC' indicates that this is an amendment to an existing enzyme rather than a new enzyme entry.


Contents

EC 1.1.1.327 5-exo-hydroxycamphor dehydrogenase
EC 1.3.1.52 transferred
EC 1.3.1.92 artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13)-reductase
*EC 1.3.8.1 short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
EC 1.3.8.5 2-methyl-branched-chain-enoyl-CoA reductase
EC 1.3.8.6 glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (ETF)
EC 1.3.8.7 medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
EC 1.3.8.8 long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
EC 1.3.8.9 very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
EC 1.3.99.3 transferred
EC 1.3.99.7 transferred
EC 1.3.99.13 transferred
EC 1.4.1.23 valine dehydrogenase (NAD+)
*EC 1.4.3.19 glycine oxidase
EC 1.13.11.63 β-carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase
EC 1.14.13.155 α-pinene monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.156 1,8-cineole 2-endo-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.157 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.158 amorpha-4,11-diene 12-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.159 vitamin D 25-hydroxylase
EC 1.14.13.160 (2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA 1,5-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.161 (+)-camphor 6-exo-hydroxylase
EC 1.14.13.162 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.15.2 transferred
EC 1.14.15.9 spheroidene monooxygenase
EC 1.14.15.10 (+)-camphor 6-endo-hydroxylase
EC 1.18.1.5 putidaredoxin—NAD+ reductase
EC 2.1.1.256 tRNA (guanine6-N2)-methyltransferase
EC 2.1.1.257 tRNA (pseudouridine54-N1)-methyltransferase
EC 2.2.1.10 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate synthase
EC 2.2.1.11 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate synthase
EC 2.3.1.198 glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase
*EC 2.4.1.132 GDP-Man:Man1GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase
*EC 2.4.1.258 dolichyl-P-Man:Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase
*EC 2.4.1.259 dolichyl-P-Man:Man6GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase
*EC 2.4.1.260 dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,6-mannosyltransferase
*EC 2.4.1.265 dolichyl-P-Glc:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
*EC 2.4.1.267 dolichyl-P-Glc:Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
*EC 2.4.2.29 tRNA-guanosine34 transglycosylase
EC 3.7.1.18 6-oxocamphor hydrolase
EC 4.2.1.133 copal-8-ol diphosphate hydratase
EC 4.2.3.124 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase
EC 4.2.3.125 α-muurolene synthase
EC 4.2.3.126 γ-muurolene synthase
EC 4.2.3.127 β-copaene synthase
EC 4.2.3.128 β-cubebene synthase
EC 4.2.3.129 (+)-sativene synthase
EC 4.2.3.130 tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase
EC 4.3.99.3 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine synthase
EC 5.5.1.21 transferred
EC 6.2.1.38 (2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase


EC 1.1.1.327
Accepted name: 5-exo-hydroxycamphor dehydrogenase
Reaction: 5-exo-hydroxycamphor + NAD+ = bornane-2,5-dione + NADH + H+
For diagram of camphor catabolism, click here
Other name(s): F-dehydrogenase; FdeH
Systematic name: 5-exo-hydroxycamphor:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains Zn2+. Isolated from Pseudomonas putida, and involved in degradation of (+)-camphor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, UM-BBD
References:
1.  Rheinwald, J.G., Chakrabarty, A.M. and Gunsalus, I.C. A transmissible plasmid controlling camphor oxidation in Pseudomonas putida. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70 (1973) 885–889. [PMID: 4351810]
2.  Koga, H., Yamaguchi, E., Matsunaga, K., Aramaki, H. and Horiuchi, T. Cloning and nucleotide sequences of NADH-putidaredoxin reductase gene (camA) and putidaredoxin gene (camB) involved in cytochrome P-450cam hydroxylase of Pseudomonas putida. J. Biochem. 106 (1989) 831–836. [PMID: 2613690]
3.  Aramaki, H., Koga, H., Sagara, Y., Hosoi, M. and Horiuchi, T. Complete nucleotide sequence of the 5-exo-hydroxycamphor dehydrogenase gene on the CAM plasmid of Pseudomonas putida (ATCC 17453). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1174 (1993) 91–94. [PMID: 8334169]
[EC 1.1.1.327 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.52
Transferred entry: 2-methyl-branched-chain-enoyl-CoA reductase. Now EC 1.3.8.5, 2-methyl-branched-chain-enoyl-CoA reductase
[EC 1.3.1.52 created 1992, deleted 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.92
Accepted name: artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13)-reductase
Reaction: (11R)-dihydroartemisinic aldehyde + NADP+ = artemisinic aldehyde + NADPH + H+
For diagram of artemisinin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): Dbr2
Systematic name: artemisinic aldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Cloned from Artemisia annua. In addition to the reduction of artemisinic aldehyde it is also able to a lesser extent to reduce artemisinic alcohol and artemisinic acid. Part of the biosyntheis of artemisinin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Bertea, C.M., Freije, J.R., van der Woude, H., Verstappen, F.W., Perk, L., Marquez, V., De Kraker, J.W., Posthumus, M.A., Jansen, B.J., de Groot, A., Franssen, M.C. and Bouwmeester, H.J. Identification of intermediates and enzymes involved in the early steps of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua. Planta Med. 71 (2005) 40–47. [PMID: 15678372]
2.  Zhang, Y., Teoh, K.H., Reed, D.W., Maes, L., Goossens, A., Olson, D.J., Ross, A.R. and Covello, P.S. The molecular cloning of artemisinic aldehyde Δ11(13) reductase and its role in glandular trichome-dependent biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 21501–21508. [PMID: 18495659]
[EC 1.3.1.92 created 2012]
 
