The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.313     
Accepted name: sulfoacetaldehyde reductase
Reaction: isethionate + NADP+ = 2-sulfoacetaldehyde + NADPH + H+
Glossary: isethionate = 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate
2-sulfoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfonate
Other name(s): isfD (gene name)
Systematic name: isethionate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Catalyses the reaction only in the opposite direction. Involved in taurine degradation. The bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens strain DSM 3043 possesses two enzymes that catalyse this reaction, a constitutive enzyme (encoded by isfD2) and an inducible enzyme (encoded by isfD). The latter is induced by taurine, and is responsible for most of the activity observed in taurine-grown cells.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Krejcik, Z., Hollemeyer, K., Smits, T.H. and Cook, A.M. Isethionate formation from taurine in Chromohalobacter salexigens: purification of sulfoacetaldehyde reductase. Microbiology 156 (2010) 1547–1555. [DOI] [PMID: 20133363]
[EC 1.1.1.313 created 2011]
 
 
EC 1.2.1.73     
Accepted name: sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase
Reaction: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde + H2O + NAD+ = sulfoacetate + NADH + 2 H+
Glossary: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfonate
taurine = 2-aminoethanesulfonate
Other name(s): SafD
Systematic name: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: This reaction is part of a bacterial pathway that can utilize the amino group of taurine as a sole source of nitrogen for growth. At physiological concentrations, NAD+ cannot be replaced by NADP+. The enzyme is specific for sulfoacetaldehyde, as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, betaine aldehyde, propanal, glyceraldehyde, phosphonoacetaldehyde, glyoxylate, glycolaldehyde and 2-oxobutyrate are not substrates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Krejčík, Z., Denger, K., Weinitschke, S., Hollemeyer, K., Pačes, V., Cook, A.M. and Smits, T.H.M. Sulfoacetate released during the assimilation of taurine-nitrogen by Neptuniibacter caesariensis: purification of sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Arch. Microbiol. 190 (2008) 159–168. [DOI] [PMID: 18506422]
[EC 1.2.1.73 created 2008]
 
 
EC 1.2.1.81     
Accepted name: sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (acylating)
Reaction: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde + CoA + NADP+ = sulfoacetyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Glossary: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfonate
Other name(s): SauS
Systematic name: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase (CoA-acetylating)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in degradation of sulfoacetate. In this pathway the reaction is catalysed in the reverse direction. The enzyme is specific for sulfoacetaldehyde and NADP+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Weinitschke, S., Hollemeyer, K., Kusian, B., Bowien, B., Smits, T.H. and Cook, A.M. Sulfoacetate is degraded via a novel pathway involving sulfoacetyl-CoA and sulfoacetaldehyde in Cupriavidus necator H16. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 35249–35254. [DOI] [PMID: 20693281]
[EC 1.2.1.81 created 2011]
 
 
EC 1.4.99.2     
Accepted name: taurine dehydrogenase
Reaction: taurine + H2O + acceptor = 2-sulfoacetaldehyde + NH3 + reduced acceptor
Glossary: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfonate
taurine = 2-aminoethanesulfonate
Other name(s): taurine:(acceptor) oxidoreductase (deaminating)
Systematic name: taurine:acceptor oxidoreductase (deaminating)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 50812-14-1
References:
1.  Kondo, H., Kagotani, K., Oshima, M. and Ishimoto, M. Purification and some properties of taurine dehydrogenase from a bacterium. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 73 (1973) 1269–1278. [PMID: 4724302]
[EC 1.4.99.2 created 1976]
 
