The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.136     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 6-dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + 2 NAD+ + H2O = UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucuronate + 2 NADH + 2 H+
For diagram of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-N-acetylmannosamine biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine dehydrogenase; UDP-acetylglucosamine dehydrogenase; UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose:NAD oxidoreductase; UDP-GlcNAc dehydrogenase; WbpA; WbpO
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:NAD+ 6-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-α-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9054-83-5
References:
1.  Fan, D.-F., John, C.E., Zalitis, J. and Feingold, D.S. UDPacetylglucosamine dehydrogenase from Achromobacter georgiopolitanum. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 135 (1969) 45–49. [DOI] [PMID: 4312076]
2.  Miller, W.L., Wenzel, C.Q., Daniels, C., Larocque, S., Brisson, J.R. and Lam, J.S. Biochemical characterization of WbpA, a UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-dehydrogenase involved in O-antigen biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 37551–37558. [DOI] [PMID: 15226302]
[EC 1.1.1.136 created 1972, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.158      
Transferred entry: UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase. Now EC 1.3.1.98, UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase
[EC 1.1.1.158 created 1976, modified 1983, modified 2002, deleted 2013]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.335     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxyglucuronate dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-α-D-glucuronate + NAD+ = UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-ribo-hex-3-uluronate + NADH + H+
For diagram of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): WlbA; WbpB
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-α-D-glucuronate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-α-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide. The enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O5 and Thermus thermophilus form a complex with the the enzyme catalysing the next step the pathway (EC 2.6.1.98, UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-ribo-hexuluronate aminotransferase). The enzyme also possesses an EC 1.1.99.2 (L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase) activity, and utilizes the 2-oxoglutarate produced by EC 2.6.1.98 to regenerate the tightly bound NAD+. The enzymes from Bordetella pertussis and Chromobacterium violaceum do not bind NAD+ as tightly and do not require 2-oxoglutarate to function.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Westman, E.L., McNally, D.J., Charchoglyan, A., Brewer, D., Field, R.A. and Lam, J.S. Characterization of WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD and reconstitution of a pathway for the biosynthesis of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11854–11862. [DOI] [PMID: 19282284]
2.  Larkin, A. and Imperiali, B. Biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc(3NAc)A by WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD: enzymes in the Wbp pathway responsible for O-antigen assembly in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 5446–5455. [DOI] [PMID: 19348502]
3.  Thoden, J.B. and Holden, H.M. Structural and functional studies of WlbA: A dehydrogenase involved in the biosynthesis of 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid. Biochemistry 49 (2010) 7939–7948. [DOI] [PMID: 20690587]
4.  Thoden, J.B. and Holden, H.M. Biochemical and structural characterization of WlbA from Bordetella pertussis and Chromobacterium violaceum: enzymes required for the biosynthesis of 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 1483–1491. [DOI] [PMID: 21241053]
[EC 1.1.1.335 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.336     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosamine + 2 NAD+ + H2O = UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosaminuronate + 2 NADH + 2 H+
For diagram of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-N-acetylmannosamine biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): UDP-ManNAc 6-dehydrogenase; wecC (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosamine:NAD+ 6-oxidoreductase
Comments: Part of the pathway for acetamido sugar biosynthesis in bacteria and archaea. The enzyme has no activity with NADP+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Namboori, S.C. and Graham, D.E. Acetamido sugar biosynthesis in the Euryarchaea. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 2987–2996. [DOI] [PMID: 18263721]
[EC 1.1.1.336 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.98     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylmuramate dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramate + NADP+ = UDP-N-acetyl-3-O-(1-carboxyvinyl)-α-D-glucosamine + NADPH + H+
Other name(s): MurB reductase; UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvoylglucosamine reductase; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-enoylpyruvate reductase; UDP-GlcNAc-enoylpyruvate reductase; uridine diphosphoacetylpyruvoylglucosamine reductase; uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine-enolpyruvate reductase; uridine-5′-diphospho-N-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-3-O-lactylglucose:NADP-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). NADH can to a lesser extent replace NADPH.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 39307-28-3
References:
1.  Taku, A. and Anwar, R.A. Biosynthesis of uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramic acid. IV. Activation of uridine diphospho-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase by monovalent cations. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 4971. [PMID: 4717533]
2.  Taku, A., Gunetileke, K.G. and Anwar, R.A. Biosynthesis of uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramic acid. 3. Purification and properties of uridine diphospho-N-acetylenolpyruvyl-glucosamine reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 5012–5016. [PMID: 4394163]
3.  van Heijenoort, J. Recent advances in the formation of the bacterial peptidoglycan monomer unit. Nat. Prod. Rep. 18 (2001) 503–519. [PMID: 11699883]