 
*EC 1.3.8.1
Accepted name: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: a short-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = a short-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Glossary: a short-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains less than 6 carbon atoms.
Other name(s): butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase; butyryl dehydrogenase; unsaturated acyl-CoA reductase; ethylene reductase; enoyl-coenzyme A reductase; unsaturated acyl coenzyme A reductase; butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase; short-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase; short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; 3-hydroxyacyl CoA reductase; butanoyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase; ACADS (gene name).
Systematic name: short-chain acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids β-oxidation. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of saturated short-chain acyl-CoA thioesters to give a trans 2,3-unsaturated product by removal of the two pro-R-hydrogen atoms. The enzyme from beef liver accepts substrates with acyl chain lengths of 3 to 8 carbon atoms. The highest activity was reported with either butanoyl-CoA [2] or pentanoyl-CoA [4]. The enzyme from rat has only 10% activity with hexanoyl-CoA (compared to butanoyl-CoA) and no activity with octanoyl-CoA [6]. cf. EC 1.3.8.7, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.8, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 1.3.8.9, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, IUBMB, KEGG, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9027-88-7
References:
1.  Mahler, H.R. Studies on the fatty acid oxidizing system of animal tissue. IV. The prosthetic group of butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 206 (1954) 13–26. [PMID: 13130522]
2.  Green, D.E., Mii, S., Mahler, H.R. and Bock, R.M. Studies on the fatty acid oxidizing system of animal tissue. III. Butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 206 (1954) 1–12. [PMID: 13130521]
3.  Beinert, H. Acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Eds), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 447–466.
4.  Shaw, L. and Engel, P.C. The purification and properties of ox liver short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochem. J. 218 (1984) 511–520. [PMID: 6712627]
5.  Thorpe, C. and Kim, J.J. Structure and mechanism of action of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. FASEB J. 9 (1995) 718–725. [PMID: 7601336]
6.  Ikeda, Y., Ikeda, K.O. and Tanaka, K. Purification and characterization of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation of the holo- and apoenzymes and conversion of the apoenzyme to the holoenzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 1311–1325. [PMID: 3968063]
7.  McMahon, B., Gallagher, M.E. and Mayhew, S.G. The protein coded by the PP2216 gene of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase that oxidises only short-chain aliphatic substrates. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 250 (2005) 121–127. [PMID: 16024185]
[EC 1.3.8.1 created 1961 as EC 1.3.2.1, transferred 1964 to EC 1.3.99.2, transferred 2011 to EC 1.3.8.1, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.5
Accepted name: 2-methyl-branched-chain-enoyl-CoA reductase
Reaction: 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = (E)-2-methylbut-2-enoyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein + H+
Systematic name: 2-methyl-branched-chain-acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD) from Ascaris suum. The enzyme functions in shuttling reducing power from the electron-transport chain to 2-methyl branched-chain enoyl CoA
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Komuniecki, R., Fekete, S. and Thissen-Parra, J. Purification and characterization of the 2-methyl branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in NADH-dependent enoyl-CoA reduction in anaerobic mitochondria of the nematode, Ascaris suum. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 4770–4777. [PMID: 3988734]
2.  Komuniecki, R., McCrury, J., Thissen, J. and Rubin, N. Electron-transfer flavoprotein from anaerobic Ascaris suum mitochondria and its role in NADH-dependent 2-methyl branched-chain enoyl-CoA reduction. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 975 (1989) 127–131. [PMID: 2736251]
[EC 1.3.8.5 created 1992 as EC 1.3.1.52, transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.5]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.6
Accepted name: glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (ETF)
Reaction: glutaryl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = crotonyl-CoA + CO2 + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein (overall reaction)
(1a) glutaryl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = (E)-glutaconyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
(1b) (E)-glutaconyl-CoA = crotonyl-CoA + CO2
For diagram of Benzoyl-CoA catabolism, click here
Glossary: (E)-glutaconyl-CoA = (2E)-4-carboxybut-2-enoyl-CoA
crotonyl-CoA = (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA
Other name(s): glutaryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase; glutaryl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating); glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase
Systematic name: glutaryl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: Contains FAD. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of glutaryl-CoA to glutaconyl-CoA (which remains bound to the enzyme), and the decarboxylation of the latter to crotonyl-CoA (cf. EC 4.1.1.70, glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase). FAD is the electron acceptor in the oxidation of the substrate, and its reoxidation by electron-transfer flavoprotein completes the catalytic cycle. The anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus multivorans contains two glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenases: a decarboxylating enzyme (this entry), and a non-decarboxylating enzyme that only catalyses the oxidation to glutaconyl-CoA (EC 1.3.99.32).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37255-38-2
References:
1.  Besrat, A., Polan, C.E. and Henderson, L.M. Mammalian metabolism of glutaric acid. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 1461–1467. [PMID: 4304226]
2.  Hartel, U., Eckel, E., Koch, J., Fuchs, G., Linder, D. and Buckel, W. Purification of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp., an enzyme involved in the anaerobic degradation of benzoate. Arch. Microbiol. 159 (1993) 174–181. [PMID: 8439237]
3.  Dwyer, T.M., Zhang, L., Muller, M., Marrugo, F. and Frerman, F. The functions of the flavin contact residues, αArg249 and βTyr16, in human electron transfer flavoprotein. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1433 (1999) 139–152. [PMID: 10446367]
4.  Rao, K.S., Albro, M., Dwyer, T.M. and Frerman, F.E. Kinetic mechanism of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 15853–15861. [PMID: 17176108]
[EC 1.3.8.6 created 1972 as EC 1.3.99.7, transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.6, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.7
Accepted name: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: a medium-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = a medium-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Glossary: a medium-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains 6 to 12 carbon atoms.
Other name(s): fatty acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ambiguous); acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ambiguous); acyl dehydrogenase (ambiguous); fatty-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ambiguous); acyl CoA dehydrogenase (ambiguous); general acyl CoA dehydrogenase (ambiguous); medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; acyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase (ambiguous); ACADM (gene name).
Systematic name: medium-chain acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids β-oxidation. The enzyme from pig liver can accept substrates with acyl chain lengths of 4 to 16 carbon atoms, but is most active with C8 to C12 compounds [2]. The enzyme from rat does not accept C16 at all and is most active with C6-C8 compounds [4]. cf. EC 1.3.8.1, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.8, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 1.3.8.9, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, PDB
References:
1.  Crane, F.L., Hauge, J.G. and Beinert, H. Flavoproteins involved in the first oxidative step of the fatty acid cycle. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 17 (1955) 292–294. [PMID: 13239683]
2.  Crane, F.L., Mii, S., Hauge, J.G., Green, D.E. and Beinert, H. On the mechanism of dehydrogenation of fatty acyl derivatives of coenzyme A. I. The general fatty acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 218 (1956) 701–716. [PMID: 13295224]
3.  Beinert, H. Acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Eds), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 447–466.
4.  Ikeda, Y., Ikeda, K.O. and Tanaka, K. Purification and characterization of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation of the holo- and apoenzymes and conversion of the apoenzyme to the holoenzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 1311–1325. [PMID: 3968063]
5.  Thorpe, C. and Kim, J.J. Structure and mechanism of action of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. FASEB J. 9 (1995) 718–725. [PMID: 7601336]
6.  Kim, J.J., Wang, M. and Paschke, R. Crystal structures of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from pig liver mitochondria with and without substrate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90 (1993) 7523–7527. [PMID: 8356049]
7.  Peterson, K.L., Sergienko, E.E., Wu, Y., Kumar, N.R., Strauss, A.W., Oleson, A.E., Muhonen, W.W., Shabb, J.B. and Srivastava, D.K. Recombinant human liver medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase: purification, characterization, and the mechanism of interactions with functionally diverse C8-CoA molecules. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 14942–14953. [PMID: 7578106]
8.  Toogood, H.S., van Thiel, A., Basran, J., Sutcliffe, M.J., Scrutton, N.S. and Leys, D. Extensive domain motion and electron transfer in the human electron transferring flavoprotein.medium chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase complex. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 32904–32912. [PMID: 15159392]
[EC 1.3.8.7 created 1961 as EC 1.3.2.2, transferred 1964 to EC 1.3.99.3, part transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.7]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.8
Accepted name: long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: a long-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = a long-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Glossary: a long-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains 13 to 22 carbon atoms.
Other name(s): palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase; palmitoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; long-chain-acyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase; ACADL (gene name).
Systematic name: long-chain acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids β-oxidation. The enzyme from pig liver can accept substrates with acyl chain lengths of 6 to at least 16 carbon atoms. The highest activity was found with C12, and the rates with C8 and C16 were 80 and 70%, respectively [2]. The enzyme from rat can accept substrates with C8-C22. It is most active with C14 and C16, and has no activity with C4, C6 or C24 [4]. cf. EC 1.3.8.1, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.8, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 1.3.8.9, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, CAS registry number: 59536-74-2
References:
1.  Crane, F.L., Hauge, J.G. and Beinert, H. Flavoproteins involved in the first oxidative step of the fatty acid cycle. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 17 (1955) 292–294. [PMID: 13239683]
2.  Hauge, J.G., Crane, F.L. and Beinert, H. On the mechanism of dehydrogenation of fatty acyl derivatives of coenzyme A. III. Palmityl CoA dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 219 (1956) 727–733. [PMID: 13319294]
3.  Hall, C.L., Heijkenkjold, L., Bartfai, T., Ernster, L. and Kamin, H. Acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenases and electron-transferring flavoprotein from beef heart mitochondria. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 177 (1976) 402–414. [PMID: 1015826]
4.  Ikeda, Y., Ikeda, K.O. and Tanaka, K. Purification and characterization of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation of the holo- and apoenzymes and conversion of the apoenzyme to the holoenzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 1311–1325. [PMID: 3968063]
5.  Djordjevic, S., Dong, Y., Paschke, R., Frerman, F.E., Strauss, A.W. and Kim, J.J. Identification of the catalytic base in long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochemistry 33 (1994) 4258–4264. [PMID: 8155643]
[EC 1.3.8.8 created 1989 as EC 1.3.99.13, part transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.8]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.9
Accepted name: very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: a very-long-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = a very-long-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Glossary: a very-long-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains 23 or more carbon atoms.
Other name(s): ACADVL (gene name).
Systematic name: very-long-chain acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids β-oxidation. The enzyme is most active toward long-chain acyl-CoAs such as C14, C16 and C18, but is also active with very-long-chain acyl-CoAs up to 24 carbons. It shows no activity for substrates of less than 12 carbons. Its specific activity towards palmitoyl-CoA is more than 10-fold that of the long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [1]. cf. EC 1.3.8.1, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.7, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 1.3.8.8, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, PDB
References:
1.  Izai, K., Uchida, Y., Orii, T., Yamamoto, S. and Hashimoto, T. Novel fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes in rat liver mitochondria. I. Purification and properties of very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 1027–1033. [PMID: 1730632]
2.  Aoyama, T., Souri, M., Ushikubo, S., Kamijo, T., Yamaguchi, S., Kelley, R.I., Rhead, W.J., Uetake, K., Tanaka, K. and Hashimoto, T. Purification of human very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and characterization of its deficiency in seven patients. J. Clin. Invest. 95 (1995) 2465–2473. [PMID: 7769092]
3.  McAndrew, R.P., Wang, Y., Mohsen, A.W., He, M., Vockley, J. and Kim, J.J. Structural basis for substrate fatty acyl chain specificity: crystal structure of human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 9435–9443. [PMID: 18227065]
[EC 1.3.8.9 created 1961 as EC 1.3.2.2, transferred 1964 to EC 1.3.99.3, part transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.9]
 
 
EC 1.3.99.3
Transferred entry: acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, now EC 1.3.8.7, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.8, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and EC 1.3.8.9, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
[EC 1.3.99.3 created 1961 as EC 1.3.2.2, transferred 1964 to EC 1.3.99.3, deleted 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.99.7
Transferred entry: glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Now EC 1.3.8.6, glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
[EC 1.3.99.7 created 1972, deleted 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.99.13
Transferred entry: long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Now EC 1.3.8.8, long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
[EC 1.3.99.13 created 1989, deleted 2012]
 
