The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.14.14.58     
Accepted name: trimethyltridecatetraene synthase
Reaction: (6E,10E)-geranyllinalool + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + but-3-en-2-one + 2 H2O
For diagram of acyclic diterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (6E,10E)-geranyllinalool = (6E,10E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadeca-1,6,10,14-tetraen-3-ol
Other name(s): CYP82G1; CYP92C5; CYP92C6; DMNT/TMTT homoterpene synthase
Systematic name: (6E,10E)-geranyllinalool,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein isolated from the plants Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) and Zea mays (maize). It forms this C16 homoterpene in response to herbivore attack. In vitro some variants of the enzyme also convert (3S,6E)-nerolidol to (3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene (see EC 1.14.14.59, dimethylnonatriene synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lee, S., Badieyan, S., Bevan, D.R., Herde, M., Gatz, C. and Tholl, D. Herbivore-induced and floral homoterpene volatiles are biosynthesized by a single P450 enzyme (CYP82G1) in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 21205–21210. [DOI] [PMID: 21088219]
2.  Richter, A., Schaff, C., Zhang, Z., Lipka, A.E., Tian, F., Kollner, T.G., Schnee, C., Preiss, S., Irmisch, S., Jander, G., Boland, W., Gershenzon, J., Buckler, E.S. and Degenhardt, J. Characterization of biosynthetic pathways for the production of the volatile homoterpenes DMNT and TMTT in Zea mays. Plant Cell 28 (2016) 2651–2665. [DOI] [PMID: 27662898]
[EC 1.14.14.58 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.59     
Accepted name: dimethylnonatriene synthase
Reaction: (3S,6E)-nerolidol + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + but-3-en-2-one + 2 H2O
For diagram of acyclic sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): CYP82G1; CYP92C5; DMNT/TMTT homoterpene synthase
Systematic name: (3S,6E)-nerolidol,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein isolated from the plants Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) and Zea mays (maize). It forms this C11 homoterpene in response to herbivore attack. In vitro the enzyme also converts (6E,10E)-geranyllinalool to (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene (see EC 1.14.14.58, trimethyltridecatetraene synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lee, S., Badieyan, S., Bevan, D.R., Herde, M., Gatz, C. and Tholl, D. Herbivore-induced and floral homoterpene volatiles are biosynthesized by a single P450 enzyme (CYP82G1) in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 21205–21210. [DOI] [PMID: 21088219]
2.  Richter, A., Schaff, C., Zhang, Z., Lipka, A.E., Tian, F., Kollner, T.G., Schnee, C., Preiss, S., Irmisch, S., Jander, G., Boland, W., Gershenzon, J., Buckler, E.S. and Degenhardt, J. Characterization of biosynthetic pathways for the production of the volatile homoterpenes DMNT and TMTT in Zea mays. Plant Cell 28 (2016) 2651–2665. [DOI] [PMID: 27662898]
[EC 1.14.14.59 created 2018]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.48     
Accepted name: (3S,6E)-nerolidol synthase
Reaction: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + H2O = (3S,6E)-nerolidol + diphosphate
For diagram of acyclic sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (3S,6E)-nerolidol = (3R,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-1,6,10-trien-3-ol
Other name(s): (E)-nerolidol synthase; nerolidol synthase; (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase; FaNES1
Systematic name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [(3S,6E)-nerolidol-forming]
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step in the formation of (3E)-4,8-dimethylnona-1,3,7-triene, a key signal molecule in induced plant defense mediated by the attraction of enemies of herbivores [2]. Nerolidol is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene found in the essential oils of many types of plants.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Aharoni, A., Giri, A.P., Verstappen, F.W., Bertea, C.M., Sevenier, R., Sun, Z., Jongsma, M.A., Schwab, W. and Bouwmeester, H.J. Gain and loss of fruit flavor compounds produced by wild and cultivated strawberry species. Plant Cell 16 (2004) 3110–3131. [DOI] [PMID: 15522848]
2.  Bouwmeester, H.J., Verstappen, F.W., Posthumus, M.A. and Dicke, M. Spider mite-induced (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase activity in cucumber and lima bean. The first dedicated step in acyclic C11-homoterpene biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 121 (1999) 173–180. [PMID: 10482672]
3.  Degenhardt, J. and Gershenzon, J. Demonstration and characterization of (E)-nerolidol synthase from maize: a herbivore-inducible terpene synthase participating in (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene biosynthesis. Planta 210 (2000) 815–822. [DOI] [PMID: 10805454]
4.  Arimura, G., Garms, S., Maffei, M., Bossi, S., Schulze, B., Leitner, M., Mithofer, A. and Boland, W. Herbivore-induced terpenoid emission in Medicago truncatula: concerted action of jasmonate, ethylene and calcium signaling. Planta 227 (2008) 453–464. [DOI] [PMID: 17924138]
[EC 4.2.3.48 created 2010]
 
 


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