The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.28     
Accepted name: D-lactate dehydrogenase
Reaction: (R)-lactate + NAD+ = pyruvate + NADH + H+
Other name(s): lactic acid dehydrogenase; lactic acid dehydrogenase; D-specific lactic dehydrogenase; D-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase (NAD); D-lactic acid dehydrogenase; D-lactic dehydrogenase
Systematic name: (R)-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9028-36-8
References:
1.  Dennis, D. and Kaplan, N.O. D and L-lactic acid dehydrogenase in Lactobacillus plantarum. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 810–818. [PMID: 13815938]
[EC 1.1.1.28 created 1961]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.222      
Transferred entry: (R)-4-hydroxyphenyllactate dehydrogenase. Now included with EC 1.1.1.110, aromatic 2-oxoacid reductase
[EC 1.1.1.222 created 1989, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.1.2.4     
Accepted name: D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome)
Reaction: (R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c = pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H+
Other name(s): lactic acid dehydrogenase; D-lactate (cytochrome) dehydrogenase; cytochrome-dependent D-(-)-lactate dehydrogenase; D-lactate-cytochrome c reductase; D-(-)-lactic cytochrome c reductase
Systematic name: (R)-lactate:cytochrome-c 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37250-79-6
References:
1.  Gregolin, C. and Singer, T.P. The lactate dehydrogenase of yeast. III. D-(-)-Lactate cytochrome c reductase, a zinc-flavoprotein from aerobic yeast. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 67 (1963) 201–218. [PMID: 13950255]
2.  Gregolin, C., Singer, T.P., Kearney, E.B. and Boeri, E. The formation and enzymatic properties of the various lactic dehydrogenases of yeast. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 94 (1961) 780–797. [DOI] [PMID: 13901630]
3.  Nygaard, A.P. D-(-)-Lactate cytochrome c reductase, a flavoprotein from yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 920–925. [PMID: 13729965]
4.  Nygaard, A.P. Lactate dehydrogenases of yeast. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 557–565.
[EC 1.1.2.4 created 1961]
 
 
EC 1.1.2.5     
Accepted name: D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome c-553)
Reaction: (R)-lactate + 2 ferricytochrome c-553 = pyruvate + 2 ferrocytochrome c-553 + 2 H+
Systematic name: (R)-lactate:cytochrome-c-553 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris can also act on (R)-2-hydroxybutanoate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37250-79-6
References:
1.  Ogata, M., Arihara, K. and Yagi, T. D-Lactate dehydrogenase of Desulfovibrio vulgaris. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 89 (1981) 1423–1431. [PMID: 7275946]
[EC 1.1.2.5 created 1989]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.10     
Accepted name: D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: (R)-2-hydroxyacid + a quinone = 2-oxoacid + a quinol
Other name(s): (R)-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase; (R)-2-hydroxy-acid:(acceptor) 2-oxidoreductase; D-lactate dehydrogenase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: (R)-2-hydroxyacid:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from mammalian kidney contains one mole of FAD per mole of enzyme.(R)-lactate, (R)-malate and meso-tartrate are good substrates. Ubiquinone-1 and the dye 2,6-dichloroindophenol can act as acceptors; NAD+ and NADP+ are not acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tubbs, P.K. and Greville, G.D. Dehydrogenation of D-lactate by a soluble enzyme from kidney mitochondria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 34 (1959) 290–291. [DOI] [PMID: 13839714]
2.  Tubbs, P.K. and Greville, G.D. The oxidation of D-α-hydroxy acids in animal tissues. Biochem. J. 81 (1961) 104–114. [PMID: 13922962]
3.  Cammack, R. Assay, purification and properties of mammalian D-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase. Biochem. J. 115 (1969) 55–64. [PMID: 5359443]
4.  Cammack, R. D-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase from animal tissue. Methods Enzymol. 41 (1975) 323–329. [DOI] [PMID: 236454]
[EC 1.1.5.10 created 2014]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.12     
Accepted name: D-lactate dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: (R)-lactate + a quinone = pyruvate + a quinol
Other name(s): dld (gene name)
Systematic name: (R)-lactate:quinone 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme is an FAD-dependent peripheral membrane dehydrogenase that participates in respiration. Electrons derived from D-lactate oxidation are transferred to the membrane soluble quinone pool.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kohn, L.D. and Kaback, H.R. Mechanisms of active transport in isolated bacterial membrane vesicles. XV. Purification and properties of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 7012–7017. [PMID: 4582730]
2.  Futai, M. Membrane D-lactate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Purification and properties. Biochemistry 12 (1973) 2468–2474. [PMID: 4575624]
3.  Matsushita, K. and Kaback, H.R. D-lactate oxidation and generation of the proton electrochemical gradient in membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli GR19N and in proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified D-lactate dehydrogenase and cytochrome o oxidase. Biochemistry 25 (1986) 2321–2327. [PMID: 3013300]
4.  Peersen, O.B., Pratt, E.A., Truong, H.T., Ho, C. and Rule, G.S. Site-specific incorporation of 5-fluorotryptophan as a probe of the structure and function of the membrane-bound D-lactate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli: a 19F nuclear magnetic resonance study. Biochemistry 29 (1990) 3256–3262. [PMID: 2185834]
5.  Dym, O., Pratt, E.A., Ho, C. and Eisenberg, D. The crystal structure of D-lactate dehydrogenase, a peripheral membrane respiratory enzyme. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 9413–9418. [DOI] [PMID: 10944213]
[EC 1.1.5.12 created 2017]
 