 
EC 1.4.1.23
Accepted name: valine dehydrogenase (NAD+)
Reaction: L-valine + H2O + NAD+ = 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + NH3 + NADH + H+
Systematic name: L-valine:NAD+ oxidoreductase (deaminating)
Comments: The enzyme from Streptomyces spp. has no activity with NADP+ [cf. EC 1.4.1.8, valine dehydrogenase (NADP+)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Vancurová, I., Vancura, A., Volc, J., Neuzil, J., Flieger, M., Basarová, G. and Behal, V. Isolation and characterization of valine dehydrogenase from Streptomyces aureofaciens. J. Bacteriol. 170 (1988) 5192–5196. [PMID: 3182727]
2.  Navarrete, R.M., Vara, J.A. and Hutchinson, C.R. Purification of an inducible L-valine dehydrogenase of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J. Gen. Microbiol. 136 (1990) 273–281. [PMID: 2324704]
[EC 1.4.1.23 created 2012]
 
 
*EC 1.4.3.19
Accepted name: glycine oxidase
Reaction: glycine + H2O + O2 = glyoxylate + NH3 + H2O2 (overall reaction)
(1a) glycine + O2 = 2-iminoacetate + H2O2
(1b) 2-iminoacetate + H2O = glyoxylate + NH3
For diagram of thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis, click here
Systematic name: glycine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating)
Comments: A flavoenzyme containing non-covalently bound FAD. The enzyme from Bacillus subtilis is active with glycine, sarcosine, N-ethylglycine, D-alanine, D-α-aminobutyrate, D-proline, D-pipecolate and N-methyl-D-alanine. It differs from EC 1.4.3.3, D-amino-acid oxidase, due to its activity on sarcosine and D-pipecolate. The intermediate 2-iminoacetate is used directly by EC 2.8.1.10, thiazole synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, PDB, CAS registry number: 39307-16-9
References:
1.  Job, V., Marcone, G.L., Pilone, M.S. and Pollegioni, L. Glycine oxidase from Bacillus subtilis. Characterization of a new flavoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 6985–6993. [PMID: 11744710]
2.  Nishiya, Y. and Imanaka, T. Purification and characterization of a novel glycine oxidase from Bacillus subtilis. FEBS Lett. 438 (1998) 263–266. [PMID: 9827558]
[EC 1.4.3.19 created 2002, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.63
Accepted name: β-carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase
Reaction: β-carotene + O2 = 2 all-trans-retinal
For diagram of retinal and derivatives biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): blh (gene name); BCO1 (gene name); BCDO (gene name); carotene dioxygenase; carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase; BCMO1 (misleading); β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (incorrect)
Systematic name: β-carotene:oxygen 15,15′-dioxygenase (bond-cleaving)
Comments: Requires Fe2+. The enzyme cleaves β-carotene symmetrically, producing two molecules of all-trans-retinal. Both atoms of the oxygen molecule are incorporated into the products [8]. The enzyme can also process β-cryptoxanthin, 8′-apo-β-carotenal, 4′-apo-β-carotenal, α-carotene and γ-carotene in decreasing order. The presence of at least one unsubstituted β-ionone ring in a substrate greater than C30 is mandatory [5]. A prokaryotic enzyme has been reported from the uncultured marine bacterium 66A03, where it is involved in the proteorhodopsin system, which uses retinal as its chromophore [6,7].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Goodman, D.S., Huang, H.S. and Shiratori, T. Mechanism of the biosynthesis of vitamin A from β-carotene. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 1929–1932. [PMID: 5946623]
2.  Goodman, D.S., Huang, H.S., Kanai, M. and Shiratori, T. The enzymatic conversion of all-trans β-carotene into retinal. J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 3543–3554.
3.  Yan, W., Jang, G.F., Haeseleer, F., Esumi, N., Chang, J., Kerrigan, M., Campochiaro, M., Campochiaro, P., Palczewski, K. and Zack, D.J. Cloning and characterization of a human β,β-carotene-15,15′-dioxygenase that is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium. Genomics 72 (2001) 193–202. [PMID: 11401432]
4.  Leuenberger, M.G., Engeloch-Jarret, C. and Woggon, W.D. The reaction mechanism of the enzyme-catalysed central cleavage of β-carotene to retinal. Angew. Chem. 40 (2001) 2614–2616. [PMID: 11458349]
5.  Kim, Y.S. and Oh, D.K. Substrate specificity of a recombinant chicken β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase that converts β-carotene into retinal. Biotechnol. Lett. 31 (2009) 403–408. [PMID: 18979213]
6.  Kim, Y.S., Kim, N.H., Yeom, S.J., Kim, S.W. and Oh, D.K. In vitro characterization of a recombinant Blh protein from an uncultured marine bacterium as a β-carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 15781–15793. [PMID: 19366683]
7.  Kim, Y.S., Park, C.S. and Oh, D.K. Retinal production from β-carotene by β-carotene 15,15′-dioxygenase from an unculturable marine bacterium. Biotechnol. Lett. 32 (2010) 957–961. [PMID: 20229064]
8.  dela Seña, C., Riedl, K.M., Narayanasamy, S., Curley, R.W., Jr., Schwartz, S.J. and Harrison, E.H. The human enzyme that converts dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A is a dioxygenase. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 13661–13666. [PMID: 24668807]
[EC 1.13.11.63 created 2012 (EC 1.14.99.36 created 1972 as EC 1.13.11.21, transferred 2001 to EC 1.14.99.36, incorporated 2015), modified 2016]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.155
Accepted name: α-pinene monooxygenase
Reaction: (–)-α-pinene + NADH + H+ + O2 = α-pinene oxide + NAD+ + H2O
For diagram of pinene and related monoterpenoids, click here
Systematic name: (–)-α-pinene,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: Involved in the catabolism of α-pinene.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, UM-BBD
References:
1.  Colocousi, A. Saqib, K.M. and Leak, D.J. Mutants of Pseudomonas fuorescence NCIMB 11671 defective in the catabolism of α-pinene. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 45 (1996) 822–830.
[EC 1.14.13.155 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.156
Accepted name: 1,8-cineole 2-endo-monooxygenase
Reaction: 1,8-cineole + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 2-endo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole + NADP+ + H2O
For diagram of 1,8-cineole catabolism, click here
Glossary: 1,8-cineole = 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane
2-endo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole = (1R,4S,6R)-1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-6-ol
Other name(s): P450cin; CYP176A; CYP176A1
Systematic name: 1,8-cineole,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-endo-hydroxylating)
Comments: A heme-thiolate protein (P-450) which uses a flavodoxin-like redox partner to reduce the heme iron. Isolated from the bacterium Citrobacter braakii, which can use 1,8-cineole as the sole source of carbon.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Hawkes, D.B., Adams, G.W., Burlingame, A.L., Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. and De Voss, J.J. Cytochrome P450cin (CYP176A), isolation, expression, and characterization. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 27725–27732. [PMID: 12016226]
2.  Meharenna, Y.T., Li, H., Hawkes, D.B., Pearson, A.G., De Voss, J. and Poulos, T.L. Crystal structure of P450cin in a complex with its substrate, 1,8-cineole, a close structural homologue to D-camphor, the substrate for P450cam. Biochemistry 43 (2004) 9487–9494. [PMID: 15260491]
3.  Kimmich, N., Das, A., Sevrioukova, I., Meharenna, Y., Sligar, S.G. and Poulos, T.L. Electron transfer between cytochrome P450cin and its FMN-containing redox partner, cindoxin. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 27006–27011. [PMID: 17606612]
4.  Meharenna, Y.T., Slessor, K.E., Cavaignac, S.M., Poulos, T.L. and De Voss, J.J. The critical role of substrate-protein hydrogen bonding in the control of regioselective hydroxylation in p450cin. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 10804–10812. [PMID: 18270198]
[EC 1.14.13.156 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.157
Accepted name: 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase
Reaction: 1,8-cineole + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole + NADP+ + H2O
For diagram of 1,8-cineole catabolism, click here
Glossary: 1,8-cineole = 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane
2-exo-hydroxy-1,8-cineole = (1R,4S,6S)-1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-6-ol
Other name(s): CYP3A4
Systematic name: 1,8-cineole,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-exo-hydroxylating)
Comments: A heme-thiolate protein (P-450). The mammalian enzyme, expressed in liver microsomes, performs a variety of oxidation reactions of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. cf. EC 1.14.13.97 (taurochenodeoxycholate 6-hydroxylase), EC 1.14.13.67 (quinine 3-monooxygenase) and EC 1.14.13.32 (albendazole monooxygenase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Miyazawa, M., Shindo, M. and Shimada, T. Oxidation of 1,8-cineole, the monoterpene cyclic ether originated from Eucalyptus polybractea, by cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in rat and human liver microsomes. Drug Metab. Dispos. 29 (2001) 200–205. [PMID: 11159812]
2.  Miyazawa, M. and Shindo, M. Biotransformation of 1,8-cineole by human liver microsomes. Nat. Prod. Lett. 15 (2001) 49–53. [PMID: 11547423]
3.  Miyazawa, M., Shindo, M. and Shimada, T. Roles of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in the 2-hydroxylation of 1,4-cineole, a monoterpene cyclic ether, by rat and human liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 31 (2001) 713–723. [PMID: 11695850]
[EC 1.14.13.157 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.158
Accepted name: amorpha-4,11-diene 12-monooxygenase
Reaction: amorpha-4,11-diene + 3 O2 + 3 NADPH + 3 H+ = artemisinate + 3 NADP+ + 4 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) amorpha-4,11-diene + O2 + NADPH + H+ = artemisinic alcohol + NADP+ + H2O
(1b) artemisinic alcohol + O2 + NADPH + H+ = artemisinic aldehyde + NADP+ + 2 H2O
(1c) artemisinic aldehyde + O2 + NADPH + H+ = artemisinate + NADP+ + H2O
For diagram of artemisinin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): CYP71AV1
Systematic name: amorpha-4,11-diene,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (12-hydroxylating)
Comments: A heme-thiolate protein (P-450). Cloned from the plant Artemisia annua (sweet wormwood). Part of the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Teoh, K.H., Polichuk, D.R., Reed, D.W., Nowak, G. and Covello, P.S. Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) trichome-specific cDNAs reveal CYP71AV1, a cytochrome P450 with a key role in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. FEBS Lett. 580 (2006) 1411–1416. [PMID: 16458889]
[EC 1.14.13.158 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.159
Transferred entry: vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. Now EC 1.14.14.24, vitamin D 25-hydroxylase
[EC 1.14.13.159 created 2012, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.160
Accepted name: (2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA 1,5-monooxygenase
Reaction: [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetyl-CoA + O2 + NADPH + H+ = [(2R)-3,3,4-trimethyl-6-oxo-3,6-dihydro-1H-pyran-2-yl]acetyl-CoA + NADP+ + H2O
For diagram of camphor catabolism, click here
Glossary: (2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA = 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA
Other name(s): 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA monooxygenase; 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA 1,2-monooxygenase; OTEMO
Systematic name: [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetyl-CoA,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,5-lactonizing)
Comments: A FAD dependent enzyme isolated from Pseudomonas putida. Forms part of the catabolism pathway of camphor. It acts on the CoA ester in preference to the free acid.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, UM-BBD
References:
1.  Ougham, H.J., Taylor, D.G. and Trudgill, P.W. Camphor revisited: involvement of a unique monooxygenase in metabolism of 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid by Pseudomonas putida. J. Bacteriol. 153 (1983) 140–152. [PMID: 6848481]
2.  Leisch, H., Shi, R., Grosse, S., Morley, K., Bergeron, H., Cygler, M., Iwaki, H., Hasegawa, Y. and Lau, P.C. Cloning, Baeyer-Villiger biooxidations, and structures of the camphor pathway 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-coenzyme A monooxygenase of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78 (2012) 2200–2212. [PMID: 22267661]
3.  Kadow, M., Loschinski, K., Sass, S., Schmidt, M. and Bornscheuer, U.T. Completing the series of BVMOs involved in camphor metabolism of Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007 by identification of the two missing genes, their functional expression in E. coli, and biochemical characterization. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 96 (2012) 419–429. [PMID: 22286514]
[EC 1.14.13.160 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.161
Accepted name: (+)-camphor 6-exo-hydroxylase
Reaction: (+)-camphor + NADPH + H+ + O2 = (+)-6-exo-hydroxycamphor + NADP+ + H2O
For diagram of camphor catabolism, click here
Other name(s): (+)-camphor 6-hydroxylase
Systematic name: (+)-camphor,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-exo-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase isolated from Salvia officinalis (sage). Involved in the catabolism of camphor in senescent tissue.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Funk, C., Koepp, A.E. and Croteau, R. Catabolism of camphor in tissue cultures and leaf disks of common sage (Salvia officinalis). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 294 (1992) 306–313. [PMID: 1550356]
2.  Funk, C. and Croteau, R. Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis). Plant Physiol. 101 (1993) 1231–1237. [PMID: 12231778]
[EC 1.14.13.161 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.162
Accepted name: 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase
Reaction: (+)-bornane-2,5-dione + O2 + NADH + H+ = (+)-5-oxo-1,2-campholide + NAD+ + H2O
For diagram of camphor catabolism, click here
Glossary: (+)-bornane-2,5-dione = 2,5-diketocamphane
Other name(s): 2,5-diketocamphane lactonizing enzyme; ketolactonase I (ambiguous); 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase oxygenating component; 2,5-DKCMO; camP (gene name); camphor 1,2-monooxygenase; camphor ketolactonase I
Systematic name: (+)-bornane-2,5-dione,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-lactonizing)
Comments: A flavoprotein (FMN) which requires Fe2+. A Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase isolated from camphor-grown strains of Pseudomonas putida and encoded on the cam plasmid. Involved in the degradation of (+)-camphor. Requires a dedicated NADH-FMN reductase [cf. EC 1.5.1.42, FMN reductase (NADH)] [1-3]. Can accept several bicyclic ketones including (+)- and (–)-camphor [6] and adamantanone [4]. The product spontaneously converts to [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, UM-BBD
References:
1.  Conrad, H.E., DuBus, R., Namtvedt, M.J. and Gunsalus, I.C. Mixed function oxidation. II. Separation and properties of the enzymes catalyzing camphor lactonizaton. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 495–503. [PMID: 14253460]
2.  Yu, C.A. and Gunsalus, I.C. Monoxygenases. VII. Camphor ketolactonase I and the role of three protein components. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 6149–6152. [PMID: 4310834]
3.  Taylor, D.G. and Trudgill, P.W. Camphor revisited: studies of 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453. J. Bacteriol. 165 (1986) 489–497. [PMID: 3944058]
4.  Selifonov, S.A. Microbial oxidation of adamantanone by Pseudomonas putida carrying the camphor catabolic plasmid. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 186 (1992) 1429–1436. [PMID: 1510672]
5.  Jones, K.H., Smith, R.T. and Trudgill, P.W. Diketocamphane enantiomer-specific ’Baeyer-Villiger’ monooxygenases from camphor-grown Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453. J. Gen. Microbiol. 139 (1993) 797–805. [PMID: 8515237]
6.  Kadow, M., Sass, S., Schmidt, M. and Bornscheuer, U.T. Recombinant expression and purification of the 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase from the camphor metabolizing Pseudomonas putida strain NCIMB 10007. AMB Express 1:13 (2011). [PMID: 21906366]
[EC 1.14.13.162 created 1972 as EC 1.14.15.2, transferred 2012 to EC 1.14.13.162]
 