[EC 1.3.1.98 created 1976 as EC 1.1.1.158, modified 1983, modified 2002, transferred 2013 to EC 1.3.1.98]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.294     
Accepted name: 3-O-phospho-polymannosyl GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-phospho-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3-O-phospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 3-O-methylphospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): WbdD; S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3-O-phospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-α-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-phospho-methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3-O-phospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-phospho-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the polymannose O-polysaccharide in the outer leaflet of the membrane of Escherichia coli serotype O9a. O-Polysaccharide structures vary extensively because of differences in the number and type of sugars in the repeat unit. The dual kinase/methylase WbdD also catalyses the preceding phosphorylation of α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol (cf. EC 2.7.1.181, polymannosyl GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol kinase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Clarke, B.R., Cuthbertson, L. and Whitfield, C. Nonreducing terminal modifications determine the chain length of polymannose O antigens of Escherichia coli and couple chain termination to polymer export via an ATP-binding cassette transporter. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 35709–35718. [DOI] [PMID: 15184370]
2.  Clarke, B.R., Greenfield, L.K., Bouwman, C. and Whitfield, C. Coordination of polymerization, chain termination, and export in assembly of the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide O9a antigen in an ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 30662–30672. [DOI] [PMID: 19734145]
3.  Clarke, B.R., Richards, M.R., Greenfield, L.K., Hou, D., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. In vitro reconstruction of the chain termination reaction in biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli O9a O-polysaccharide: the chain-length regulator, WbdD, catalyzes the addition of methyl phosphate to the non-reducing terminus of the growing glycan. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 41391–41401. [DOI] [PMID: 21990359]
4.  Liston, S.D., Clarke, B.R., Greenfield, L.K., Richards, M.R., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. Domain interactions control complex formation and polymerase specificity in the biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli O9a antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (2015) 1075–1085. [DOI] [PMID: 25422321]
[EC 2.1.1.294 created 2014, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.4     
Accepted name: glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + D-glucosamine 6-phosphate = CoA + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate
For diagram of the biosynthesis of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, click here
Other name(s): phosphoglucosamine transacetylase; phosphoglucosamine acetylase; glucosamine-6-phosphate acetylase; D-glucosamine-6-P N-acetyltransferase; aminodeoxyglucosephosphate acetyltransferase; glucosamine 6-phosphate acetylase; glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase; N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate synthase; phosphoglucosamine N-acetylase; glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:D-glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9031-91-8
References:
1.  Davidson, E.A. Glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetylase. Methods Enzymol. 9 (1966) 704–707.
2.  Davidson, E.A., Blumenthal, H.J. and Roseman, F. Glucosamine metabolism. II. Studies of glucosamine 6-phosphate N-acetylase. J. Biol. Chem. 226 (1957) 125–133. [PMID: 13428743]
3.  Pattabiraman, T.N. and Bachhawat, B.K. Purification of glucosamine-6-phosphate N-acetylase from sheep brain. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 59 (1962) 681–689. [DOI] [PMID: 14484387]
4.  Boehmelt, G., Fialka, I., Brothers, G., McGinley, M.D., Patterson, S.D., Mo, R., Hui, C.C., Chung, S., Huber, L.A., Mak, T.W. and Iscove, N.N. Cloning and characterization of the murine glucosamine-6-phosphate acetyltransferase EMeg32. Differential expression and intracellular membrane association. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 12821–12832. [DOI] [PMID: 10777580]
[EC 2.3.1.4 created 1961, modified 2002]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.129     
Accepted name: acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase
Reaction: (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = an [acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine
For diagram of lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: tetradecanoyl = myristoyl
Other name(s): UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine acyltransferase; acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase; (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]:UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)transferase
Systematic name: (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 3-O-(3-hydroxytetradecanoyl)transferase
Comments: Involved with EC 2.4.1.182 (lipid-A-disaccharide synthase) and EC 2.7.1.130 (tetraacyldisaccharide 4′-kinase) in the biosynthesis of the phosphorylated glycolipid, Lipid A, in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 105843-69-4
References:
1.  Anderson, M.S., Bulawa, C.E. and Raetz, C.R.H. The biosynthesis of gram-negative endotoxin. Formation of lipid A precursors from UDP-GlcNAc in extracts of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 15536–15541. [PMID: 3905795]
[EC 2.3.1.129 created 1990]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.157     
Accepted name: glucosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate = CoA + N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate
For diagram of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine biosynthesis, click here
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:α-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate N-acetyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme from several bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Haemophilus influenzae) has been shown to be bifunctional and also to possess the activity of EC 2.7.7.23, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine diphosphorylase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9031-91-8
