The Enzyme Database

Displaying entries 1-50 of 81.

<< Previous | Next >>    printer_iconPrintable version



EC 1.1.1.261     
Accepted name: sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase
Reaction: sn-glycerol 1-phosphate + NAD(P)+ = glycerone phosphate + NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of archaetidylserine biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of archaetidylserine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: glycerone phosphate = dihydroxyacetone phosphate = 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl phosphate
Other name(s): glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]; sn-glycerol-1-phosphate:NAD+ oxidoreductase; G-1-P dehydrogenase; Gro1PDH; AraM
Systematic name: sn-glycerol-1-phosphate:NAD(P)+ 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme is found primarily as a Zn2+-dependent form in archaea but a Ni2+-dependent form has been found in Gram-positive bacteria [6]. The Zn2+-dependent metalloenzyme is responsible for the formation of archaea-specific sn-glycerol-1-phosphate, the first step in the biosynthesis of polar lipids in archaea. It is the enantiomer of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, the form of glycerophosphate found in bacteria and eukaryotes. The other enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polar lipids in archaea are EC 2.5.1.41 (phosphoglycerol geranylgeranyltransferase) and EC 2.5.1.42 (geranylgeranylglycerol-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase), which together alkylate the hydroxy groups of glycerol 1-phosphate to give unsaturated archaetidic acid, which is acted upon by EC 2.7.7.67 (CDP-archaeol synthase) to form CDP-unsaturated archaeol. The final step in the pathway involves the addition of L-serine, with concomitant removal of CMP, leading to the production of unsaturated archaetidylserine [4]. Activity of the enzyme is stimulated by K+ [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 204594-18-3
References:
1.  Nishihara, M. and Koga, Y. sn-Glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum: key enzyme in biosynthesis of the enantiomeric glycerophosphate backbone of ether phospholipids of archaebacteria. J. Biochem. 117 (1995) 933–935. [PMID: 8586635]
2.  Nishihara, M. and Koga, Y. Purification and properties of sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum: characterization of the biosynthetic enzyme for the enantiomeric glycerophosphate backbone of ether polar lipids of Archaea. J. Biochem. 122 (1997) 572–576. [PMID: 9348086]
3.  Koga, Y., Kyuragi, T., Nishihara, M. and Sone, N. Did archaeal and bacterial cells arise independently from noncellular precursors? A hypothesis stating that the advent of membrane phospholipid with enantiomeric glycerophosphate backbones caused the separation of the two lines of descent. J. Mol. Evol. 46 (1998) 54–63. [PMID: 9419225]
4.  Morii, H., Nishihara, M. and Koga, Y. CTP:2,3-di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphate cytidyltransferase in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 36568–36574. [DOI] [PMID: 10960477]
5.  Han, J.S. and Ishikawa, K. Active site of Zn2+-dependent sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Aeropyrum pernix K1. Archaea 1 (2005) 311–317. [PMID: 15876564]
6.  Guldan, H., Sterner, R. and Babinger, P. Identification and characterization of a bacterial glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase: Ni(2+)-dependent AraM from Bacillus subtilis. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 7376–7384. [DOI] [PMID: 18558723]
[EC 1.1.1.261 created 2000, modified 2009]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.45      
Transferred entry: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate monooxygenase. Now EC 1.14.18.2, CMP-N-acetylneuraminate monooxygenase
[EC 1.14.13.45 created 1992, deleted 2003]
 
 
EC 1.14.18.2     
Accepted name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate monooxygenase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = CMP-N-glycoloylneuraminate + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + H2O
Other name(s): CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase; CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase; cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate monooxygenase; N-acetylneuraminic monooxygenase; cytidine-5′-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-acetyl-hydroxylating)
Comments: This enzyme contains both a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster and a second iron site. The ferricytochrome b5 produced is reduced by NADH and cytochrome-b5 reductase (EC 1.6.2.2). The enzyme can be activated by Fe2+ or Fe3+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 116036-67-0
References:
1.  Shaw, L. and Schauer, R. The biosynthesis of N-glycoloylneuraminic acid occurs by hydroxylation of the CMP-glycoside of N-acetylneuraminic acid. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 369 (1988) 477–486. [PMID: 3202954]
2.  Kozutsumi, Y., Kawano, T., Yamakawa, T. and Suzuki, A. Participation of cytochrome b5 in CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylation in mouse liver cytosol. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 109 (1990) 704–706. [PMID: 1964451]
3.  Schneckenburger, P., Shaw, L. and Schauer, R. Purification, characterization and reconstitution of CMP-N-acetylneuraminate hydroxylase from mouse liver. Glycoconj. J. 11 (1994) 194–203. [PMID: 7841794]
4.  Kawano, T., Koyama, S., Takematsu, H., Kozutsumi, Y., Kawasaki, H., Kawashima, S., Kawasaki, T. and Suzuki, A. Molecular cloning of cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase. Regulation of species- and tissue-specific expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 16458–16463. [DOI] [PMID: 7608218]
5.  Schlenzka, W., Shaw, L., Kelm, S., Schmidt, C.L., Bill, E., Trautwein, A.X., Lottspeich, F. and Schauer, R. CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase: the first cytosolic Rieske iron-sulphur protein to be described in Eukarya. FEBS Lett. 385 (1996) 197–200. [DOI] [PMID: 8647250]
[EC 1.14.18.2 created 1992 as EC 1.14.13.45, transferred 2003 to EC 1.14.18.2]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.18      
Deleted entry:  CMP-N-acetylneuraminate monooxygenase
[EC 1.14.99.18 created 1976, modified 1999, deleted 2003]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.54     
Accepted name: deoxycytidylate C-methyltransferase
Reaction: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + dCMP = dihydrofolate + deoxy-5-methylcytidylate
Other name(s): deoxycytidylate methyltransferase; dCMP methyltransferase
Systematic name: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate:dCMP C-methyltransferase
Comments: dCMP is methylated by formaldehyde in the presence of tetrahydrofolate. CMP, dCTP and CTP can act as acceptors, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 61970-01-2
References:
1.  Kuo, T.-T. and Tu, J. Enzymatic synthesis of deoxy-5-methyl-cytidylic acid replacing deoxycytidylic acid in Xanthomonas oryzae phage Xp12DNA. Nature 263 (1976) 615. [PMID: 980110]
[EC 2.1.1.54 created 1978]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.351     
Accepted name: nocamycin O-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + nocamycin E = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + nocamycin I
Glossary: nocamycin E = (2R,3S,3aS,5R,6R,7S,9aS)-5-[(2R,3E,5E)-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-7-(2,4-dioxopyrroliden-3-ylidene)hepta-3,5-dien-2-yl]-2,6,9a-trimethyl-8-oxooctahydro-3a,7-epoxyfuro[3,2-b]oxocine-3-carboxylate
nocamycin I = methyl (2R,3S,3aS,5R,6R,7S,9aS)-5-[(2R,3E,5E)-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-7-(2,4-dioxopyrroliden-3-ylidene)hepta-3,5-dien-2-yl]-2,6,9a-trimethyl-8-oxooctahydro-3a,7-epoxyfuro[3,2-b]oxocine-3-carboxylate
Other name(s): ncmP (gene name)
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:nocamycin E O-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Saccharothrix syringae, is involved in the biosynthesis of nocamycin I and nocamycin II.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Mo, X., Gui, C. and Wang, Q. Elucidation of a carboxylate O-methyltransferase NcmP in nocamycin biosynthetic pathway. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 27 (2017) 4431–4435. [PMID: 28818448]
[EC 2.1.1.351 created 2018]
 
 
EC 2.1.2.8     
Accepted name: deoxycytidylate 5-hydroxymethyltransferase
Reaction: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate + H2O + deoxycytidylate = tetrahydrofolate + 5-hydroxymethyldeoxycytidylate
Other name(s): dCMP hydroxymethylase; d-cytidine 5′-monophosphate hydroxymethylase; deoxyCMP hydroxymethylase; deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase; deoxycytidylic hydroxymethylase
Systematic name: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate:deoxycytidylate 5-hydroxymethyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9012-68-4
References:
1.  Mathews, C.K., Brown, F. and Cohen, S.S. Virus-induced acquisition of metabolic function. VII. Biosynthesis de novo of deoxycytidylate hydroxymethylase. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 2957–2963. [PMID: 14217882]
[EC 2.1.2.8 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.202     
Accepted name: UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine = CoA + UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose
Other name(s): PseH
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine N-acetyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Helicobacter pylori. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Elucidation of the CMP-pseudaminic acid pathway in Helicobacter pylori: synthesis from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by a single enzymatic reaction. Glycobiology 16 (2006) 8C–14C. [DOI] [PMID: 16751642]