 
EC 1.14.15.2
Transferred entry: camphor 1,2-monooxygenase. Now EC 1.14.13.162, 2,5-diketocamphane 1,2-monooxygenase.
[EC 1.14.15.2 created 1972, deleted 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.15.9
Accepted name: spheroidene monooxygenase
Reaction: (1) spheroidene + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 O2 = spheroiden-2-one + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 3 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) spheroidene + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + O2 + 2H+ = 2-hydroxyspheroidene + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
(1b) 2-hydroxyspheroidene + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + O2 + 2H+ = 2,2-dihydroxyspheroidene + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
(1c) 2,2-dihydroxyspheroidene = spheroiden-2-one + H2O (spontaneous)
(2) spirilloxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 O2 = 2-oxospirilloxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 3 H2O (overall reaction)
(2a) spirilloxanthin + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + O2 + 2H+ = 2-hydroxyspirilloxanthin + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
(2b) 2-hydroxyspirilloxanthin + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + O2 + 2H+ = 2,2-dihydroxyspirilloxanthin + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
(2c) 2,2-dihydroxyspirilloxanthin = 2-oxospirilloxanthin + H2O (spontaneous)
(3) 2-oxospirilloxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 O2 = 2,2′-dioxospirilloxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 3 H2O (overall reaction)
(3a) 2-oxospirilloxanthin + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + O2 + 2H+ = 2′-hydroxy-2-oxospirilloxanthin + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
(3b) 2′-hydroxy-2-oxospirilloxanthin + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + O2 + 2H+ = 2′,2′-dihydroxy-2-oxospirilloxanthin + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
(3c) 2′,2′-dihydroxy-2-oxospirilloxanthin = 2,2′-dioxospirilloxanthin + H2O (spontaneous)
For diagram of 2,2′-dioxospirilloxanthin biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of mechanism, click here
Glossary: spheroidene = 3,4-didehydro-1-methoxy-1,2,7′,8′-tetrahydro-ψ,ψ-carotene
Other name(s): CrtA; acyclic carotenoid 2-ketolase; spirilloxanthin monooxygenase; 2-oxo-spirilloxanthin monooxygenase
Systematic name: spheroidene,reduced-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (spheroiden-2-one-forming)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in spheroidenone biosynthesis and in 2,2′-dioxospirilloxanthin biosynthesis. The enzyme from Rhodobacter sphaeroides contains heme at its active site [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Lee, P.C., Holtzapple, E. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Novel activity of Rhodobacter sphaeroides spheroidene monooxygenase CrtA expressed in Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 7328–7331. [PMID: 20851979]
2.  Gerjets, T., Steiger, S. and Sandmann, G. Catalytic properties of the expressed acyclic carotenoid 2-ketolases from Rhodobacter capsulatus and Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1791 (2009) 125–131. [PMID: 19136077]
[EC 1.14.15.9 created 2012, modified 2016]
 