 
EC 1.1.99.6     
Accepted name: D-lactate dehydrogenase (acceptor)
Reaction: (R)-lactate + acceptor = pyruvate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): D-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase; D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenase; (R)-2-hydroxy-acid:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: (R)-lactate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The zinc flavoprotein (FAD) from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus cannot utilize NAD+, cytochrome c, methylene blue or dimethylnaphthoquinone as acceptors. In vitro it is active with artificial electron acceptors such as 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, but the physiological acceptor is not yet known.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-83-5
References:
1.  Reed, D.W. and Hartzell, P.L. The Archaeoglobus fulgidus D-lactate dehydrogenase is a Zn2+ flavoprotein. J. Bacteriol. 181 (1999) 7580–7587. [PMID: 10601217]
[EC 1.1.99.6 created 1965, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 1.1.99.14     
Accepted name: glycolate dehydrogenase
Reaction: glycolate + acceptor = glyoxylate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): glycolate oxidoreductase; glycolic acid dehydrogenase; glycolate:(acceptor) 2-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: glycolate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: Also acts on (R)-lactate. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol and phenazine methosulfate can act as acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37368-32-4
References:
1.  Lord, J.M. Glycolate oxidoreductase in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 267 (1972) 227–237. [DOI] [PMID: 4557653]
[EC 1.1.99.14 created 1978]
 
 
EC 1.1.99.39     
Accepted name: D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase
Reaction: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate + acceptor = 2-oxoglutarate + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): D2HGDH (gene name)
Systematic name: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD. The enzyme has no activity with NAD+ or NADP+, and was assayed in vitro using artificial electron acceptors. It has lower activity with (R)-lactate, (R)-2-hydroxybutyrate and meso-tartrate, and no activity with the (S) isomers. The mammalian enzyme is stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Engqvist, M., Drincovich, M.F., Flugge, U.I. and Maurino, V.G. Two D-2-hydroxy-acid dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana with catalytic capacities to participate in the last reactions of the methylglyoxal and β-oxidation pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 25026–25037. [DOI] [PMID: 19586914]
2.  Achouri, Y., Noel, G., Vertommen, D., Rider, M.H., Veiga-Da-Cunha, M. and Van Schaftingen, E. Identification of a dehydrogenase acting on D-2-hydroxyglutarate. Biochem. J. 381 (2004) 35–42. [DOI] [PMID: 15070399]
[EC 1.1.99.39 created 2013]
 
