The Enzyme Database

Your query returned 2 entries.    printer_iconPrintable version



EC 1.17.1.4     
Accepted name: xanthine dehydrogenase
Reaction: xanthine + NAD+ + H2O = urate + NADH + H+
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: 4-mercuribenzoate = (4-carboxylatophenyl)mercury
Other name(s): NAD+-xanthine dehydrogenase; xanthine-NAD+ oxidoreductase; xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase; xanthine oxidoreductase
Systematic name: xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Acts on a variety of purines and aldehydes, including hypoxanthine. The mammalian enzyme can also convert all-trans retinol to all-trans-retinoate, while the substrate is bound to a retinoid-binding protein [14]. The enzyme from eukaryotes contains [2Fe-2S], FAD and a molybdenum centre. The mammalian enzyme predominantly exists as the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC 1.17.1.4). During purification the enzyme is largely converted to an O2-dependent form, xanthine oxidase (EC 1.17.3.2). The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds [2,6,8,15] [which can be catalysed by EC 1.8.4.7, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide] or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion. The conversion can also occur in vivo [2,7,15].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9054-84-6
References:
1.  Battelli, M.G. and Lorenzoni, E. Purification and properties of a new glutathione-dependent thiol:disulphide oxidoreductase from rat liver. Biochem. J. 207 (1982) 133–138. [PMID: 6960894]
2.  Della Corte, E. and Stirpe, F. The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. Involvement of thiol groups in the conversion of the enzyme activity from dehydrogenase (type D) into oxidase (type O) and purification of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 126 (1972) 739–745. [PMID: 4342395]
3.  Parzen, S.D. and Fox, A.S. Purification of xanthine dehydrogenase from Drosophila melanogaster. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 92 (1964) 465–471. [PMID: 14264879]
4.  Rajagopalan, K.V. and Handler, P. Purification and properties of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 4097–4107. [PMID: 4294045]
5.  Smith, S.T., Rajagopalan, K.V. and Handler, P. Purification and properties of xanthine dehydroganase from Micrococcus lactilyticus. J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 4108–4117. [PMID: 6061702]
6.  Ikegami, T. and Nishino, T. The presence of desulfo xanthine dehydrogenase in purified and crude enzyme preparations from rat liver. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 247 (1986) 254–260. [DOI] [PMID: 3459393]
7.  Engerson, T.D., McKelvey, T.G., Rhyne, D.B., Boggio, E.B., Snyder, S.J. and Jones, H.P. Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to oxidase in ischemic rat tissues. J. Clin. Invest. 79 (1987) 1564–1570. [DOI] [PMID: 3294898]
8.  Saito, T., Nishino, T. and Tsushima, K. Interconversion between NAD-dependent and O2-dependent types of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase and difference in kinetic and redox properties between them. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 253B (1989) 179–183. [PMID: 2610112]
9.  Parschat, K., Canne, C., Hüttermann, J., Kappl, R. and Fetzner, S. Xanthine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida 86: specificity, oxidation-reduction potentials of its redox-active centers, and first EPR characterization. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1544 (2001) 151–165. [DOI] [PMID: 11341925]
10.  Ichida, K., Amaya, Y., Noda, K., Minoshima, S., Hosoya, T., Sakai, O., Shimizu, N. and Nishino, T. Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene. Gene 133 (1993) 279–284. [DOI] [PMID: 8224915]
11.  Enroth, C., Eger, B.T., Okamoto, K., Nishino, T., Nishino, T. and Pai, E.F. Crystal structures of bovine milk xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase: structure-based mechanism of conversion. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97 (2000) 10723–10728. [DOI] [PMID: 11005854]
12.  Truglio, J.J., Theis, K., Leimkuhler, S., Rappa, R., Rajagopalan, K.V. and Kisker, C. Crystal structures of the active and alloxanthine-inhibited forms of xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Structure 10 (2002) 115–125. [DOI] [PMID: 11796116]
13.  Hille, R. The mononuclear molybdenum enzymes. Chem. Rev. 96 (1996) 2757–2816. [DOI] [PMID: 11848841]