 
EC 1.14.15.10
Accepted name: (+)-camphor 6-endo-hydroxylase
Reaction: (+)-camphor + reduced putidaredoxin + O2 = (+)-6-endo-hydroxycamphor + oxidized putidaredoxin + H2O
For diagram of camphor catabolism, click here
Other name(s): P450camr
Systematic name: (+)-camphor,reduced putidaredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-endo-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase from the bacterium Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 9784.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Grogan, G., Roberts, G.A., Parsons, S., Turner, N.J. and Flitsch, S.L. P450camr, a cytochrome P450 catalysing the stereospecific 6-endo-hydroxylation of (1R)-(+)-camphor. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 59 (2002) 449–454. [PMID: 12172608]
[EC 1.14.15.10 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.18.1.5
Accepted name: putidaredoxin—NAD+ reductase
Reaction: reduced putidaredoxin + NAD+ = oxidized putidaredoxin + NADH + H+
For diagram of camphor catabolism, click here
Other name(s): putidaredoxin reductase; camA (gene name)
Systematic name: putidaredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Requires FAD. The enzyme from Pseudomonas putida reduces putidaredoxin. It contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster. Involved in the camphor monooxygenase system (see EC 1.14.15.1, camphor 5-monooxygenase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Roome, P.W., Jr., Philley, J.C. and Peterson, J.A. Purification and properties of putidaredoxin reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 2593–2598. [PMID: 6401738]
2.  Koga, H., Yamaguchi, E., Matsunaga, K., Aramaki, H. and Horiuchi, T. Cloning and nucleotide sequences of NADH-putidaredoxin reductase gene (camA) and putidaredoxin gene (camB) involved in cytochrome P-450cam hydroxylase of Pseudomonas putida. J. Biochem. 106 (1989) 831–836. [PMID: 2613690]
3.  Peterson, J.A., Lorence, M.C. and Amarneh, B. Putidaredoxin reductase and putidaredoxin. Cloning, sequence determination, and heterologous expression of the proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 6066–6073. [PMID: 2180940]
4.  Sevrioukova, I.F. and Poulos, T.L. Putidaredoxin reductase, a new function for an old protein. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 25831–25839. [PMID: 12011076]
5.  Sevrioukova, I.F., Garcia, C., Li, H., Bhaskar, B. and Poulos, T.L. Crystal structure of putidaredoxin, the [2Fe-2S] component of the P450cam monooxygenase system from Pseudomonas putida. J. Mol. Biol. 333 (2003) 377–392. [PMID: 14529624]
6.  Sevrioukova, I.F., Li, H. and Poulos, T.L. Crystal structure of putidaredoxin reductase from Pseudomonas putida, the final structural component of the cytochrome P450cam monooxygenase. J. Mol. Biol. 336 (2004) 889–902. [PMID: 15095867]
7.  Smith, N., Mayhew, M., Holden, M.J., Kelly, H., Robinson, H., Heroux, A., Vilker, V.L. and Gallagher, D.T. Structure of C73G putidaredoxin from Pseudomonas putida. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60 (2004) 816–822. [PMID: 15103126]
[EC 1.18.1.5 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.256
Accepted name: tRNA (guanine6-N2)-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + guanine6 in tRNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N2-methylguanine6 in tRNA
Other name(s): methyltransferase Trm14; m2G6 methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (guanine6-N2)-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme specifically methylates guanine6 at N2 in tRNA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Menezes, S., Gaston, K.W., Krivos, K.L., Apolinario, E.E., Reich, N.O., Sowers, K.R., Limbach, P.A. and Perona, J.J. Formation of m2G6 in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA catalyzed by the novel methyltransferase Trm14. Nucleic Acids Res. 39 (2011) 7641–7655. [PMID: 21693558]
[EC 2.1.1.256 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.257
Accepted name: tRNA (pseudouridine54-N1)-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + pseudouridine54 in tRNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N1-methylpseudouridine54 in tRNA
Other name(s): TrmY; m1Ψ methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (pseudouridine54-N1)-methyltransferase
Comments: While this archaeal enzyme is specific for the 54 position and does not methylate pseudouridine at position 55, the presence of pseudouridine at position 55 is necessary for the efficient methylation of pseudouridine at position 54 [2,3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Chen, H.Y. and Yuan, Y.A. Crystal structure of Mj1640/DUF358 protein reveals a putative SPOUT-class RNA methyltransferase. J. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2 (2010) 366–374. [PMID: 21098051]
2.  Wurm, J.P., Griese, M., Bahr, U., Held, M., Heckel, A., Karas, M., Soppa, J. and Wohnert, J. Identification of the enzyme responsible for N1-methylation of pseudouridine 54 in archaeal tRNAs. RNA 18 (2012) 412–420. [PMID: 22274954]
3.  Chatterjee, K., Blaby, I.K., Thiaville, P.C., Majumder, M., Grosjean, H., Yuan, Y.A., Gupta, R. and de Crecy-Lagard, V. The archaeal COG1901/DUF358 SPOUT-methyltransferase members, together with pseudouridine synthase Pus10, catalyze the formation of 1-methylpseudouridine at position 54 of tRNA. RNA 18 (2012) 421–433. [PMID: 22274953]
[EC 2.1.1.257 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.2.1.10
Accepted name: 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate synthase
Reaction: L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde + 1-deoxy-D-threo-hexo-2,5-diulose 6-phosphate = 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate + 2,3-dioxopropyl phosphate
For diagram of 3-dehydroquinate biosynthesis in archaea, click here
Glossary: 1-deoxy-D-threo-hexo-2,5-diulose 6-phosphate = 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate
2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate = 2-amino-2,3,7-trideoxy-D-lyxo-hept-6-ulosonate
Other name(s): ADH synthase; ADHS; MJ0400 (gene name)
Systematic name: L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde:1-deoxy-D-threo-hexo-2,5-diulose 6-phosphate methylglyoxaltransferase
Comments: The enzyme plays a key role in an alternative pathway of the biosynthesis of 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ), which is involved in the canonical pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. The enzyme can also catalyse the reaction of EC 4.1.2.13, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  White, R.H. L-Aspartate semialdehyde and a 6-deoxy-5-ketohexose 1-phosphate are the precursors to the aromatic amino acids in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Biochemistry 43 (2004) 7618–7627. [PMID: 15182204]
2.  Samland, A.K., Wang, M. and Sprenger, G.A. MJ0400 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii exhibits fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase activity. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 281 (2008) 36–41. [PMID: 18318840]
3.  Morar, M., White, R.H. and Ealick, S.E. Structure of 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonic acid synthase, a catalyst in the archaeal pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. Biochemistry 46 (2007) 10562–10571. [PMID: 17713928]
[EC 2.2.1.10 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.2.1.11
Accepted name: 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate synthase
Reaction: (1) 2-oxopropanal + D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate = D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + 1-deoxy-D-threo-hexo-2,5-diulose 6-phosphate
(2) 2-oxopropanal + D-fructose 1-phosphate = D-glyceraldehyde + 1-deoxy-D-threo-hexo-2,5-diulose 6-phosphate
For diagram of 3-dehydroquinate biosynthesis in archaea, click here
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
1-deoxy-D-threo-hexo-2,5-diulose 6-phosphate = 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate
Other name(s): DKFP synthase
Systematic name: 2-oxopropanal:D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate glycerone-phosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme plays a key role in an alternative pathway of the biosynthesis of 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ), which is involved in the canonical pathway for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. The enzyme can also catalyse the reaction of EC 4.1.2.13, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  White, R.H. and Xu, H. Methylglyoxal is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate: a precursor for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 12366–12379. [PMID: 17014089]
2.  Samland, A.K., Wang, M. and Sprenger, G.A. MJ0400 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii exhibits fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase activity. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 281 (2008) 36–41. [PMID: 18318840]
[EC 2.2.1.11 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.198
Accepted name: glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase
Reaction: an acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + a 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
Other name(s): sn-2-glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase; glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol 3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase
Comments: A membrane-associated enzyme required for suberin or cutin synthesis in plants. Active with a wide range of acyl-CoA substrates (C16:0-C24:0). The enzyme from some sources has much higher activity with ω-oxidized acyl-CoAs. Some enzymes are bifunctional and have an additional phosphatase activity producing sn-2-monoacylglycerols.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Yang, W., Pollard, M., Li-Beisson, Y., Beisson, F., Feig, M. and Ohlrogge, J. A distinct type of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase with sn-2 preference and phosphatase activity producing 2-monoacylglycerol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 12040–12045. [PMID: 20551224]
[EC 2.3.1.198 created 2012]
 