 
EC 1.1.99.40     
Accepted name: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate—pyruvate transhydrogenase
Reaction: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate + pyruvate = 2-oxoglutarate + (R)-lactate
Other name(s): DLD3 (gene name)
Systematic name: (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate:pyruvate oxidoreductase [(R)-lactate-forming]
Comments: The enzyme, characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also functions as EC 1.1.2.4, D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome), and is active with oxaloacetate as electron acceptor forming (R)-malate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Becker-Kettern, J., Paczia, N., Conrotte, J.F., Kay, D.P., Guignard, C., Jung, P.P. and Linster, C.L. Saccharomyces cerevisiae forms D-2-hydroxyglutarate and couples its degradation to D-lactate formation via a cytosolic transhydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 291 (2016) 6036–6058. [DOI] [PMID: 26774271]
[EC 1.1.99.40 created 2017]
 
 
EC 3.1.6.17     
Accepted name: D-lactate-2-sulfatase
Reaction: (R)-2-O-sulfolactate + H2O = (R)-lactate + sulfate
Other name(s): (S)-2-O-sulfolactate 2-sulfohydrolase (incorrect stereochemistry)
Systematic name: (R)-2-O-sulfolactate 2-sulfohydrolase
Comments: Highly specific.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 93586-05-1
References:
1.  Crescenzi, A.M.V., Dodgson, K.S. and White, G.F. Purification and some properties of the D-lactate-2-sulphatase of Pseudomonas syringae GG. Biochem. J. 223 (1984) 487–494. [PMID: 6497859]
[EC 3.1.6.17 created 1989]
 
 
EC 3.4.13.22     
Accepted name: D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptidase
Reaction: D-Ala-D-Ala + H2O = 2 D-Ala
Other name(s): D-alanyl-D-alanine dipeptidase; vanX D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptidase; VanX
Comments: A Zn2+-dependent enzyme [4]. The enzyme protects Enterococcus faecium from the antibiotic vancomycin, which can bind to the -D-Ala-D-Ala sequence at the C-terminus of the peptidoglycan pentapeptide (see diagram). This enzyme reduces the availability of the free dipeptide D-Ala-D-Ala, which is the precursor for this pentapeptide sequence, allowing D-Ala-(R)-lactate (for which vancomycin has much less affinity) to be added to the cell wall instead [2,3]. The enzyme is stereospecific, as L-Ala-L-Ala, D-Ala-L-Ala and L-Ala-D-Ala are not substrates [2]. Belongs in peptidase family M15.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Reynolds, P.E., Depardieu, F., Dutka-Malen, S., Arthur, M. and Courvalin, P. Glycopeptide resistance mediated by enterococcal transposon Tn1546 requires production of VanX for hydrolysis of D-alanyl-D-alanine. Mol. Microbiol. 13 (1994) 1065–1070. [DOI] [PMID: 7854121]
2.  Wu, Z., Wright, G.D. and Walsh, C.T. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of VanX, a D-, D-dipeptidase which is essential for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium BM4147. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 2455–2463. [PMID: 7873524]
3.  McCafferty, D.G., Lessard, I.A. and Walsh, C.T. Mutational analysis of potential zinc-binding residues in the active site of the enterococcal D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptidase VanX. Biochemistry 36 (1997) 10498–10505. [DOI] [PMID: 9265630]
4.  Bussiere, D.E., Pratt, S.D., Katz, L., Severin, J.M., Holzman, T. and Park, C.H. The structure of VanX reveals a novel amino-dipeptidase involved in mediating transposon-based vancomycin resistance. Mol. Cell. 2 (1998) 75–84. [DOI] [PMID: 9702193]
5.  Tan, A.L., Loke, P. and Sim, T.S. Molecular cloning and functional characterisation of VanX, a D-alanyl-D-alanine dipeptidase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Res. Microbiol. 153 (2002) 27–32. [DOI] [PMID: 11881895]
6.  Matthews, M.L., Periyannan, G., Hajdin, C., Sidgel, T.K., Bennett, B. and Crowder, M.W. Probing the reaction mechanism of the D-ala-D-ala dipeptidase, VanX, by using stopped-flow kinetic and rapid-freeze quench EPR studies on the Co(II)-substituted enzyme. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 13050–13051. [DOI] [PMID: 17017774]
[EC 3.4.13.22 created 2006]
 