[EC 2.3.1.202 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.2.57     
Accepted name: AMP phosphorylase
Reaction: (1) AMP + phosphate = adenine + α-D-ribose 1,5-bisphosphate
(2) CMP + phosphate = cytosine + α-D-ribose 1,5-bisphosphate
(3) UMP + phosphate = uracil + α-D-ribose 1,5-bisphosphate
For diagram of AMP catabolism, click here
Other name(s): AMPpase; nucleoside monophosphate phosphorylase; deoA (gene name)
Systematic name: AMP:phosphate α-D-ribosyl 5′-phosphate-transferase
Comments: The enzyme from archaea is involved in AMP metabolism and CO2 fixation through type III RubisCO enzymes. The activity with CMP and UMP requires activation by cAMP [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sato, T., Atomi, H. and Imanaka, T. Archaeal type III RuBisCOs function in a pathway for AMP metabolism. Science 315 (2007) 1003–1006. [DOI] [PMID: 17303759]
2.  Aono, R., Sato, T., Yano, A., Yoshida, S., Nishitani, Y., Miki, K., Imanaka, T. and Atomi, H. Enzymatic characterization of AMP phosphorylase and ribose-1,5-bisphosphate isomerase functioning in an archaeal AMP metabolic pathway. J. Bacteriol. 194 (2012) 6847–6855. [DOI] [PMID: 23065974]
3.  Nishitani, Y., Aono, R., Nakamura, A., Sato, T., Atomi, H., Imanaka, T. and Miki, K. Structure analysis of archaeal AMP phosphorylase reveals two unique modes of dimerization. J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 2709–2721. [DOI] [PMID: 23659790]
[EC 2.4.2.57 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.1     
Accepted name: β-galactoside α-(2,6)-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetyl-β-neuraminate + β-D-galactosyl-R = CMP + N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→6)-β-D-galactosyl-R
Other name(s): ST6Gal-I; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine α-2,6-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase; lactosylceramide α-2,6-N-sialyltransferase; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine α-(2→6)-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase; β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetyl-β-neuraminate:β-D-galactoside α-(2→6)-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme acts on the terminal non-reducing β-D-galactosyl residue of the oligosaccharide moiety of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9075-81-4
References:
1.  Spiro, M.H. and Spiro, R.G. Glycoprotein biosynthesis: studies on thyroglobulin. Thyroid sialyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 6520–6528. [PMID: 5726897]
2.  Hickman, J., Ashwell, G., Morell, A.G., van der Hamer, C.J.A. and Scheinberg, I.H. Physical and chemical studies on ceruloplasmin. 8. Preparation of N-acetylneuraminic acid-1-14C-labeled ceruloplasmin. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 759–766. [PMID: 4313609]
3.  Bartholomew, B.A., Jourdian, G.W. and Roseman, S. The sialic acids. XV. Transfer of sialic acid to glycoproteins by a sialyltransferase from colostrum. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 5751–5762. [PMID: 4723915]
4.  Paulson, J.C., Beranek, W.E. and Hill, R.L. Purification of a sialyltransferase from bovine colostrum by affinity chromatography on CDP-agarose. J. Biol. Chem. 252 (1977) 2356–2362. [PMID: 849932]
5.  Schachter, H., Narasimhan, S., Gleeson, P. and Vella, G. Glycosyltransferases involved in elongation of N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides of the complex or N-acetyllactosamine type. Methods Enzymol. 98 (1983) 98–134. [PMID: 6366476]
6.  Albarracin, I., Lassaga, F.E. and Caputto, R. Purification and characterization of an endogenous inhibitor of the sialyltransferase CMP-N-acetylneuraminate: lactosylceramide α2,6-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase (EC 2.4.99.-). Biochem. J. 254 (1988) 559–565. [PMID: 2460092]
[EC 2.4.99.1 created 1972, modified 1976, modified 1986, modified 2016 (EC 2.4.99.11 created 1992, incorporated 2016), modified 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.2     
Accepted name: β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminide α-2,3-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetyl-β-neuraminate + a β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-R = CMP + an N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-R
For diagram of ganglioside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: a β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→4)-[N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)]-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide = gangloside GM1a
an N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→4)-[N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)]-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide = gangloside GD1a
Other name(s): CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-(N-acetylneuraminyl)-D-galactosyl-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide N-acetylneuraminyltransferase (ambiguous); monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:a β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→4)-[α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)]-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide N-acetyl-β-neuraminyltransferase
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetyl-β-neuraminate:a β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-R α-(2→3)-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme recognizes the sequence β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl (known as type 1 histo-blood group precursor disaccharide) in non-reducing termini of glycan moieties in glycoproteins and glycolipids [1]. When acting on gangloside GM1a, it forms gangloside GD1a [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 60202-12-2
References:
1.  Rearick, J.I., Sadler, J.E., Paulson, J.C. and Hill, R.L. Enzymatic characterization of β D-galactoside α2→3 sialyltransferase from porcine submaxillary gland. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 4444–4451. [PMID: 438198]
2.  Yip, M.C.M. The enzymic synthesis of disialoganglioside: rat brain cytidine-5′-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid: monosialoganglioside (GM1) sialyltransferase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 306 (1973) 298–306. [DOI] [PMID: 4351506]
[EC 2.4.99.2 created 1976, modified 1986, modified 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.3     
Accepted name: α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α-2,6-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + glycano-(1→3)-(N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl)-glycoprotein = CMP + glycano-[(2→6)-α-N-acetylneuraminyl]-(N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl)-glycoprotein
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:glycano-1,3-(N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl)-glycoprotein α-2,6-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Comments: α-N-Acetylgalactosamine linked to threonine or serine is also an acceptor, when substituted at the 3-position.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 71124-50-0
References:
1.  Sadler, J.E., Rearick, J.I. and Hill, R.L. Purification to homogeneity and enzymatic characterization of an α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α2→6 sialyltransferase from porcine submaxillary glands. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 5934–5941. [PMID: 447688]
[EC 2.4.99.3 created 1984, modified 1986]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.4     
Accepted name: β-galactoside α-2,3-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl-R = CMP + α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl-R
Other name(s): CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:β-D-galactoside α-2,3-N-acetylneuraminyl-transferase
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:β-D-galactoside α-(2→3)-N-acetylneuraminyl-transferase
Comments: The acceptor is Galβ1,3GalNAc-R, where R is H, a threonine or serine residue in a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. Lactose can also act as acceptor. May be identical with EC 2.4.99.2 monosialoganglioside sialyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 71124-51-1
References:
1.  Rearick, J.I., Sadler, J.E., Paulson, J.C. and Hill, R.L. Enzymatic characterization of β D-galactoside α2→3 sialyltransferase from porcine submaxillary gland. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 4444–4451. [PMID: 438198]
2.  Sadler, J.E., Rearick, J.I., Paulson, J.C. and Hill, R.L. Purification to homogeneity of a β-galactoside α2→3 sialyltransferase and partial purification of an α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α2→6 sialyltransferase from porcine submaxillary glands. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 4434–4442. [PMID: 438196]
[EC 2.4.99.4 created 1984, modified 1986]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.5     
Accepted name: galactosyldiacylglycerol α-2,3-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetyl-β-neuraminate + 1,2-diacyl-3-β-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol = CMP + 1,2-diacyl-3-[3-(N-acetyl-α-D-neuraminyl)-β-D-galactosyl]-sn-glycerol
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetyl-β-neuraminate:1,2-diacyl-3-β-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Comments: The β-D-galactosyl residue of the oligosaccharide of glycoproteins may also act as acceptor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 80237-98-5
References:
1.  Pieringer, J., Keech, S. and Pieringer, R.A. Biosynthesis in vitro of sialosylgalactosyldiacylglycerol by mouse brain microsomes. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 12306–12309. [PMID: 7298658]
2.  Weinstein, J., de Souza-e-Silva, U. and Paulson, J.C. Purification of a Gal β1→4GlcNAc α2→6 sialyltransferase and a Gal β1→3(4)GlcNAc α2→3 sialyltransferase to homogeneity from rat liver. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 13835–13844. [PMID: 7142179]
3.  Weinstein, J., de Souza-e-Silva, U. and Paulson, J.C. Sialylation of glycoprotein oligosaccharides N-linked to asparagine. Enzymatic characterization of a Gal β1→3(4)GlcNAc α2→3 sialyltransferase and a Gal β1→4GlcNAc α2→6 sialyltransferase from rat liver. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 13845–13853. [PMID: 7142180]
[EC 2.4.99.5 created 1984, modified 1986]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.6     
Accepted name: N-acetyllactosaminide α-2,3-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetyl-β-neuraminate + β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R = CMP + N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R
Other name(s): cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-β-galactosyl(1→4)acetylglucosaminide α2→3-sialyltransferase; α2→3 sialyltransferase (ambiguous); SiaT (ambiguous); CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-glycoprotein α-2,3-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase; neolactotetraosylceramide α-2,3-sialyltransferase; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-glycoprotein α-(2→3)-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetyl-β-neuraminate:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R (2→3)-N-acetyl-α-neuraminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme recognizes the sequence β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl (known as type 2 histo-blood group precursor disaccharide) in non-reducing termini of glycan moieties in glycoproteins and glycolipids. The enzyme from chicken brain was shown to act on neolactotetraosylceramide, producing ganglioside LM1 [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 77537-85-0
References:
1.  Van den Eijnden, D.H. and Schiphorst, W.E.C.M. Detection of β-galactosyl(1→4)N-acetylglucosaminide α(2→3)-sialyltransferase activity in fetal calf liver and other tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 3159–3162. [PMID: 7204397]
2.  Basu, M., Basu, S., Stoffyn, A. and Stoffyn, P. Biosynthesis in vitro of sialyl(α2-3)neolactotetraosylceramide by a sialyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 12765–12769. [PMID: 7130178]
[EC 2.4.99.6 created 1984, modified 1986 (EC 2.4.99.10 created 1986, incorporated 2017)]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.7     
Accepted name: α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminide 6-α-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R = CMP + N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→6)]-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R
For diagram of reaction, click here
Other name(s): sialyltransferase; cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-(α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide-α-2,6-sialyltransferase; α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetyl-galactosaminide α-2,6-sialyltransferase; SIAT7; ST6GALNAC; (α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetyl-galactosaminide 6-α-sialyltransferase; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:(α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-D-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide α-2,6-N-acetylneuraminyl-transferase
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)- N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide galactosamine-6-α-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Comments: Attaches N-acetylneuraminic acid in α-2,6-linkage to N-acetyl-galactosamine only when present in the structure of α-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-R, where R may be protein or p-nitrophenol. Not identical with EC 2.4.99.3 α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α-2,6-sialyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 129924-24-9
References:
1.  Bergh, M.L.E., Hooghwinkel, G.J.M. and Van den Eijnden, D.H. Biosynthesis of the O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharide chains of fetuin. Indications for an α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α2→6 sialyltransferase with a narrow acceptor specificity in fetal calf liver. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 7430–7436. [PMID: 6190802]
[EC 2.4.99.7 created 1984, modified 1986, modified 2004]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.8     
Accepted name: α-N-acetylneuraminate α-2,8-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-R = CMP + α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→8)-α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-R
For diagram of ganglioside biosynthesis (pathway to GD3), click here
Other name(s): cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-ganglioside GM3; α-2,8-sialyltransferase; ganglioside GD3 synthase; ganglioside GD3 synthetase sialyltransferase; CMP-NeuAc:LM1(α2-8) sialyltranferase; GD3 synthase; SAT-2
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactoside α-(2→8)-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Comments: Gangliosides act as acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 67339-00-8
References:
1.  Eppler, M.C., Morré, J.D. and Keenan, T.W. Ganglioside biosynthesis in rat liver: alteration of sialyltransferase activities by nucleotides. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 619 (1980) 332–343. [DOI] [PMID: 7407217]
2.  Higashi, H., Basu, M. and Basu, S. Biosynthesis in vitro of disialosylneolactotetraosylceramide by a solubilized sialyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 824–828. [PMID: 3838172]
3.  McCoy, R.D., Vimr, E.R. and Troy, F.A. CMP-NeuNAc:poly-α-2,8-sialosyl sialyltransferase and the biosynthesis of polysialosyl units in neural cell adhesion molecules. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 12695–12699. [PMID: 4044605]
4.  Yohe, H.C. and Yu, R.K. In vitro biosynthesis of an isomer of brain trisialoganglioside, GT1a. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 608–613. [PMID: 6766128]
[EC 2.4.99.8 created 1984, modified 1986]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.9     
Accepted name: lactosylceramide α-2,3-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide = CMP + α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide
For diagram of ganglioside biosynthesis (pathway to GM2), click here
Glossary: lactosylceramide = β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide
Other name(s): cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-lactosylceramide α2,3- sialyltransferase; CMP-acetylneuraminate-lactosylceramide-sialyltransferase; CMP-acetylneuraminic acid:lactosylceramide sialyltransferase; CMP-sialic acid:lactosylceramide-sialyltransferase; cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-lactosylceramide sialyltransferase; ganglioside GM3 synthetase; GM3 synthase; GM3 synthetase; SAT 1; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:lactosylceramide α-2,3-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl(1↔1)ceramide α-(2→3)-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide α-(2→3)-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Comments: Lactose cannot act as acceptor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 125752-90-1
References:
1.  Basu, S., Kaufman, B. and Roseman, S. Enzymatic synthesis of glucocerebroside by a glucosyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 1388–1394. [PMID: 4631392]
2.  Fishman, P.H., Bradley, R.M. and Henneberry, R.C. Butyrate-induced glycolipid biosynthesis in HeLa cells: properties of the induced sialyltransferase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 172 (1976) 618–626. [DOI] [PMID: 4022]
3.  Higashi, H., Basu, M. and Basu, S. Biosynthesis in vitro of disialosylneolactotetraosylceramide by a solubilized sialyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 824–828. [PMID: 3838172]
[EC 2.4.99.9 created 1984, modified 1986]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.10      
Transferred entry: neolactotetraosylceramide α-2,3-sialyltransferase. Now included in EC 2.4.99.6, N-acetyllactosaminide α-2,3-sialyltransferase
[EC 2.4.99.10 created 1986, deleted 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.11      
Deleted entry: lactosylceramide α-2,6-N-sialyltransferase. Now included with EC 2.4.99.1, β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase
[EC 2.4.99.11 created 1992, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.12     
Accepted name: lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
For diagram of Kdo4-Lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: lipid IVA = 2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): KDO transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; lipid IVA KDO transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase
Comments: The bifunctional enzyme from Escherichia coli transfers two 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues to lipid IVA (cf. EC 2.4.99.13 [(Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase]) [1]. The monofunctional enzymes from Aquifex aeolicus and Haemophilus influenzae catalyse the transfer of a single 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residue from CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate to lipid IVA [2,3]. The enzymes from Chlamydia transfer three or more 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues and generate genus-specific epitopes [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Belunis, C.J. and Raetz, C.R. Biosynthesis of endotoxins. Purification and catalytic properties of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 9988–9997. [PMID: 1577828]