 
*EC 2.4.1.132
Accepted name: GDP-Man:Man1GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-mannose + β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = GDP + α-D-Man-(1→3)-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = β-D-mannosyl-(1→4)-N,N′-diacetylchitobiosyldiphosphodolichol
Other name(s): Alg2 mannosyltransferase (ambiguous); ALG2 (gene name, ambiguous); glycolipid 3-α-mannosyltransferase; GDP-mannose:glycolipid 3-α-D-mannosyltransferase; GDP-Man:Man1GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase; GDP-D-mannose:D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 3-α-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 3-α-D-mannosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The biosynthesis of asparagine-linked glycoproteins utilizes a dolichyl diphosphate-linked glycosyl donor, which is assembled by the series of membrane-bound glycosyltransferases that comprise the dolichol pathway. Alg2 mannosyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae carries out an α1,3-mannosylation of D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol, followed by an α1,6-mannosylation (cf. EC 2.4.1.257), to form the first branched pentasaccharide intermediate of the dolichol pathway [1,2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, CAS registry number: 81181-76-2
References:
1.  Kampf, M., Absmanner, B., Schwarz, M. and Lehle, L. Biochemical characterization and membrane topology of Alg2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a bifunctional α1,3- and 1,6-mannosyltransferase involved in lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11900–11912. [PMID: 19282279]
2.  O'Reilly, M.K., Zhang, G. and Imperiali, B. In vitro evidence for the dual function of Alg2 and Alg11: essential mannosyltransferases in N-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 9593–9603. [PMID: 16878994]
[EC 2.4.1.132 created 1984, modified 2011, modified 2012]
 
 
*EC 2.4.1.258
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Man:Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol + dolichyl phosphate
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol mannosyltransferase; ALG3; dolichyl-P-Man:Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase; Not56-like protein; Alg3 α-1,3-mannosyl transferase; Dol-P-Man:Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate:D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 3-α-D-mannosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The formation of N-glycosidic linkages of glycoproteins involves the ordered assembly of the common Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 core-oligosaccharide on the lipid carrier dolichyl diphosphate. Early mannosylation steps occur on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum with GDP-Man as donor, the final reactions from Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol to Man9Glc-NAc2-PP-dolichol on the lumenal side use dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate. The first step of this assembly pathway on the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum is catalysed by ALG3.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Sharma, C.B., Knauer, R. and Lehle, L. Biosynthesis of lipid-linked oligosaccharides in yeast: the ALG3 gene encodes the Dol-P-Man:Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol mannosyltransferase. Biol. Chem. 382 (2001) 321–328. [PMID: 11308030]
2.  Cipollo, J.F. and Trimble, R.B. The accumulation of Man(6)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δalg9 mutant reveals a regulatory role for the Alg3p α1,3-Man middle-arm addition in downstream oligosaccharide-lipid and glycoprotein glycan processing. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 4267–4277. [PMID: 10660594]
[EC 2.4.1.258 created 1976 as EC 2.4.1.130, part transferred 2011 to EC 2.4.1.258, modified 2012]
 
 
*EC 2.4.1.259
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Man:Man6GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol + dolichyl phosphate
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG9; ALG9 α1,2 mannosyltransferase; dolichylphosphomannose-dependent ALG9 mannosyltransferase; ALG9 mannosyltransferase; Dol-P-Man:Man6GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate:D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→3)-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 2-α-D-mannosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The formation of N-glycosidic linkages of glycoproteins involves the ordered assembly of the common Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 core-oligosaccharide on the lipid carrier dolichyl diphosphate. Early mannosylation steps occur on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum with GDP-Man as donor, the final reactions from Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol to Man9Glc-NAc2-PP-Dol on the lumenal side use dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate. ALG9 mannosyltransferase catalyses the addition of two different α-1,2-mannose residues - the addition of α-1,2-mannose to Man6GlcNAc2-PP-Dol (EC 2.4.1.259) and the addition of α-1,2-mannose to Man8GlcNAc2-PP-Dol (EC 2.4.1.261).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Vleugels, W., Keldermans, L., Jaeken, J., Butters, T.D., Michalski, J.C., Matthijs, G. and Foulquier, F. Quality control of glycoproteins bearing truncated glycans in an ALG9-defective (CDG-IL) patient. Glycobiology 19 (2009) 910–917. [PMID: 19451548]
2.  Cipollo, J.F. and Trimble, R.B. The accumulation of Man(6)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δalg9 mutant reveals a regulatory role for the Alg3p α1,3-Man middle-arm addition in downstream oligosaccharide-lipid and glycoprotein glycan processing. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 4267–4277. [PMID: 10660594]
3.  Frank, C.G. and Aebi, M. ALG9 mannosyltransferase is involved in two different steps of lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis. Glycobiology 15 (2005) 1156–1163. [PMID: 15987956]
[EC 2.4.1.259 created 1976 as EC 2.4.1.130, part transferred 2011 to EC 2.4.1.259, modified 2012]
 
 
*EC 2.4.1.260
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,6-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-β-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = α-D-Man-α-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol + dolichyl phosphate
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG12; ALG12 mannosyltransferase; ALG12 α1,6mannosyltransferase; dolichyl-P-mannose:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase; dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl α6-mannosyltransferase; EBS4; Dol-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,6-mannosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate:D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol α-1,6-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-β-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 6-α-D-mannosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The formation of N-glycosidic linkages of glycoproteins involves the ordered assembly of the common Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 core-oligosaccharide on the lipid carrier dolichyl diphosphate. Early mannosylation steps occur on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum with GDP-Man as donor, the final reactions from Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol to Man9Glc-NAc2-PP-Dol on the lumenal side use dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Frank, C.G. and Aebi, M. ALG9 mannosyltransferase is involved in two different steps of lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis. Glycobiology 15 (2005) 1156–1163. [PMID: 15987956]
2.  Hong, Z., Jin, H., Fitchette, A.C., Xia, Y., Monk, A.M., Faye, L. and Li, J. Mutations of an α1,6 mannosyltransferase inhibit endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of defective brassinosteroid receptors in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 21 (2009) 3792–3802. [PMID: 20023196]
3.  Cipollo, J.F. and Trimble, R.B. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae alg12δ mutant reveals a role for the middle-arm α1,2Man- and upper-arm α1,2Manα1,6Man- residues of Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol in regulating glycoprotein glycan processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Glycobiology 12 (2002) 749–762. [PMID: 12460943]
4.  Grubenmann, C.E., Frank, C.G., Kjaergaard, S., Berger, E.G., Aebi, M. and Hennet, T. ALG12 mannosyltransferase defect in congenital disorder of glycosylation type lg. Hum. Mol. Genet. 11 (2002) 2331–2339. [PMID: 12217961]
[EC 2.4.1.260 created 1976 as EC 2.4.1.130, part transferred 2011 to EC 2.4.1.160, modified 2012]
 
 
*EC 2.4.1.265
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Glc:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate + α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol + dolichyl phosphate
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG8; Dol-P-Glc:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate:D-Glc-α-(1→3)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate:α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 3-α-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The successive addition of three glucose residues by EC 2.4.1.267 (dolichyl-P-Glc:Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase), EC 2.4.1.265 and EC 2.4.1.256 (dolichyl-P-Glc:Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,2-glucosyltransferase) represents the final stage of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide assembly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Stagljar, I., te Heesen, S. and Aebi, M. New phenotype of mutations deficient in glucosylation of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide: cloning of the ALG8 locus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 (1994) 5977–5981. [PMID: 8016100]
2.  Runge, K.W. and Robbins, P.W. A new yeast mutation in the glucosylation steps of the asparagine-linked glycosylation pathway. Formation of a novel asparagine-linked oligosaccharide containing two glucose residues. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 15582–15590. [PMID: 3536907]
3.  Chantret, I., Dancourt, J., Dupre, T., Delenda, C., Bucher, S., Vuillaumier-Barrot, S., Ogier de Baulny, H., Peletan, C., Danos, O., Seta, N., Durand, G., Oriol, R., Codogno, P. and Moore, S.E. A deficiency in dolichyl-P-glucose:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl α3-glucosyltransferase defines a new subtype of congenital disorders of glycosylation. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 9962–9971. [PMID: 12480927]
[EC 2.4.1.265 created 2011, modified 2012]
 
 
*EC 2.4.1.267
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Glc:Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol + dolichyl phosphate
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG6; Dol-P-Glc:Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate:D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 3-α-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The successive addition of three glucose residues by EC 2.4.1.267, EC 2.4.1.265 (Dol-P-Glc:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase) and EC 2.4.1.256 (Dol-P-Glc:Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,2-glucosyltransferase) represents the final stage of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide assembly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Reiss, G., te Heesen, S., Zimmerman, J., Robbins, P.W. and Aebi, M. Isolation of the ALG6 locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for glucosylation in the N-linked glycosylation pathway. Glycobiology 6 (1996) 493–498. [PMID: 8877369]
2.  Runge, K.W., Huffaker, T.C. and Robbins, P.W. Two yeast mutations in glucosylation steps of the asparagine glycosylation pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 412–417. [PMID: 6423630]
3.  Westphal, V., Xiao, M., Kwok, P.Y. and Freeze, H.H. Identification of a frequent variant in ALG6, the cause of congenital disorder of glycosylation-Ic. Hum. Mutat. 22 (2003) 420–421. [PMID: 14517965]
[EC 2.4.1.267 created 2011, modified 2012]
 