 
EC 3.5.1.124     
Accepted name: protein deglycase
Reaction: (1) an Nω-(1-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl)-[protein]-L-arginine + H2O = a [protein]-L-arginine + lactate
(2) an N6-(1-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl)-[protein]-L-lysine + H2O = a [protein]-L-lysine + lactate
(3) an S-(1-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl)-[protein]-L-cysteine + H2O = a [protein]-L-cysteine + lactate
Glossary: 2-oxopropanal = methylglyoxal
Other name(s): PARK7 (gene name); DJ-1 protein; yhbO (gene name); yajL (gene name); glyoxylase III (incorrect)
Systematic name: a [protein]-L-amino acid-1-hydroxypropan-2-one hydrolase [(R)-lactate-forming]
Comments: The enzyme, previously thought to be a glyoxalase, acts on glycated L-arginine, L-lysine, and L-cysteine residues within proteins that have been attacked and modified by glyoxal or 2-oxopropanal. The attack forms hemithioacetal in the case of cysteines and aminocarbinols in the case of arginines and lysines. The enzyme repairs the amino acids, releasing glycolate or lactate (70-80% (S)-lactate and 20-30% (R)-lactate), depending on whether the attacking agent was glyoxal or 2-oxopropanal, respectively [3,4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Misra, K., Banerjee, A.B., Ray, S. and Ray, M. Glyoxalase III from Escherichia coli: a single novel enzyme for the conversion of methylglyoxal into D-lactate without reduced glutathione. Biochem. J. 305 (1995) 999–1003. [PMID: 7848303]
2.  Subedi, K.P., Choi, D., Kim, I., Min, B. and Park, C. Hsp31 of Escherichia coli K-12 is glyoxalase III. Mol. Microbiol. 81 (2011) 926–936. [DOI] [PMID: 21696459]
3.  Richarme, G., Mihoub, M., Dairou, J., Bui, L.C., Leger, T. and Lamouri, A. Parkinsonism-associated protein DJ-1/Park7 is a major protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated cysteine, arginine, and lysine residues. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (2015) 1885–1897. [DOI] [PMID: 25416785]
4.  Mihoub, M., Abdallah, J., Gontero, B., Dairou, J. and Richarme, G. The DJ-1 superfamily member Hsp31 repairs proteins from glycation by methylglyoxal and glyoxal. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 463 (2015) 1305–1310. [DOI] [PMID: 26102038]
5.  Abdallah, J., Mihoub, M., Gautier, V. and Richarme, G. The DJ-1 superfamily members YhbO and YajL from Escherichia coli repair proteins from glycation by methylglyoxal and glyoxal. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 470 (2016) 282–286. [DOI] [PMID: 26774339]
[EC 3.5.1.124 created 2016]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.54     
Accepted name: lactoyl-CoA dehydratase
Reaction: (R)-lactoyl-CoA = acryloyl-CoA + H2O
Other name(s): lactoyl coenzyme A dehydratase; lactyl-coenzyme A dehydrase; lactyl CoA dehydratase; acrylyl coenzyme A hydratase; lactoyl-CoA hydro-lyase
Systematic name: (R)-lactoyl-CoA hydro-lyase (acryloyl-CoA-forming)
Comments: A bacterial enzyme that is involved in propanoate fermentation (also known as the acrylate pathway).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9031-12-3
References:
1.  Baldwin, R.L., Wood, W.A. and Emery, R.S. Lactate metabolism by Peptostreptococcus elsdenii: evidence for lactyl coenzyme a dehydrase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 97 (1965) 202–213. [DOI] [PMID: 14292829]
2.  Schweiger, G. and Buckel, W. On the dehydration of (R)-lactate in the fermentation of alanine to propionate by Clostridium propionicum. FEBS Lett. 171 (1984) 79–84. [DOI] [PMID: 6586495]
3.  Kuchta, R.D. and Abeles, R.H. Lactate reduction in Clostridium propionicum. Purification and properties of lactyl-CoA dehydratase. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 13181–13189. [PMID: 4055736]
4.  Kuchta, R.D., Hanson, G.R., Holmquist, B. and Abeles, R.H. Fe-S centers in lactyl-CoA dehydratase. Biochemistry 25 (1986) 7301–7307. [PMID: 3026450]
5.  Hofmeister, A.E. and Buckel, W. (R)-lactyl-CoA dehydratase from Clostridium propionicum. Stereochemistry of the dehydration of (R)-2-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. Eur. J. Biochem. 206 (1992) 547–552. [DOI] [PMID: 1597194]
[EC 4.2.1.54 created 1972, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.126     
Accepted name: N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate etherase
Reaction: (R)-lactate + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate = N-acetylmuramate 6-phosphate + H2O
Other name(s): MurNAc-6-P etherase; MurQ
Systematic name: (R)-lactate hydro-lyase (adding N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate; N-acetylmuramate 6-phosphate-forming)
Comments: This enzyme, along with EC 2.7.1.170, anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase, is required for the utilization of anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid in proteobacteria. The substrate is either imported from the medium or derived from the bacterium’s own cell wall murein during cell wall recycling.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Jaeger, T., Arsic, M. and Mayer, C. Scission of the lactyl ether bond of N-acetylmuramic acid by Escherichia coli "etherase". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 30100–30106. [DOI] [PMID: 15983044]
2.  Uehara, T., Suefuji, K., Valbuena, N., Meehan, B., Donegan, M. and Park, J.T. Recycling of the anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid derived from cell wall murein involves a two-step conversion to N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 3643–3649. [DOI] [PMID: 15901686]
3.  Uehara, T., Suefuji, K., Jaeger, T., Mayer, C. and Park, J.T. MurQ etherase is required by Escherichia coli in order to metabolize anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid obtained either from the environment or from its own cell wall. J. Bacteriol. 188 (2006) 1660–1662. [DOI] [PMID: 16452451]
4.  Hadi, T., Dahl, U., Mayer, C. and Tanner, M.E. Mechanistic studies on N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate hydrolase (MurQ): an etherase involved in peptidoglycan recycling. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 11547–11558. [DOI] [PMID: 18837509]
5.  Jaeger, T. and Mayer, C. N-acetylmuramic acid 6-phosphate lyases (MurNAc etherases): role in cell wall metabolism, distribution, structure, and mechanism. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 65 (2008) 928–939. [DOI] [PMID: 18049859]
[EC 4.2.1.126 created 2011]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.130     
Accepted name: D-lactate dehydratase
Reaction: (R)-lactate = 2-oxopropanal + H2O
Glossary: methylglyoxal = 2-oxopropanal
(R)-lactate = D-lactate
Other name(s): glyoxylase III; GLO3
Systematic name: (R)-lactate hydro-lyase
Comments: The enzyme, described from the fungi Candida albicans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, converts 2-oxopropanal to (R)-lactate in a single glutathione (GSH)-independent step. The other known route for this conversion is the two-step GSH-dependent pathway catalysed by EC 4.4.1.5 (lactoylglutathione lyase) and EC 3.1.2.6 (hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hasim, S., Hussin, N.A., Alomar, F., Bidasee, K.R., Nickerson, K.W. and Wilson, M.A. A glutathione-independent glyoxalase of the DJ-1 superfamily plays an important role in managing metabolically generated methylglyoxal in Candida albicans. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 1662–1674. [DOI] [PMID: 24302734]
2.  Zhao, Q., Su, Y., Wang, Z., Chen, C., Wu, T. and Huang, Y. Identification of glutathione (GSH)-independent glyoxalase III from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. BMC Evol Biol 14:86 (2014). [DOI] [PMID: 24758716]
[EC 4.2.1.130 created 2011]
 