14.  Taibi, G., Di Gaudio, F. and Nicotra, C.M. Xanthine dehydrogenase processes retinol to retinoic acid in human mammary epithelial cells. J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem. 23 (2008) 317–327. [DOI] [PMID: 18569334]
15.  Nishino, T., Okamoto, K., Eger, B.T., Pai, E.F. and Nishino, T. Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase - mechanism of transition from xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase. FEBS J. 275 (2008) 3278–3289. [DOI] [PMID: 18513323]
[EC 1.17.1.4 created 1972 as EC 1.2.1.37, transferred 1984 to EC 1.1.1.204, modified 1989, transferred 2004 to EC 1.17.1.4, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 1.17.3.2     
Accepted name: xanthine oxidase
Reaction: xanthine + H2O + O2 = urate + H2O2
For diagram of AMP catabolism, click here
Glossary: 4-mercuribenzoate = (4-carboxylatophenyl)mercury
Other name(s): hypoxanthine oxidase; hypoxanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase; Schardinger enzyme; xanthine oxidoreductase; hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase; xanthine:O2 oxidoreductase; xanthine:xanthine oxidase
Systematic name: xanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein (FAD) containing [2Fe-2S] centres. Also oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes, but is distinct from EC 1.2.3.1, aldehyde oxidase. Under some conditions the product is mainly superoxide rather than peroxide: RH + H2O + 2 O2 = ROH + 2 O2.- + 2 H+. The mammalian enzyme predominantly exists as an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC 1.17.1.4, xanthine dehydrogenase). During purification the enzyme is largely converted to the O2-dependent xanthine oxidase form (EC 1.17.3.2). The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds [4,5,7,10] [which can be catalysed by EC 1.8.4.7, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide] or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion. The conversion can also occur in vivo [4,6,10].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9002-17-9
References:
1.  Avis, P.G., Bergel, F. and Bray, R.C. Cellular constituents. The chemistry of xanthine oxidase. Part I. The preparation of a crystalline xanthine oxidase from cow's milk. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) (1955) 1100–1105.
2.  Battelli, M.G. and Lorenzoni, E. Purification and properties of a new glutathione-dependent thiol:disulphide oxidoreductase from rat liver. Biochem. J. 207 (1982) 133–138. [PMID: 6960894]
3.  Bray, R.C. Xanthine oxidase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 533–556.
4.  Della Corte, E. and Stirpe, F. The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. Involvement of thiol groups in the conversion of the enzyme activity from dehydrogenase (type D) into oxidase (type O) and purification of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 126 (1972) 739–745. [PMID: 4342395]
5.  Ikegami, T. and Nishino, T. The presence of desulfo xanthine dehydrogenase in purified and crude enzyme preparations from rat liver. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 247 (1986) 254–260. [DOI] [PMID: 3459393]
6.  Engerson, T.D., McKelvey, T.G., Rhyne, D.B., Boggio, E.B., Snyder, S.J. and Jones, H.P. Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to oxidase in ischemic rat tissues. J. Clin. Invest. 79 (1987) 1564–1570. [DOI] [PMID: 3294898]
7.  Saito, T., Nishino, T. and Tsushima, K. Interconversion between NAD-dependent and O2-dependent types of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase and difference in kinetic and redox properties between them. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 253B (1989) 179–183. [PMID: 2610112]
8.  Carpani, G., Racchi, M., Ghezzi, P., Terao, M. and Garattini, E. Purification and characterization of mouse liver xanthine oxidase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 279 (1990) 237–241. [DOI] [PMID: 2350174]
9.  Eger, B.T., Okamoto, K., Enroth, C., Sato, M., Nishino, T., Pai, E.F. and Nishino, T. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase isolated from bovine milk. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 56 (2000) 1656–1658. [PMID: 11092937]
10.  Nishino, T., Okamoto, K., Eger, B.T., Pai, E.F. and Nishino, T. Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase - mechanism of transition from xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase. FEBS J. 275 (2008) 3278–3289. [DOI] [PMID: 18513323]
[EC 1.17.3.2 created 1961 as EC 1.2.3.2, transferred 1984 to EC 1.1.3.22, modified 1989, transferred 2004 to EC 1.17.3.2, modified 2011]
 
 


Data © 2001–2020 IUBMB
Web site © 2005–2020 Andrew McDonald