 
*EC 2.4.2.29
Accepted name: tRNA-guanosine34 transglycosylase
Reaction: (1) guanine34 in tRNA + queuine = queuine34 in tRNA + guanine
(2) guanine34 in tRNA + 7-aminomethyl-7-carbaguanine = 7-aminomethyl-7-carbaguanine34 in tRNA + guanine
For diagram of queuine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 7-aminomethyl-7-carbaguanine = preQ1 = 7-aminomethyl-7-deazaguanine
7-cyano-7-carbaguanine = preQ0 = 7-cyano-7-deazaguanine
queuine = base Q = 2-amino-5-({[(1S,4S,5R)-4,5-dihydroxycyclopent-2-en-1-yl]amino}methyl)-1,7-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-e]pyrimidin-4-one
Other name(s): guanine insertion enzyme (ambiguous); tRNA transglycosylase (ambiguous); Q-insertase (ambiguous); queuine34 transfer ribonucleate ribosyltransferase; transfer ribonucleate glycosyltransferase (ambiguous); tRNA guanine34 transglycosidase; queuine tRNA-ribosyltransferase (ambiguous); TGT; [tRNA]-guanine34:queuine tRNA-D-ribosyltransferase; transfer ribonucleic acid guanine34 transglycosylase
Systematic name: tRNA-guanosine34:queuine tRNA-D-ribosyltransferase
Comments: Certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic tRNAs contain the modified base queuine at position 34. In eukaryotes queuine is salvaged from food and incorporated into tRNA directly via a base-exchange reaction, replacing guanine. In eubacteria, which produce queuine de novo, the enzyme catalyses the exchange of guanine with the queuine precursor preQ1, which is ultimately modified to queuosine [4,5]. The eubacterial enzyme can also use an earlier intermediate, preQ0, to replace guanine in unmodified tRNATyr and tRNAAsn [2]. This enzyme acts after EC 1.7.1.13, preQ1 synthase, in the queuine-biosynthesis pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, PDB, CAS registry number: 72162-89-1
References:
1.  Howes, N.K. and Farkas, W.R. Studies with a homogeneous enzyme from rabbit erythrocytes catalyzing the insertion of guanine into tRNA. J. Biol. Chem. 253 (1978) 9082–9087. [PMID: 721832]
2.  Okada, N., Noguchi, S., Kasai, H., Shindo-Okada, N., Ohgi, T., Goto, T. and Nishimura, S. Novel mechanism of post-transcriptional modification of tRNA. Insertion of bases of Q precursors into tRNA by a specific tRNA transglycosylase reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 3067–3073. [PMID: 372186]
3.  Shindo-Okada, N., Okada, N., Ohgi, T., Goto, T. and Nishimura, S. Transfer ribonucleic acid guanine transglycosylase isolated from rat liver. Biochemistry 19 (1980) 395–400. [PMID: 6986171]
4.  Todorov, K.A. and Garcia, G.A. Role of aspartate 143 in Escherichia coli tRNA-guanine transglycosylase: alteration of heterocyclic substrate specificity. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 617–625. [PMID: 16401090]
5.  Boland, C., Hayes, P., Santa-Maria, I., Nishimura, S. and Kelly, V.P. Queuosine formation in eukaryotic tRNA occurs via a mitochondria-localized heteromeric transglycosylase. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 18218–18227. [PMID: 19414587]
[EC 2.4.2.29 created 1984, modified 2007, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 3.7.1.18
Accepted name: 6-oxocamphor hydrolase
Reaction: bornane-2,6-dione + H2O = [(1S)-4-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethylcyclopent-3-enyl]acetate
For diagram of camphor catabolism, click here
Glossary: α-campholonate = (4-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethylcyclopent-3-enyl)acetate (enol form) = (2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxocyclopentyl)acetate (keto form)
Other name(s): OCH; camK (gene name)
Systematic name: bornane-2,6-dione hydrolase
Comments: Isolated from Rhodococcus sp. The bornane ring system is cleaved by a retro-Claisen reaction to give the enol of α-campholonate. When separate from the enzyme the enol is tautomerised to the keto form as a 6:1 mixture of [(1S,3R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxocyclopentyl]acetate and [(1S,3S)-2,2,3-trimethyl-4-oxocyclopentyl]acetate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Grogan, G., Roberts, G.A., Bougioukou, D., Turner, N.J. and Flitsch, S.L. The desymmetrization of bicyclic β-diketones by an enzymatic retro-Claisen reaction. A new reaction of the crotonase superfamily. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 12565–12572. [PMID: 11278926]
2.  Whittingham, J.L., Turkenburg, J.P., Verma, C.S., Walsh, M.A. and Grogan, G. The 2-Å crystal structure of 6-oxo camphor hydrolase. New structural diversity in the crotonase superfamily. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 1744–1750. [PMID: 12421807]
3.  Leonard, P.M. and Grogan, G. Structure of 6-oxo camphor hydrolase H122A mutant bound to its natural product, (2S,4S)-α-campholinic acid: mutant structure suggests an atypical mode of transition state binding for a crotonase homolog. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 31312–31317. [PMID: 15138275]
[EC 3.7.1.18 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.133
Accepted name: copal-8-ol diphosphate hydratase
Reaction: (13E)-8α-hydroxylabd-13-en-15-yl diphosphate = geranylgeranyl diphosphate + H2O
For diagram of abietadiene, abietate, isopimaradiene, labdadienol and sclareol biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of labdane, pimarane and phyllocadane diterpenoids biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (13E)-8α-hydroxylabd-13-en-15-yl diphosphate = copal-8-ol diphosphate
Other name(s): CcCLS
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate hydro-lyase [(13E)-8α-hydroxylabd-13-en-15-yl diphosphate forming]
Comments: Requires Mg2+. The enzyme was characterized from the plant Cistus creticus subsp. creticus.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Falara, V., Pichersky, E. and Kanellis, A.K. A copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase from the angiosperm Cistus creticus subsp. creticus is a putative key enzyme for the formation of pharmacologically active, oxygen-containing labdane-type diterpenes. Plant Physiol. 154 (2010) 301–310. [PMID: 20595348]
[EC 4.2.1.133 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.124
Accepted name: 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase
Reaction: D-glucose 6-phosphate = 2-deoxy-L-scyllo-inosose + phosphate
For diagram of paromamine biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): btrC (gene name); neoC (gene name); kanC (gene name)
Systematic name: D-glucose-6-phosphate phosphate-lyase (2-deoxy-L-scyllo-inosose-forming)
Comments: Requires Co2+ [2]. Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, butirosin, neomycin and ribostamycin. Requires an NAD+ cofactor, which is transiently reduced during the reaction [1,4]. The enzyme from the bacterium Bacillus circulans forms a complex with the glutamine amidotransferase subunit of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate synthase (EC 4.3.3.6), which appears to stabilize the complex [6,7].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Kudo, F., Yamauchi, N., Suzuki, R. and Kakinuma, K. Kinetic isotope effect and reaction mechanism of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase derived from butirosin-producing Bacillus circulans. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 50 (1997) 424–428. [PMID: 9207913]
2.  Kudo, F., Hosomi, Y., Tamegai, H. and Kakinuma, K. Purification and characterization of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase derived from Bacillus circulans. A crucial carbocyclization enzyme in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminoglycoside antibiotics. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 52 (1999) 81–88. [PMID: 10344560]
3.  Kudo, F., Tamegai, H., Fujiwara, T., Tagami, U., Hirayama, K. and Kakinuma, K. Molecular cloning of the gene for the key carbocycle-forming enzyme in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminocyclitol antibiotics and its comparison with dehydroquinate synthase. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 52 (1999) 559–571. [PMID: 10470681]
4.  Huang, Z., Kakinuma, K. and Eguchi, T. Stereospecificity of hydride transfer in NAD+-catalyzed 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxystreptamine-containing aminocyclitol antibiotics. Bioorg. Chem. 33 (2005) 82–89. [PMID: 15788164]
5.  Thuy, M.L., Kharel, M.K., Lamichhane, R., Lee, H.C., Suh, J.W., Liou, K. and Sohng, J.K. Expression of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase (kanA) from kanamycin gene cluster in Streptomyces lividans. Biotechnol. Lett. 27 (2005) 465–470. [PMID: 15928851]
6.  Tamegai, H., Nango, E., Koike-Takeshita, A., Kudo, F. and Kakinuma, K. Significance of the 20-kDa subunit of heterodimeric 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose synthase for the biosynthesis of butirosin antibiotics in Bacillus circulans. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (2002) 1538–1545. [PMID: 12224638]
7.  Tamegai, H., Sawada, H., Nango, E., Aoki, R., Hirakawa, H., Iino, T. and Eguchi, T. Roles of a 20 kDa protein associated with a carbocycle-forming enzyme involved in aminoglycoside biosynthesis in primary and secondary metabolism. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 74 (2010) 1215–1219. [PMID: 20530911]
[EC 4.2.3.124 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.125
Accepted name: α-muurolene synthase
Reaction: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = α-muurolene + diphosphate
For diagram of cadinane sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): Cop3
Systematic name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, α-muurolene-forming)
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the fungus Coprinus cinereus. Also gives germacrene A and γ-muurolene, see EC 4.2.3.23, germacrene-A synthase and EC 4.2.3.126, γ-muurolene synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Agger, S., Lopez-Gallego, F. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Diversity of sesquiterpene synthases in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. Mol. Microbiol. 72 (2009) 1181–1195. [PMID: 19400802]
2.  Lopez-Gallego, F., Wawrzyn, G.T. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Selectivity of fungal sesquiterpene synthases: role of the active site’s H-1α loop in catalysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 7723–7733. [PMID: 20889795]