 
EC 5.1.2.1     
Accepted name: lactate racemase
Reaction: (S)-lactate = (R)-lactate
Other name(s): lacticoracemase; hydroxyacid racemase; lactic acid racemase; larA (gene name)
Systematic name: lactate racemase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and appears to be restricted to lactic acid bacteria. It contains a unique nickel-containing cofactor, pyridinium-3-thioamide-5-thiocarboxylate mononucleotide Ni pincer complex.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9024-05-9
References:
1.  Huennekens, F.M., Mahler, H.R. and Nordmann, J. Studies on the cyclophorase system. XVII. The occurrence and properties of an α-hydroxy acid racemase. Arch. Biochem. 30 (1951) 77–89. [PMID: 14800428]
2.  Kitahara, K., Obayashi, A. and Fukui, S. Racemase I cell-free racemase. Enzymologia 15 (1953) 259–266.
3.  Goffin, P., Deghorain, M., Mainardi, J.L., Tytgat, I., Champomier-Verges, M.C., Kleerebezem, M. and Hols, P. Lactate racemization as a rescue pathway for supplying D-lactate to the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 6750–6761. [DOI] [PMID: 16166538]
4.  Desguin, B., Goffin, P., Viaene, E., Kleerebezem, M., Martin-Diaconescu, V., Maroney, M.J., Declercq, J.P., Soumillion, P. and Hols, P. Lactate racemase is a nickel-dependent enzyme activated by a widespread maturation system. Nat. Commun. 5:3615 (2014). [DOI] [PMID: 24710389]
5.  Desguin, B., Zhang, T., Soumillion, P., Hols, P., Hu, J. and Hausinger, R.P. A tethered niacin-derived pincer complex with a nickel-carbon bond in lactate racemase. Science 349 (2015) 66–69. [DOI] [PMID: 26138974]
6.  Yu, M.J. and Chen, S.L. From NAD+ to nickel pincer complex: a significant cofactor evolution presented by lactate racemase. Chemistry 23 (2017) 7545–7557. [DOI] [PMID: 28374531]
[EC 5.1.2.1 created 1961]
 
