The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.13.11.57     
Accepted name: gallate dioxygenase
Reaction: 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate + O2 = (1E)-4-oxobut-1-ene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate
For diagram of the protocatechuate 3,4-cleavage pathway, click here
Glossary: 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate = gallate
Other name(s): GalA; gallate:oxygen oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains non-heme Fe2+. The enzyme is a ring-cleavage dioxygenase that acts specifically on 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate to produce the keto-tautomer of 4-oxalomesaconate [1,2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD
References:
1.  Nogales, J., Canales, A., Jiménez-Barbero, J., García, J.L. and Díaz, E. Molecular characterization of the gallate dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. The prototype of a new subgroup of extradiol dioxygenases. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 35382–35390. [DOI] [PMID: 16030014]
2.  Nogales, J., Canales, A., Jiménez-Barbero, J., Serra B., Pingarrón, J. M., García, J. L. and Díaz, E. Unravelling the gallic acid degradation pathway in bacteria: the gal cluster from Pseudomonas putida. Mol. Microbiol. 79 (2011) 359–374. [DOI] [PMID: 21219457]
[EC 1.13.11.57 created 2011]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.341     
Accepted name: vanillate/3-O-methylgallate O-demethylase
Reaction: (1) vanillate + tetrahydrofolate = protocatechuate + 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
(2) 3-O-methylgallate + tetrahydrofolate = gallate + 5-methyltetrahydrofolate
Glossary: protocatechuate = 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate
vanillate = 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoate
gallate = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
Other name(s): ligM (gene name)
Systematic name: vanillate:tetrahydrofolate O-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Sphingomonas sp. SYK6, is involved in the degradation of lignin. The enzyme has similar activities with vanillate and 3-O-methylgallate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Nishikawa, S., Sonoki, T., Kasahara, T., Obi, T., Kubota, S., Kawai, S., Morohoshi, N. and Katayama, Y. Cloning and sequencing of the Sphingomonas (Pseudomonas) paucimobilis gene essential for the O demethylation of vanillate and syringate. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64 (1998) 836–842. [PMID: 9501423]
2.  Masai, E., Sasaki, M., Minakawa, Y., Abe, T., Sonoki, T., Miyauchi, K., Katayama, Y. and Fukuda, M. A novel tetrahydrofolate-dependent O-demethylase gene is essential for growth of Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 with syringate. J. Bacteriol. 186 (2004) 2757–2765. [DOI] [PMID: 15090517]
3.  Abe, T., Masai, E., Miyauchi, K., Katayama, Y. and Fukuda, M. A tetrahydrofolate-dependent O-demethylase, LigM, is crucial for catabolism of vanillate and syringate in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 2030–2037. [DOI] [PMID: 15743951]
[EC 2.1.1.341 created 2017]
 
 
EC 3.1.1.20     
Accepted name: tannase
Reaction: digallate + H2O = 2 gallate
Glossary: gallate = 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate
digallate = 3,4-dihydroxy-5-(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyloxy)benzoate
Other name(s): tannase S; tannin acetylhydrolase
Systematic name: tannin acylhydrolase
Comments: Also hydrolyses ester links in other tannins.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9025-71-2
References:
1.  Dyckerhoff, H. and Armbruster, R. Zur Kenntnis der Tannase. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 219 (1933) 38–56.
[EC 3.1.1.20 created 1961]
 
 
EC 4.1.1.59     
Accepted name: gallate decarboxylase
Reaction: 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate = 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene + CO2
Glossary: 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate = gallate
1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene = pyrogallol
Other name(s): gallic acid decarboxylase; gallate carboxy-lyase; 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (pyrogallol-forming)
Systematic name: 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate carboxy-lyase (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene-forming)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37290-51-0
References:
1.  Grant, D.J.W. and Patel, J.C. Non-oxidative decarboxylation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, and gallic acid by Klebsiella aerogenes (Aerobacter aerogenes). J. Microbiol. Serol. 35 (1969) 325–343. [PMID: 5309907]
2.  Zeida, M., Wieser, M., Yoshida, T., Sugio, T. and Nagasawa, T. Purification and characterization of gallic acid decarboxylase from Pantoea agglomerans T7. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64 (1998) 4743–4747. [PMID: 9835557]
3.  Jimenez, N., Curiel, J.A., Reveron, I., de Las Rivas, B. and Munoz, R. Uncovering the Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 gallate decarboxylase involved in tannin degradation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79 (2013) 4253–4263. [DOI] [PMID: 23645198]
[EC 4.1.1.59 created 1972]
 