[EC 4.2.3.125 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.126
Accepted name: γ-muurolene synthase
Reaction: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = γ-muurolene + diphosphate
For diagram of cadinane sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: γ-muurolene = (1S,4aS,8aR)-1-isopropyl-7-methyl-4-methylene-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,8a-octahydronaphthalene
Other name(s): Cop3
Systematic name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lase (cyclizing, γ-muurolene-forming)
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the fungus Coprinus cinereus. Also gives germacrene A and α-muurolene, see EC 4.2.3.23, germacrene-A synthase and EC 4.2.3.125, α-muurolene synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Agger, S., Lopez-Gallego, F. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Diversity of sesquiterpene synthases in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. Mol. Microbiol. 72 (2009) 1181–1195. [PMID: 19400802]
2.  Lopez-Gallego, F., Wawrzyn, G.T. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Selectivity of fungal sesquiterpene synthases: role of the active site’s H-1α loop in catalysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 7723–7733. [PMID: 20889795]
[EC 4.2.3.126 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.127
Accepted name: β-copaene synthase
Reaction: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = β-copaene + diphosphate
For diagram of cadinane sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): cop4
Systematic name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, β-copaene-forming)
Comments: Isolated from the fungus Coprinus cinereus. The enzyme also forms (+)-δ-cadinene, β-cubebene, (+)-sativene and traces of several other sequiterpenoids [1-3]. β-Copaene is formed in the presence of Mg2+ but not Mn2+ [2]. See EC 4.2.3.13, (+)-δ-cadinene synthase, EC 4.2.3.128, β-cubebene synthase, and EC 4.2.3.129, (+)-sativene synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Agger, S., Lopez-Gallego, F. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Diversity of sesquiterpene synthases in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. Mol. Microbiol. 72 (2009) 1181–1195. [PMID: 19400802]
2.  Lopez-Gallego, F., Agger, S.A., Abate-Pella, D., Distefano, M.D. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Sesquiterpene synthases Cop4 and Cop6 from Coprinus cinereus: catalytic promiscuity and cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate geometric isomers. Chembiochem. 11 (2010) 1093–1106. [PMID: 20419721]
3.  Lopez-Gallego, F., Wawrzyn, G.T. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Selectivity of fungal sesquiterpene synthases: role of the active site’s H-1α loop in catalysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 7723–7733. [PMID: 20889795]
[EC 4.2.3.127 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.128
Accepted name: β-cubebene synthase
Reaction: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = β-cubebene + diphosphate
For diagram of cadinane sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): cop4; Mg25
Systematic name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, β-cubebene-forming)
Comments: Isolated from the fungus Coprinus cinereus. The enzyme also forms (+)-δ-cadinene, β-copaene, (+)-sativene and traces of several other sequiterpenoids [2-4]. It is found in many higher plants such as Magnolia grandiflora (Southern Magnolia) together with germacrene A [1]. See EC 4.2.3.13, (+)-δ-cadinene synthase, EC 4.2.3.127, β-copaene synthase, EC 4.2.3.129, (+)-sativene synthase, and EC 4.2.3.23, germacrene A synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Lee, S. and Chappell, J. Biochemical and genomic characterization of terpene synthases in Magnolia grandiflora. Plant Physiol. 147 (2008) 1017–1033. [PMID: 18467455]
2.  Agger, S., Lopez-Gallego, F. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Diversity of sesquiterpene synthases in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. Mol. Microbiol. 72 (2009) 1181–1195. [PMID: 19400802]
3.  Lopez-Gallego, F., Agger, S.A., Abate-Pella, D., Distefano, M.D. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Sesquiterpene synthases Cop4 and Cop6 from Coprinus cinereus: catalytic promiscuity and cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate geometric isomers. Chembiochem. 11 (2010) 1093–1106. [PMID: 20419721]
4.  Lopez-Gallego, F., Wawrzyn, G.T. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Selectivity of fungal sesquiterpene synthases: role of the active site’s H-1α loop in catalysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 7723–7733. [PMID: 20889795]
[EC 4.2.3.128 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.129
Accepted name: (+)-sativene synthase
Reaction: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = (+)-sativene + diphosphate
For diagram of cadinane sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): cop4
Systematic name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, (+)-sativene-forming)
Comments: Isolated from the fungus Coprinus cinereus. The enzyme also forms (+)-δ-cadinene, β-copaene, β-cubebene, and traces of several other sequiterpenoids. See EC 4.2.3.13, (+)-δ-cadinene synthase, EC 4.2.3.127, β-copaene synthase, and EC 4.2.3.128, β-cubebene synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Agger, S., Lopez-Gallego, F. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Diversity of sesquiterpene synthases in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus. Mol. Microbiol. 72 (2009) 1181–1195. [PMID: 19400802]
2.  Lopez-Gallego, F., Agger, S.A., Abate-Pella, D., Distefano, M.D. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Sesquiterpene synthases Cop4 and Cop6 from Coprinus cinereus: catalytic promiscuity and cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate geometric isomers. Chembiochem. 11 (2010) 1093–1106. [PMID: 20419721]
3.  Lopez-Gallego, F., Wawrzyn, G.T. and Schmidt-Dannert, C. Selectivity of fungal sesquiterpene synthases: role of the active site’s H-1α loop in catalysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76 (2010) 7723–7733. [PMID: 20889795]
[EC 4.2.3.129 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.130
Accepted name: tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase
Reaction: all-trans-heptaprenyl diphosphate = tetraprenyl-β-curcumene + diphosphate
For diagram of tetraprenyl-β-curcumene biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ytpB (gene name)
Systematic name: all-trans-heptaprenyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, tetraprenyl-β-curcumene-forming)
Comments: Isolated from Bacillus subtilis. This sesquarterpene is present in a number of Bacillus species.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  Sato, T., Yoshida, S., Hoshino, H., Tanno, M., Nakajima, M. and Hoshino, T. Sesquarterpenes (C35 terpenes) biosynthesized via the cyclization of a linear C35 isoprenoid by a tetraprenyl-β-curcumene synthase and a tetraprenyl-β-curcumene cyclase: identification of a new terpene cyclase. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 9734–9737. [PMID: 21627333]
[EC 4.2.3.130 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.3.99.3
Accepted name: 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine synthase
Reaction: 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin = 7-carboxy-7-carbaguanine + NH3
For diagram of queuine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 7-carboxy-7-carbaguanine = 7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine
Other name(s): 7-carboxy-7-carbaguanine synthase; queE (gene name)
Systematic name: 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin ammonia-lyase
Comments: Requires Mg2+. The enzyme is a member of the superfamily of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent radical (radical AdoMet) enzymes. Binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster that is coordinated by 3 cysteines and an exchangeable S-adenosyl-L-methionine molecule. The S-adenosyl-L-methionine is catalytic as it is regenerated at the end of the reaction. The reaction is part of the biosynthesis pathway of queuosine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG
References:
1.  McCarty, R.M., Somogyi, A., Lin, G., Jacobsen, N.E. and Bandarian, V. The deazapurine biosynthetic pathway revealed: in vitro enzymatic synthesis of preQ0 from guanosine 5′-triphosphate in four steps. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 3847–3852. [PMID: 19354300]
2.  McCarty, R.M., Krebs, C. and Bandarian, V. Spectroscopic, steady-state kinetic, and mechanistic characterization of the radical SAM enzyme QueE, which catalyzes a complex cyclization reaction in the biosynthesis of 7-deazapurines. Biochemistry 52 (2013) 188–198. [PMID: 23194065]
[EC 4.3.99.3 created 2012]
 
 
EC 5.5.1.21
Transferred entry: copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase. The enzyme was discovered at the public-review stage to have been misclassified and so was withdrawn. See EC 4.2.1.133, copal-8-ol diphosphate hydratase
[EC 5.5.1.21 created 2012, deleted 2012]
 
 
EC 6.2.1.38
Accepted name: (2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase
Reaction: [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetate + ATP + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetyl-CoA
For diagram of camphor catabolism, click here
Other name(s): 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA synthetase
Systematic name: [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
Comments: Isolated from Pseudomonas putida. Forms part of the pathway of camphor catabolism.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, IUBMB, KEGG, UM-BBD
References:
1.  Ougham, H.J., Taylor, D.G. and Trudgill, P.W. Camphor revisited: involvement of a unique monooxygenase in metabolism of 2-oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid by Pseudomonas putida. J. Bacteriol. 153 (1983) 140–152. [PMID: 6848481]
[EC 6.2.1.38 created 2012]
 
 


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