2.  Mamat, U., Schmidt, H., Munoz, E., Lindner, B., Fukase, K., Hanuszkiewicz, A., Wu, J., Meredith, T.C., Woodard, R.W., Hilgenfeld, R., Mesters, J.R. and Holst, O. WaaA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus is a monofunctional 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 22248–22262. [DOI] [PMID: 19546212]
3.  White, K.A., Kaltashov, I.A., Cotter, R.J. and Raetz, C.R. A mono-functional 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) transferase and a Kdo kinase in extracts of Haemophilus influenzae. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 16555–16563. [DOI] [PMID: 9195966]
4.  Lobau, S., Mamat, U., Brabetz, W. and Brade, H. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and functional characterization of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic gene kdtA encoding 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TW-183. Mol. Microbiol. 18 (1995) 391–399. [DOI] [PMID: 8748024]
[EC 2.4.99.12 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.13     
Accepted name: (Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
For diagram of Kdo4-Lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (Kdo)-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): Kdo transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; (KDO)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:(Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase
Comments: The bifunctional enzyme from Escherichia coli transfers two 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues to lipid IVA (cf. EC 2.4.99.12 [lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase]) [1]. The enzymes from Chlamydia transfer three or more 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues and generate genus-specific epitopes [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Belunis, C.J. and Raetz, C.R. Biosynthesis of endotoxins. Purification and catalytic properties of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 9988–9997. [PMID: 1577828]
2.  Lobau, S., Mamat, U., Brabetz, W. and Brade, H. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and functional characterization of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic gene kdtA encoding 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TW-183. Mol. Microbiol. 18 (1995) 391–399. [DOI] [PMID: 8748024]
[EC 2.4.99.13 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.14     
Accepted name: (Kdo)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
For diagram of Kdo4-Lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (Kdo)2-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)3-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→8)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): Kdo transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; (KDO)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:(Kdo)2-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase [(2→8) glycosidic bond-forming]
Comments: The enzymes from Chlamydia transfer three or more 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate residues and generate genus-specific epitopes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lobau, S., Mamat, U., Brabetz, W. and Brade, H. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and functional characterization of the lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic gene kdtA encoding 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase of Chlamydia pneumoniae strain TW-183. Mol. Microbiol. 18 (1995) 391–399. [DOI] [PMID: 8748024]
2.  Mamat, U., Baumann, M., Schmidt, G. and Brade, H. The genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope of Chlamydia is assembled in C. psittaci and C. trachomatis by glycosyltransferases of low homology. Mol. Microbiol. 10 (1993) 935–941. [DOI] [PMID: 7523826]
3.  Belunis, C.J., Mdluli, K.E., Raetz, C.R. and Nano, F.E. A novel 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase from Chlamydia trachomatis required for expression of the genus-specific epitope. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 18702–18707. [PMID: 1382060]
[EC 2.4.99.14 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.15     
Accepted name: (Kdo)3-lipid IVA (2-4) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Reaction: α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP-β-Kdo = α-Kdo-(2→8)-[α-Kdo-(2→4)]-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA + CMP
For diagram of Kdo4-Lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (Kdo)3-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→8)-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→8)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
(Kdo)4-lipid IVA = α-Kdo-(2→8)-[α-Kdo-(2→4)]-α-Kdo-(2→4)-α-Kdo-(2→6)-lipid IVA = (3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→8)-[(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)]-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→4)-(3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate)-(2→6)-2-deoxy-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-4-O-phosphono-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-2-deoxy-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-2-{[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]amino}-1-O-phosphono-α-D-glucopyranose
CMP-β-Kdo = CMP-3-deoxy-β-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Other name(s): Kdo transferase; waaA (gene name); kdtA (gene name); 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase; 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonic acid transferase; (KDO)3-lipid IVA (2-4) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase
Systematic name: CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate:(Kdo)3-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonate transferase [(2→4) glycosidic bond-forming]
Comments: The enzyme from Chlamydia psittaci transfers four Kdo residues to lipid A, forming a branched tetrasaccharide with the structure α-Kdo-(2,8)-[α-Kdo-(2,4)]-α-Kdo-(2,4)-α-Kdo (cf. EC 2.4.99.12 [lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase], EC 2.4.99.13 [(Kdo)-lipid IVA 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase], and EC 2.4.99.14 [(Kdo)2-lipid IVA (2-8) 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase]).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Brabetz, W., Lindner, B. and Brade, H. Comparative analyses of secondary gene products of 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferases from Chlamydiaceae in Escherichia coli K-12. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 5458–5465. [DOI] [PMID: 10951204]
2.  Holst, O., Bock, K., Brade, L. and Brade, H. The structures of oligosaccharide bisphosphates isolated from the lipopolysaccharide of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing the gene gseA [3-deoxy-D-manno-octulopyranosonic acid (Kdo) transferase] of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Eur. J. Biochem. 229 (1995) 194–200. [DOI] [PMID: 7744029]
[EC 2.4.99.15 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.41     
Accepted name: phosphoglycerol geranylgeranyltransferase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate + sn-glycerol 1-phosphate = diphosphate + 3-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate
For diagram of archaetidylserine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: sn-glycerol 1-phosphate = sn-glyceryl phosphate = (S)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl dihydrogen phosphate
Other name(s): glycerol phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase; geranylgeranyl-transferase (ambiguous); prenyltransferase (ambiguous); (S)-3-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase; (S)-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase; GGGP synthase; (S)-GGGP synthase; GGGPS; geranylgeranyl diphosphate:sn-glyceryl phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase; geranylgeranyl diphosphate:sn-glycerol-1-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate:sn-glycerol-1-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
Comments: This cytosolic enzyme catalyses the first pathway-specific step in the biosynthesis of the core membrane diether lipids in archaebacteria [2]. Requires Mg2+ for maximal activity [2]. It catalyses the alkylation of the primary hydroxy group in sn-glycerol 1-phosphate by geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) in a prenyltransfer reaction where a hydroxy group is the nucleophile in the acceptor substrate [2]. The other enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polar lipids in Archaea are EC 1.1.1.261 (sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase), EC 2.5.1.42 (geranylgeranylglycerol-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase) and EC 2.7.7.67 (CDP-archaeol synthase), which lead to the formation of CDP-unsaturated archaeol. The final step in the pathway involves the addition of L-serine, with concomitant removal of CMP, leading to the production of unsaturated archaetidylserine [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 124650-69-7
References:
1.  Zhang, D.-L., Daniels, L. and Poulter, C.D. Biosynthesis of archaebacterial membranes. Formation of isoprene ethers by a prenyl transfer reaction. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112 (1990) 1264–1265.