 
EC 2.3.3.15     
Accepted name: sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl phosphate + sulfite = 2-sulfoacetaldehyde + phosphate
Glossary: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfonate
Other name(s): Xsc
Systematic name: acetyl-phosphate:sulfite S-acetyltransferase (acyl-phosphate hydrolysing, 2-oxoethyl-forming)
Comments: The reaction occurs in the reverse direction to that shown above. Requires Mg2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 56941-15-2
References:
1.  Ruff, J., Denger, K. and Cook, A.M. Sulphoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase yields acetyl phosphate: purification from Alcaligenes defragrans and gene clusters in taurine degradation. Biochem. J. 369 (2003) 275–285. [DOI] [PMID: 12358600]
[EC 2.3.3.15 created 2003]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.55     
Accepted name: taurine—2-oxoglutarate transaminase
Reaction: taurine + 2-oxoglutarate = 2-sulfoacetaldehyde + L-glutamate
Glossary: 2-sulfoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfonate
taurine = 2-aminoethanesulfonate
Other name(s): taurine aminotransferase; taurine transaminase; taurine—α-ketoglutarate aminotransferase; taurine—glutamate transaminase
Systematic name: taurine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. Also acts on D,L-3-amino-isobutanoate, β-alanine and 3-aminopropanesulfonate. Involved in the microbial utilization of β-alanine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9076-52-2
References:
1.  Toyama, S., Misono, H. and Soda, K. Crystalline taurine:α-ketoglutarate aminotransferase from Achromobacter superficialis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46 (1972) 1374–1379. [DOI] [PMID: 5012173]
2.  Cook, A.M. and Denger, K. Dissimilation of the C2 sulfonates. Arch. Microbiol. 179 (2002) 1–6. [DOI] [PMID: 12471498]
[EC 2.6.1.55 created 1976, modified 2003]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.77     
Accepted name: taurine—pyruvate aminotransferase
Reaction: taurine + pyruvate = L-alanine + 2-sulfoacetaldehyde
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: taurine = 2-aminoethanesulfonate
hypotaurine = 2-aminoethanesulfinate
2-sulfoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfonate
2-sulfinoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfinate
Other name(s): Tpa
Systematic name: taurine:pyruvate aminotransferase
Comments: The enzyme from the bacterium Bilophila wadsworthia requires pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as a cofactor, and catalyses a reversible reaction that starts an anaerobic taurine degradation pathway. β-Alanine is also a significant amino group donor. The enzyme from the bacterium Pseudomonas denitrificans PD1222 can also use hypotaurine, producing 2-sulfinoacetaldehyde, which spontaneously hydrolyses to sulfite and acetaldehyde. Unlike, EC 2.6.1.55, taurine—2-oxoglutarate transaminase, 2-oxoglutarate cannot serve as an acceptor for the amino group.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 51901-18-9
References:
1.  Laue, H. and Cook, A.M. Biochemical and molecular characterization of taurine:pyruvate transaminase from the anaerobe Bilophila wadsworthia. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 6841–6848. [DOI] [PMID: 11082195]
2.  Cook, A.M. and Denger, K. Dissimilation of the C2 sulfonates. Arch. Microbiol. 179 (2002) 1–6. [DOI] [PMID: 12471498]
3.  Masepohl, B., Fuhrer, F. and Klipp, W. Genetic analysis of a Rhodobacter capsulatus gene region involved in utilization of taurine as a sulfur source. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 205 (2001) 105–111. [DOI] [PMID: 11728723]
4.  Felux, A.K., Denger, K., Weiss, M., Cook, A.M. and Schleheck, D. Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 utilizes hypotaurine via transamination followed by spontaneous desulfination to yield acetaldehyde and, finally, acetate for growth. J. Bacteriol. 195 (2013) 2921–2930. [DOI] [PMID: 23603744]
[EC 2.6.1.77 created 2003]
 
 
EC 4.1.1.79     
Accepted name: sulfopyruvate decarboxylase
Reaction: 3-sulfopyruvate = 2-sulfoacetaldehyde + CO2
For diagram of coenzyme-M biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: thiamine diphosphate = 3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-(2-diphosphoethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazolium
2-sulfoacetaldehyde = 2-oxoethanesulfonate
Other name(s): sulfopyruvate carboxy-lyase
Systematic name: 3-sulfopyruvate carboxy-lyase (2-sulfoacetaldehyde-forming)
Comments: Requires thiamine diphosphate. Does not decarboxylate pyruvate or phosphonopyruvate. The enzyme appears to be oxygen-sensitive.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 303155-97-7
References:
1.  Graupner, M., Xu, H. and White, R.H. Identification of the gene encoding sulfopyruvate decarboxylase, an enzyme involved in biosynthesis of coenzyme M. J. Bacteriol. 182 (2000) 4862–4867. [DOI] [PMID: 10940029]
[EC 4.1.1.79 created 2002]
 
 


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