 
EC 6.1.2.1     
Accepted name: D-alanine—(R)-lactate ligase
Reaction: D-alanine + (R)-lactate + ATP = D-alanyl-(R)-lactate + ADP + phosphate
Glossary: (R)-lactate = D-lactate
D-alanyl-(R)-lactate = D-alanyl-D-lactate = (2R)-2-(D-alanyloxy)propanoic acid = (R)-2-((R)-2-aminopropanoyloxy)propanoic acid
Other name(s): VanA; VanB; VanD
Systematic name: D-alanine:(R)-lactate ligase (ADP-forming)
Comments: The product of this enzyme, the depsipeptide D-alanyl-(R)-lactate, can be incorporated into the peptidoglycan pentapeptide instead of the usual D-alanyl-D-alanine dipeptide, which is formed by EC 6.3.2.4, D-alanine—D-alanine ligase. The resulting peptidoglycan does not bind the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin, conferring resistance on the bacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Bugg, T.D., Wright, G.D., Dutka-Malen, S., Arthur, M., Courvalin, P. and Walsh, C.T. Molecular basis for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium BM4147: biosynthesis of a depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursor by vancomycin resistance proteins VanH and VanA. Biochemistry 30 (1991) 10408–10415. [PMID: 1931965]
2.  Meziane-Cherif, D., Badet-Denisot, M.A., Evers, S., Courvalin, P. and Badet, B. Purification and characterization of the VanB ligase associated with type B vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis V583. FEBS Lett. 354 (1994) 140–142. [DOI] [PMID: 7957913]
3.  Perichon, B., Reynolds, P. and Courvalin, P. VanD-type glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium BM4339. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41 (1997) 2016–2018. [PMID: 9303405]
[EC 6.1.2.1 created 2010]
 
 


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