2.  Chen, A., Zhang, D. and Poulter, C.D. (S)-Geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase. Purification and characterization of the first pathway-specific enzyme in archaebacterial membrane lipid biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 21701–21705. [PMID: 8408023]
3.  Nemoto, N., Oshima, T. and Yamagishi, A. Purification and characterization of geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase from a thermoacidophilic archaeon, Thermoplasma acidophilum. J. Biochem. 133 (2003) 651–657. [PMID: 12801917]
4.  Payandeh, J., Fujihashi, M., Gillon, W. and Pai, E.F. The crystal structure of (S)-3-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase reveals an ancient fold for an ancient enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 6070–6078. [DOI] [PMID: 16377641]
5.  Morii, H., Nishihara, M. and Koga, Y. CTP:2,3-di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphate cytidyltransferase in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 36568–36574. [DOI] [PMID: 10960477]
[EC 2.5.1.41 created 1992, modified 2009]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.42     
Accepted name: geranylgeranylglycerol-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate = diphosphate + 2,3-bis-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate
For diagram of archaetidylserine biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of archaetidylserine biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): geranylgeranyloxyglycerol phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase; geranylgeranyltransferase II; (S)-2,3-di-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase; DGGGP synthase; DGGGPS; geranylgeranyl diphosphate:sn-3-O-(geranylgeranyl)glycerol 1-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl diphosphate:3-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme is an integral-membrane protein that carries out the second prenyltransfer reaction involved in the formation of polar membrane lipids in Archaea. Requires a divalent metal cation, such as Mg2+ or Mn2+, for activity [2]. 4-Hydroxybenzoate, 1,4-dihydroxy 2-naphthoate, homogentisate and α-glycerophosphate cannot act as prenyl-acceptor substrates [2]. The other enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of polar lipids in Archaea are EC 1.1.1.261 (sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase), EC 2.5.1.41 (phosphoglycerol geranylgeranyltransferase), which, together with this enzyme, alkylates the hydroxy groups of glycerol 1-phosphate to yield unsaturated archaetidic acid, which is acted upon by EC 2.7.7.67 (CDP-archaeol synthase) to form CDP-unsaturated archaeol. The final step in the pathway involves the addition of L-serine, with concomitant removal of CMP, leading to the production of unsaturated archaetidylserine [3]. Belongs in the UbiA prenyltransferase family [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 124650-68-6
References:
1.  Zhang, D.-L., Daniels, L. and Poulter, C.D. Biosynthesis of archaebacterial membranes. Formation of isoprene ethers by a prenyl transfer reaction. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112 (1990) 1264–1265.
2.  Hemmi, H., Shibuya, K., Takahashi, Y., Nakayama, T. and Nishino, T. (S)-2,3-Di-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Molecular cloning and characterization of a membrane-intrinsic prenyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal ether-linked membrane lipids. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 50197–50203. [DOI] [PMID: 15356000]
3.  Morii, H., Nishihara, M. and Koga, Y. CTP:2,3-di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphate cytidyltransferase in the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 36568–36574. [DOI] [PMID: 10960477]
[EC 2.5.1.42 created 1992, modified 2009]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.101     
Accepted name: N,N′-diacetyllegionaminate synthase
Reaction: 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-mannopyranose + phosphoenolpyruvate + H2O = N,N′-diacetyllegionaminate + phosphate
For diagram of legionaminic acid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: legionaminate = 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonate
Other name(s): neuB (gene name); legI (gene name)
Systematic name: phosphoenolpyruvate:2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-mannopyranose 1-(2-carboxy-2-oxoethyl)transferase
Comments: Requires a divalent metal such as Mn2+. Isolated from the bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Campylobacter jejuni, where it is involved in the biosynthesis of legionaminic acid, a virulence-associated, cell surface sialic acid-like derivative.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Glaze, P.A., Watson, D.C., Young, N.M. and Tanner, M.E. Biosynthesis of CMP-N,N′-diacetyllegionaminic acid from UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine in Legionella pneumophila. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 3272–3282. [DOI] [PMID: 18275154]
2.  Schoenhofen, I.C., Vinogradov, E., Whitfield, D.M., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. The CMP-legionaminic acid pathway in Campylobacter: biosynthesis involving novel GDP-linked precursors. Glycobiology 19 (2009) 715–725. [DOI] [PMID: 19282391]
[EC 2.5.1.101 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.74     
Accepted name: deoxycytidine kinase
Reaction: NTP + deoxycytidine = NDP + dCMP
Other name(s): deoxycytidine kinase (phosphorylating); 2′-deoxycytidine kinase; Ara-C kinase; arabinofuranosylcytosine kinase; deoxycytidine-cytidine kinase
Systematic name: NTP:deoxycytidine 5′-phosphotransferase
Comments: Cytosine arabinoside can act as acceptor; all natural nucleoside triphosphates (except dCTP) can act as donors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9039-45-6
References:
1.  Durham, J.P. and Ives, D.H. Deoxycytidine kinase. II. Purification and general properties of the calf thymus enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 2276–2284. [PMID: 5442271]
2.  Ives, D.H. and Durham, J.P. Deoxycytidine kinase. 3. Kinetics and allosteric regulation of the calf thymus enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 2285–2294. [PMID: 5462538]
3.  Kessel, D. Properties of deoxycytidine kinase partially purified from L1210 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 4739–4744. [PMID: 5687717]
4.  Momparler, R.L. and Fischer, G.A. Mammalian deoxynucleoside kinase. I. Deoxycytidine kinase: purification, properties, and kinetic studies with cytosine arabinoside. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 4298–4304. [PMID: 5684726]
[EC 2.7.1.74 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.213     
Accepted name: cytidine kinase
Reaction: ATP + cytidine = ADP + CMP
Systematic name: ATP:cytidine 5′-phosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis, participates in a pathway for nucleoside degradation. The enzyme can also act on deoxycytidine and uridine, but unlike EC 2.7.1.48, uridine kinase, it is most active with cytidine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Aono, R., Sato, T., Imanaka, T. and Atomi, H. A pentose bisphosphate pathway for nucleoside degradation in Archaea. Nat. Chem. Biol. 11 (2015) 355–360. [DOI] [PMID: 25822915]
[EC 2.7.1.213 created 2016]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.14     
Accepted name: UMP/CMP kinase
Reaction: (1) ATP + (d)CMP = ADP + (d)CDP
(2) ATP + UMP = ADP + UDP
Other name(s): cytidylate kinase; deoxycytidylate kinase; CTP:CMP phosphotransferase; dCMP kinase; deoxycytidine monophosphokinase; UMP-CMP kinase; ATP:UMP-CMP phosphotransferase; pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphate kinase; uridine monophosphate-cytidine monophosphate phosphotransferase
Systematic name: ATP:CMP(UMP) phosphotransferase
Comments: This eukaryotic enzyme is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyses the phosphorylation of both CMP and UMP with similar efficiency. dCMP can also act as acceptor. Different from the monofunctional prokaryotic enzymes EC 2.7.4.25, CMP kinase and EC 2.7.4.22, UMP kinase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37278-21-0
References:
1.  Hurwitz, J. The enzymatic incorporation of ribonucleotides into polydeoxynucleotide material. J. Biol. Chem. 234 (1959) 2351–2358. [PMID: 14405566]
2.  Ruffner, B.W., Jr. and Anderson, E.P. Adenosine triphosphate: uridine monophosphate-cytidine monophosphate phosphotransferase from Tetrahymena pyriformis. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 5994–6002. [PMID: 5350952]
3.  Scheffzek, K., Kliche, W., Wiesmuller, L. and Reinstein, J. Crystal structure of the complex of UMP/CMP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum and the bisubstrate inhibitor P1-(5′-adenosyl) P5-(5′-uridyl) pentaphosphate (UP5A) and Mg2+ at 2.2 Å: implications for water-mediated specificity. Biochemistry 35 (1996) 9716–9727. [DOI] [PMID: 8703943]