 
EC 4.1.3.17     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate aldolase
Reaction: (1) 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate = 2 pyruvate
(2) 2-hydroxy-4-oxobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate = oxaloacetate + pyruvate
For diagram of the protocatechuate 3,4-cleavage pathway, click here
Other name(s): pyruvate aldolase; γ-methyl-γ-hydroxy-α-ketoglutaric aldolase; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-ketoglutarate aldolase; 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate pyruvate-lyase; HMG aldolase; CHA aldolase; 4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-2-oxoadipate aldolase
Systematic name: 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate pyruvate-lyase (pyruvate-forming)
Comments: Requires a divalent metal ion [3]. This enzyme participates in the degradation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (via the meta-cleavage pathway), phthalate, syringate and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate [1-3]. The enzyme from Pseudomonas straminea can also catalyse the activity of EC 4.1.3.16, 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase, and the decarboxylation of oxaloacetate [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37290-65-6
References:
1.  Tack, B.F., Chapman, P.J. and Dagley, S. Purification and properties of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate aldolase. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 6444–6449. [PMID: 5076765]
2.  Wood, W.A. 2-Keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconic and related aldolases. In: Boyer, P.D. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 3rd edn, vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1972, pp. 281–302.
3.  Maruyama, K. Purification and properties of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate aldolase from Pseudomonas ochraceae grown on phthalate. J. Biochem. 108 (1990) 327–333. [PMID: 2229032]
4.  Nogales, J., Canales, A., Jiménez-Barbero, J., Serra B., Pingarrón, J. M., García, J. L. and Díaz, E. Unravelling the gallic acid degradation pathway in bacteria: the gal cluster from Pseudomonas putida. Mol. Microbiol. 79 (2011) 359–374. [DOI] [PMID: 21219457]
[EC 4.1.3.17 created 1972, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.83     
Accepted name: 4-oxalomesaconate hydratase
Reaction: 2-hydroxy-4-oxobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate = (1E,3E)-4-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + H2O
For diagram of the protocatechuate 3,4-cleavage pathway, click here
Other name(s): 4-oxalmesaconate hydratase; 4-carboxy-2-oxohexenedioate hydratase; 4-carboxy-2-oxobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate 2,3-hydro-lyase; oxalmesaconate hydratase; γ-oxalmesaconate hydratase; 2-hydroxy-4-oxobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate 2,3-hydro-lyase; LigJ; GalB
Systematic name: (1E,3E)-4-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate 1,2-hydro-lyase (2-hydroxy-4-oxobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate-forming)
Comments: This enzyme participates in the degradation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (via the meta-cleavage pathway), syringate and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, catalysing the reaction in the opposite direction [1-3]. It accepts the enol-form of 4-oxalomesaconate, 2-hydroxy-4-carboxy-hexa-2,4-dienedioate [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 85204-95-1
References:
1.  Maruyama, K. Enzymes responsible for degradation of 4-oxalmesaconic acid in Pseudomonas ochraceae. J. Biochem. 93 (1983) 567–574. [PMID: 6841354]
2.  Maruyama, K. Purification and properties of γ-oxalomesaconate hydratase from Pseudomonas ochraceae grown with phthalate. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 128 (1985) 271–277. [DOI] [PMID: 3985968]
3.  Hara, H., Masai, E., Katayama, Y. and Fukuda, M. The 4-oxalomesaconate hydratase gene, involved in the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway, is essential to vanillate and syringate degradation in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6. J. Bacteriol. 182 (2000) 6950–6957. [DOI] [PMID: 11092855]
4.  Nogales, J., Canales, A., Jiménez-Barbero, J., Serra B., Pingarrón, J. M., García, J. L. and Díaz, E. Unravelling the gallic acid degradation pathway in bacteria: the gal cluster from Pseudomonas putida. Mol. Microbiol. 79 (2011) 359–374. [DOI] [PMID: 21219457]
[EC 4.2.1.83 created 1986, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 5.3.2.8     
Accepted name: 4-oxalomesaconate tautomerase
Reaction: (1E)-4-oxobut-1-ene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate = (1E,3E)-4-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate
For diagram of the protocatechuate 3,4-cleavage pathway, click here
Glossary: (1E)-4-oxobut-1-ene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate = keto tautomer of 4-oxalomesaconate
(1E,3E)-4-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,2,4-tricarboxylate = one of the enol tautomers of 4-oxalomesaconate
Other name(s): GalD
Systematic name: 4-oxalomesaconate ketoenol-isomerase
Comments: This enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and is involved in the degradation pathway of syringate and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate. It catalyses the interconversion of two of the tautomers of 4-oxalomesaconate, a reaction that can also occur spontaneously.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Nogales, J., Canales, A., Jiménez-Barbero, J., Serra B., Pingarrón, J. M., García, J. L. and Díaz, E. Unravelling the gallic acid degradation pathway in bacteria: the gal cluster from Pseudomonas putida. Mol. Microbiol. 79 (2011) 359–374. [DOI] [PMID: 21219457]
[EC 5.3.2.8 created 2011 as EC 5.3.3.16, modified 2011, transferred 2012 to EC 5.3.2.8]
 
 


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