4.  Zhou, L., Lacroute, F. and Thornburg, R. Cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana UMP/CMP kinase. Plant Physiol. 117 (1998) 245–254. [PMID: 9576794]
5.  Van Rompay, A.R., Johansson, M. and Karlsson, A. Phosphorylation of deoxycytidine analog monophosphates by UMP-CMP kinase: molecular characterization of the human enzyme. Mol. Pharmacol. 56 (1999) 562–569. [PMID: 10462544]
[EC 2.7.4.14 created 1961 as EC 2.7.4.5, transferred 1972 to EC 2.7.4.14, modified 1980, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.19     
Accepted name: 5-methyldeoxycytidine-5′-phosphate kinase
Reaction: ATP + 5-methyldeoxycytidine 5′-phosphate = ADP + 5-methyldeoxycytidine diphosphate
Systematic name: ATP:5-methyldeoxycytidine-5′-phosphate phosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme, from phage XP-12-infected Xanthomonas oryzae, converts m5dCMP into m5dCDP and then into m5dCTP.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 81032-53-3
References:
1.  Wang, R.Y.-H., Huang, L.-H. and Ehrlich, M. A bacteriophage-induced 5-methyldeoxycytidine 5′-monophosphate kinase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 696 (1982) 31–36. [DOI] [PMID: 7082669]
[EC 2.7.4.19 created 1984]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.22     
Accepted name: UMP kinase
Reaction: ATP + UMP = ADP + UDP
Other name(s): uridylate kinase; UMPK; uridine monophosphate kinase; PyrH; UMP-kinase; SmbA
Systematic name: ATP:UMP phosphotransferase
Comments: This enzyme is strictly specific for UMP as substrate and is used by prokaryotes in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines, in contrast to eukaryotes, which use the dual-specificity enzyme UMP/CMP kinase (EC 2.7.4.14) for the same purpose [2]. This enzyme is the subject of feedback regulation, being inhibited by UTP and activated by GTP [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9036-23-1
References:
1.  Serina, L., Blondin, C., Krin, E., Sismeiro, O., Danchin, A., Sakamoto, H., Gilles, A.M. and Bârzu, O. Escherichia coli UMP-kinase, a member of the aspartokinase family, is a hexamer regulated by guanine nucleotides and UTP. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 5066–5074. [PMID: 7711027]
2.  Marco-Marín, C., Gil-Ortiz, F. and Rubio, V. The crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus UMP kinase provides insight into catalysis and regulation in microbial pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. J. Mol. Biol. 352 (2005) 438–454. [DOI] [PMID: 16095620]
[EC 2.7.4.22 created 2006]
 
 
EC 2.7.4.25     
Accepted name: (d)CMP kinase
Reaction: ATP + (d)CMP = ADP + (d)CDP
Glossary: CMP = cytidine monophosphate
dCMP = deoxycytidine monophosphate
CDP = cytidine diphosphate
dCDP = deoxycytidine diphosphate
UMP = uridine monophosphate
UDP = uridine diphosphate
Other name(s): prokaryotic cytidylate kinase; deoxycytidylate kinase; dCMP kinase; deoxycytidine monophosphokinase
Systematic name: ATP:(d)CMP phosphotransferase
Comments: The prokaryotic cytidine monophosphate kinase specifically phosphorylates CMP (or dCMP), using ATP as the preferred phosphoryl donor. Unlike EC 2.7.4.14, a eukaryotic enzyme that phosphorylates UMP and CMP with similar efficiency, the prokaryotic enzyme phosphorylates UMP with very low rates, and this function is catalysed in prokaryotes by EC 2.7.4.22, UMP kinase. The enzyme phosphorylates dCMP nearly as well as it does CMP [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Bertrand, T., Briozzo, P., Assairi, L., Ofiteru, A., Bucurenci, N., Munier-Lehmann, H., Golinelli-Pimpaneau, B., Barzu, O. and Gilles, A.M. Sugar specificity of bacterial CMP kinases as revealed by crystal structures and mutagenesis of Escherichia coli enzyme. J. Mol. Biol. 315 (2002) 1099–1110. [DOI] [PMID: 11827479]
2.  Thum, C., Schneider, C.Z., Palma, M.S., Santos, D.S. and Basso, L.A. The Rv1712 Locus from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv codes for a functional CMP kinase that preferentially phosphorylates dCMP. J. Bacteriol. 191 (2009) 2884–2887. [DOI] [PMID: 19181797]
[EC 2.7.4.25 created 2011]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.21      
Transferred entry: tRNA cytidylyltransferase. Now EC 2.7.7.72, CCA tRNA nucleotidyltransferase
[EC 2.7.7.21 created 1965, deleted 2010]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.25      
Transferred entry: tRNA adenylyltransferase. Now EC 2.7.7.72, CCA tRNA nucleotidyltransferase
[EC 2.7.7.25 created 1965, deleted 2010]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.38     
Accepted name: 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase
Reaction: CTP + 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate = diphosphate + CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate
Other name(s): CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate pyrophosphorylase; 2-keto-3-deoxyoctonate cytidylyltransferase; 3-Deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase; CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate synthetase; CMP-KDO synthetase; CTP:CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase; cytidine monophospho-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate pyrophosphorylase
Systematic name: CTP:3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37278-28-7
References:
1.  Ghalambor, M.A. and Heath, E.C. The biosynthesis of cell wall lipopolysaccharide in Escherichia coli. IV. Purification and properties of cytidine monophosphate 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate synthetase. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 3216–3221. [PMID: 5330266]
[EC 2.7.7.38 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.43     
Accepted name: N-acylneuraminate cytidylyltransferase
Reaction: CTP + N-acylneuraminate = diphosphate + CMP-N-acylneuraminate
For diagram of N-Acetylneuraminic acid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): CMP-sialate pyrophosphorylase; CMP-sialate synthase; cytidine 5′-monophosphosialic acid synthetase; CMP-Neu5Ac synthetase; CMP-NeuAc synthetase; acylneuraminate cytidyltransferase; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate synthetase; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate synthase; CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase; CMP-NANA synthetase; CMP-sialate synthetase; CMP-sialic synthetase; cytidine 5′-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase; cytidine 5-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase; cytidine monophosphosialic acid synthetase; cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminic synthetase; cytidine monophosphosialate pyrophosphorylase; cytidine monophosphosialate synthetase; acetylneuraminate cytidylyltransferase
Systematic name: CTP:N-acylneuraminate cytidylyltransferase
Comments: Acts on N-acetyl- and N-glycolyl- derivatives.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9067-82-7
References:
1.  Kean, E.L. and Roseman, S. The sialic acids. X. Purification and properties of cytidine 5′-monophosphosialic acid synthetase. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 5643–5650. [PMID: 4288894]
[EC 2.7.7.43 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.81     
Accepted name: pseudaminic acid cytidylyltransferase
Reaction: CTP + 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid = diphosphate + CMP-5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid
Glossary: 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid = pseudaminic acid
Other name(s): PseF
Systematic name: CTP:5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-nonulosonic acid cytidylyltransferase
Comments: Mg2+ is required for activity.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Elucidation of the CMP-pseudaminic acid pathway in Helicobacter pylori: synthesis from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by a single enzymatic reaction. Glycobiology 16 (2006) 8C–14C. [DOI] [PMID: 16751642]
[EC 2.7.7.81 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.82     
Accepted name: CMP-N,N′-diacetyllegionaminic acid synthase
Reaction: CTP + N,N′-diacetyllegionaminate = CMP-N,N′-diacetyllegionaminate + diphosphate
For diagram of legionaminic acid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: legionaminate = 5,7-diamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonate
Other name(s): CMP-N,N′-diacetyllegionaminic acid synthetase; neuA (gene name); legF (gene name)
Systematic name: CTP:N,N′-diacetyllegionaminate cytidylyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the bacteria Legionella pneumophila and Campylobacter jejuni. Involved in biosynthesis of legionaminic acid, a sialic acid-like derivative that is incorporated into virulence-associated cell surface glycoconjugates which may include lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide, pili and flagella.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Glaze, P.A., Watson, D.C., Young, N.M. and Tanner, M.E. Biosynthesis of CMP-N,N′-diacetyllegionaminic acid from UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine in Legionella pneumophila. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 3272–3282. [DOI] [PMID: 18275154]
2.  Schoenhofen, I.C., Vinogradov, E., Whitfield, D.M., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. The CMP-legionaminic acid pathway in Campylobacter: biosynthesis involving novel GDP-linked precursors. Glycobiology 19 (2009) 715–725. [DOI] [PMID: 19282391]
[EC 2.7.7.82 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.90     
Accepted name: 8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase
Reaction: CTP + 8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonate = diphosphate + CMP-8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonate
Other name(s): kdsB (gene name, ambiguous)
Systematic name: CTP:8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, acts on the 8-aminated from of 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-octulosonate (Kdo). cf. EC 2.7.7.38, 3-deoxy-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gattis, S.G., Chung, H.S., Trent, M.S. and Raetz, C.R. The origin of 8-amino-3,8-dideoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo8N) in the lipopolysaccharide of Shewanella oneidensis. J. Biol. Chem. 288 (2013) 9216–9225. [DOI] [PMID: 23413030]
[EC 2.7.7.90 created 2016]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.92     
Accepted name: 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulopyranosonate cytidylyltransferase
Reaction: CTP + 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonate = diphosphate + CMP-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonate
Systematic name: CTP:3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonate cytidylyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is part of the biosynthesis pathway of the sialic acid 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonate (Kdn). Kdn is abundant in extracellular glycoconjugates of lower vertebrates such as fish and amphibians, but is also found in the capsular polysaccharides of bacteria that belong to the Bacteroides genus.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Terada, T., Kitazume, S., Kitajima, K., Inoue, S., Ito, F., Troy, F.A. and Inoue, Y. Synthesis of CMP-deaminoneuraminic acid (CMP-KDN) using the CTP:CMP-3-deoxynonulosonate cytidylyltransferase from rainbow trout testis. Identification and characterization of a CMP-KDN synthetase. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 2640–2648. [PMID: 8381411]
2.  Terada, T., Kitajima, K., Inoue, S., Koppert, K., Brossmer, R. and Inoue, Y. Substrate specificity of rainbow trout testis CMP-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nonulosonic acid (CMP-Kdn) synthetase: kinetic studies of the reaction of natural and synthetic analogues of nonulosonic acid catalyzed by CMP-Kdn synthetase. Eur. J. Biochem. 236 (1996) 852–855. [DOI] [PMID: 8665905]
3.  Nakata, D., Munster, A.K., Gerardy-Schahn, R., Aoki, N., Matsuda, T. and Kitajima, K. Molecular cloning of a unique CMP-sialic acid synthetase that effectively utilizes both deaminoneuraminic acid (KDN) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) as substrates. Glycobiology 11 (2001) 685–692. [DOI] [PMID: 11479279]
4.  Tiralongo, J., Fujita, A., Sato, C., Kitajima, K., Lehmann, F., Oschlies, M., Gerardy-Schahn, R. and Munster-Kuhnel, A.K. The rainbow trout CMP-sialic acid synthetase utilises a nuclear localization signal different from that identified in the mouse enzyme. Glycobiology 17 (2007) 945–954. [DOI] [PMID: 17580313]
5.  Wang, L., Lu, Z., Allen, K.N., Mariano, P.S. and Dunaway-Mariano, D. Human symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron synthesizes 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (KDN). Chem. Biol. 15 (2008) 893–897. [DOI] [PMID: 18804026]
[EC 2.7.7.92 created 2016]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.93     
Accepted name: phosphonoformate cytidylyltransferase
Reaction: CTP + phosphonoformate = CMP-5′-phosphonoformate + diphosphate
Other name(s): phpF (gene name)
Systematic name: CTP:phosphonoformate cytidylyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Streptomyces viridochromogenes, participates in the biosynthesis of the herbicide antibiotic bialaphos. The enzyme from the bacterium Kitasatospora phosalacinea participates in the biosynthesis of the related compound phosalacine. Both compounds contain the nonproteinogenic amino acid L-phosphinothricin that acts as a potent inhibitor of EC 6.3.1.2, glutamine synthetase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Blodgett, J.A., Thomas, P.M., Li, G., Velasquez, J.E., van der Donk, W.A., Kelleher, N.L. and Metcalf, W.W. Unusual transformations in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic phosphinothricin tripeptide. Nat. Chem. Biol. 3 (2007) 480–485. [DOI] [PMID: 17632514]
[EC 2.7.7.93 created 2016]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.1     
Accepted name: ethanolaminephosphotransferase
Reaction: CDP-ethanolamine + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = CMP + a phosphatidylethanolamine
Other name(s): EPT; diacylglycerol ethanolaminephosphotransferase; CDPethanolamine diglyceride phosphotransferase; phosphorylethanolamine-glyceride transferase; CDP-ethanolamine:1,2-diacylglycerol ethanolaminephosphotransferase
Systematic name: CDP-ethanolamine:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol ethanolaminephosphotransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9026-19-1
References:
1.  Kennedy, E.P. and Weiss, S.B. The function of cytidine coenzymes in the biosynthesis of phospholipides. J. Biol. Chem. 222 (1956) 193–214. [PMID: 13366993]
[EC 2.7.8.1 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.2     
Accepted name: diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase
Reaction: CDP-choline + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = CMP + a phosphatidylcholine
Other name(s): phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase; alkylacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase; 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase; cholinephosphotransferase; CPT (ambiguous); alkylacylglycerol choline phosphotransferase; diacylglycerol choline phosphotransferase; 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-m-glycerol:CDPcholine choline phosphotransferase; CDP-choline diglyceride phosphotransferase; cytidine diphosphocholine glyceride transferase; cytidine diphosphorylcholine diglyceride transferase; phosphocholine diacylglyceroltransferase; sn-1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase; 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase; CDP choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase; CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase
Systematic name: CDP-choline:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase
Comments: 1-Alkyl-2-acylglycerol can act as acceptor; this activity was previously listed separately.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9026-13-5
References:
1.  Coleman, R. and Bell, R.M. Phospholipid synthesis in isolated fat cells. Studies of microsomal diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase and diacylglycerol ethanolaminephosphotransferase activities. J. Biol. Chem. 252 (1977) 3050–3056. [PMID: 192727]
2.  Lee, T.-C., Blank, M.L., Fitzgerald, V. and Snyder, F. Formation of alkylacyl- and diacylglycerophosphocholines via diradylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase in rat liver. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 713 (1982) 479–483. [DOI] [PMID: 6295501]
3.  Parsasarathy, S., Cady, R.K., Kraushaar, D.S., Sladek, N.E. and Baumann, W.J. Inhibition of diacylglycerol:CDPcholine cholinephosphotransferase activity by dimethylaminoethyl p-chlorophenoxyacetate. Lipids 13 (1978) 161–164. [DOI] [PMID: 204847]
4.  Renooij, W. and Snyder, F. Biosynthesis of 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (platelet activating factor and a hypotensive lipid) by cholinephosphotransferase in various rat tissues. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 663 (1981) 545–556. [DOI] [PMID: 6260215]
[EC 2.7.8.2 created 1961, modified 1986 (EC 2.7.8.16 created 1983, incorporated 1986)]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.3     
Accepted name: ceramide cholinephosphotransferase
Reaction: CDP-choline + a ceramide = CMP + sphingomyelin
Glossary: a ceramide = an N-acylsphingosine
Other name(s): phosphorylcholine-ceramide transferase
Systematic name: CDP-choline:N-acylsphingosine cholinephosphotransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9026-14-6
References:
1.  Kennedy, E.P. Phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase. Methods Enzymol. 5 (1962) 484–486.
2.  Sribney, M. and Kennedy, E.P. The enzymatic synthesis of sphingomyelin. J. Biol. Chem. 233 (1958) 1315–1322. [PMID: 13610834]
[EC 2.7.8.3 created 1965]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.4     
Accepted name: serine-phosphoethanolamine synthase
Reaction: CDP-ethanolamine + L-serine = CMP + L-serine-phosphoethanolamine
Other name(s): serine ethanolamine phosphate synthetase; serine ethanolamine phosphodiester synthase; serine ethanolaminephosphotransferase; serine-phosphinico-ethanolamine synthase; serinephosphoethanolamine synthase
Systematic name: CDP-ethanolamine:L-serine ethanolamine phosphotransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9023-23-8
References:
1.  Allen, A.K. and Rosenberg, H. The mechanism of action and some properties of serine ethanolamine phosphate synthetase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 151 (1968) 504–519. [DOI] [PMID: 5636380]
[EC 2.7.8.4 created 1972, modified 1976]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.5     
Accepted name: CDP-diacylglycerol—glycerol-3-phosphate 1-phosphatidyltransferase
Reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CMP + 1-(3-sn-phosphatidyl)-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
Other name(s): glycerophosphate phosphatidyltransferase; 3-phosphatidyl-1′-glycerol-3′-phosphate synthase; CDPdiacylglycerol:glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatidyltransferase; cytidine 5′-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (CDP-diglyceride):sn-glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatidyltransferase; phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase; phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase; PGP synthase; CDP-diacylglycerol-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 3-phosphatidyltransferase; CDP-diacylglycerol:sn-glycero-3-phosphate phosphatidyltransferase; glycerol phosphate phosphatidyltransferase; glycerol 3-phosphate phosphatidyltransferase; phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthase; phosphatidylglycerol phosphate synthetase; phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase; sn-glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatidyltransferase
Systematic name: CDP-diacylglycerol:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 1-(3-sn-phosphatidyl)transferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the committed step in the biosynthesis of acidic phospholipids known by the common names phophatidylglycerols and cardiolipins.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9068-49-9
References:
1.  Hirabayashi, T. Larson, T.J. and Dowhan, W. Membrane-associated phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli: Purification by substrate affinity chromatography on cytidine 5′-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol sepharose. Biochemistry 15 (1976) 5205–5211. [PMID: 793612]
2.  Bleasdale, J.E. and Johnston, J.M. CMP-dependent incorporation of [14C]glycerol 3-phosphate into phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol phosphate by rabbit lung microsomes. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 710 (1982) 377–390. [DOI] [PMID: 7074121]
3.  Dowhan, W. Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase from Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 209 (1992) 313–321. [DOI] [PMID: 1323047]
4.  Kawasaki, K., Kuge, O., Chang, S.C., Heacock, P.N., Rho, M., Suzuki, K., Nishijima, M. and Dowhan, W. Isolation of a chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cDNA encoding phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) synthase, expression of which corrects the mitochondrial abnormalities of a PGP synthase-defective mutant of CHO-K1 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 1828–1834. [DOI] [PMID: 9880566]
5.  Muller, F. and Frentzen, M. Phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS Lett. 509 (2001) 298–302. [DOI] [PMID: 11741606]
6.  Babiychuk, E., Muller, F., Eubel, H., Braun, H.P., Frentzen, M. and Kushnir, S. Arabidopsis phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase 1 is essential for chloroplast differentiation, but is dispensable for mitochondrial function. Plant J. 33 (2003) 899–909. [DOI] [PMID: 12609031]
[EC 2.7.8.5 created 1972, modified 1976, modified 2016]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.8     
Accepted name: CDP-diacylglycerol—serine O-phosphatidyltransferase
Reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + L-serine = CMP + (3-sn-phosphatidyl)-L-serine
Other name(s): phosphatidylserine synthase; CDPdiglyceride-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase; PS synthase; cytidine 5′-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol (CDPdiglyceride):L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase; phosphatidylserine synthetase; CDP-diacylglycerol-L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase; cytidine diphosphoglyceride-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase; CDP-diglyceride-L-serine phosphatidyltransferase; CDP-diglyceride:serine phosphatidyltransferase; cytidine 5′-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol:L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase; CDP-diacylglycerol:L-serine 3-O-phosphatidyltransferase
Systematic name: CDP-diacylglycerol:L-serine 3-sn-phosphatidyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9068-48-8
References:
1.  Larson, T.J. and Dowhan, W. Ribosomal-associated phosphatidylserine synthetase from Escherichia coli: purification by substrate-specific elution from phosphocellulose using cytidine 5′-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol. Biochemistry 15 (1976) 5212–5218. [PMID: 187212]
2.  Raetz, C.R.H. and Kennedy, E.P. Partial purification and properties of phosphatidylserine synthetase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 249 (1974) 5038–5045. [PMID: 4604873]
[EC 2.7.8.8 created 1972, modified 1976]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.10     
Accepted name: sphingosine cholinephosphotransferase
Reaction: CDP-choline + sphingosine = CMP + sphingosyl-phosphocholine
Other name(s): CDP-choline-sphingosine cholinephosphotransferase; phosphorylcholine-sphingosine transferase; cytidine diphosphocholine-sphingosine cholinephosphotransferase; sphingosine choline phosphotransferase
Systematic name: CDP-choline:sphingosine cholinephosphotransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9027-12-7
References:
1.  Fujino, Y., Nigishi, T. and Ito, S. Enzymic synthesis of sphingosylphosphorylcholine. Biochem. J. 109 (1968) 310–311. [PMID: 5679375]
[EC 2.7.8.10 created 1972, modified 1976]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.11     
Accepted name: CDP-diacylglycerol—inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase
Reaction: CDP-diacylglycerol + myo-inositol = CMP + 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol
For diagram of 1-phosphatidyl-myo-inositol metabolism, click here
Glossary: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol = PtdIns
Other name(s): CDP-diglyceride-inositol phosphatidyltransferase; phosphatidylinositol synthase; CDP-diacylglycerol-inositol phosphatidyltransferase; CDP-diglyceride:inositol transferase; cytidine 5′-diphospho-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol:myo-inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase; CDP-DG:inositol transferase; cytidine diphosphodiglyceride-inositol phosphatidyltransferase; CDP-diacylglycerol:myo-inositol-3-phosphatidyltransferase; CDP-diglyceride-inositol transferase; cytidine diphosphoglyceride-inositol phosphatidyltransferase; cytidine diphosphoglyceride-inositol transferase
Systematic name: CDP-diacylglycerol:myo-inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9027-01-4
References:
1.  Bleasdale, J.E., Wallis, P., MacDonald, P.C. and Johnston, J.M. Characterization of the forward and reverse reactions catalyzed by CDP-diacylglycerol:inositol transferase in rabbit lung tissue. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 575 (1979) 135–147. [DOI] [PMID: 41587]
2.  Prottey, C. and Hawthorne, J.N. The biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol in mammalian pancreas. Biochem. J. 105 (1967) 379–392. [PMID: 4293959]
3.  Salway, J.G., Harewood, J.L., Kai, M., White, G.L. and Hawthorne, J.N. Enzymes of phosphoinositide metabolism during rat brain development. J. Neurochem. 15 (1968) 221–226. [DOI] [PMID: 4295616]
4.  Takenawa, T. and Egawa, K. CDP-diglyceride:inositol transferase from rat liver. Purification and properties. J. Biol. Chem. 252 (1977) 5419–5423. [PMID: 18462]
[EC 2.7.8.11 created 1972, modified 1976]
 
 


Data © 2001–2020 IUBMB
Web site © 2005–2020 Andrew McDonald