References:
1.  Mengin-Lecreulx, D. and van Heijenoort, J. Copurification of glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase activities of Escherichia coli: characterization of the glmU gene product as a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing two subsequent steps in the pathway for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 5788–5795. [DOI] [PMID: 8083170]
2.  Gehring, A.M., Lees, W.J., Mindiola, D.J., Walsh, C.T. and Brown, E.D. Acetyltransfer precedes uridylyltransfer in the formation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in separable active sites of the bifunctional GlmU protein of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry 35 (1996) 579–585. [DOI] [PMID: 8555230]
3.  Olsen, L.R. and Roderick, S.L. Structure of the Escherichia coli GlmU pyrophosphorylase and acetyltransferase active sites. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 1913–1921. [DOI] [PMID: 11329257]
[EC 2.3.1.157 created 2001]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.191     
Accepted name: UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)glucosamine N-acyltransferase
Reaction: (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine = UDP-2-N,3-O-bis[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein]
For diagram of lipid IVA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: myristoyl = tetradecanoyl
Other name(s): UDP-3-O-acyl-glucosamine N-acyltransferase; UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase; acyltransferase LpxD; acyl-ACP:UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxyacyl)-GlcN N-acyltransferase; firA (gene name); lpxD (gene name); (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase
Systematic name: (3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl]-α-D-glucosamine N-acetyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step of lipid A biosynthesis. LpxD from Escherichia prefers (R,S)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] over (R,S)-3-hydroxyhexadecanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] [1]. Escherichia coli lipid A acyltransferases do not have an absolute specificity for 14-carbon hydroxy fatty acids but can transfer fatty acids differing by one carbon unit if the fatty acid substrates are available. When grown on 1% propionic acid, lipid A also contains the odd-chain fatty acids tridecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hydroxytridecanoic acid, and hydroxypentadecanoic acid [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Bartling, C.M. and Raetz, C.R. Crystal structure and acyl chain selectivity of Escherichia coli LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 8672–8683. [DOI] [PMID: 19655786]
2.  Buetow, L., Smith, T.K., Dawson, A., Fyffe, S. and Hunter, W.N. Structure and reactivity of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (2007) 4321–4326. [DOI] [PMID: 17360522]
3.  Bartling, C.M. and Raetz, C.R. Steady-state kinetics and mechanism of LpxD, the N-acyltransferase of lipid A biosynthesis. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 5290–5302. [DOI] [PMID: 18422345]
4.  Kelly, T.M., Stachula, S.A., Raetz, C.R. and Anderson, M.S. The firA gene of Escherichia coli encodes UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase. The third step of endotoxin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 19866–19874. [PMID: 8366125]
5.  Bainbridge, B.W., Karimi-Naser, L., Reife, R., Blethen, F., Ernst, R.K. and Darveau, R.P. Acyl chain specificity of the acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD and substrate availability contribute to lipid A fatty acid heterogeneity in Porphyromonas gingivalis. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 4549–4558. [DOI] [PMID: 18456814]
[EC 2.3.1.191 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.201     
Accepted name: UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-glucuronate N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate = CoA + UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate
For diagram of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): WbpD; WlbB
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate N-acetyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-α-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronic acid), an important precursor of B-band lipopolysaccharide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Westman, E.L., McNally, D.J., Charchoglyan, A., Brewer, D., Field, R.A. and Lam, J.S. Characterization of WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD and reconstitution of a pathway for the biosynthesis of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11854–11862. [DOI] [PMID: 19282284]
2.  Larkin, A. and Imperiali, B. Biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc(3NAc)A by WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD: enzymes in the Wbp pathway responsible for O-antigen assembly in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 5446–5455. [DOI] [PMID: 19348502]
[EC 2.3.1.201 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.3.2.16     
Accepted name: lipid II:glycine glycyltransferase
Reaction: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + glycyl-tRNAGly = MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + tRNAGly
Other name(s): N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:N6-glycine transferase; femX (gene name); alanyl-D-alanine-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine N6-glycyltransferase
Systematic name: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc:glycine N6-glycyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus catalyses the transfer of glycine from a charged tRNA to MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphosphoundecaprenyl-GlcNAc (lipid II), attaching it to the N6 of the L-Lys at position 3 of the pentapeptide. This is the first step in the synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide bridge that is used in S. aureus for the crosslinking of different glycan strands to each other. Four additional Gly residues are subsequently attached by EC 2.3.2.17 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase) and EC 2.3.2.18 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-triglycine)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schneider, T., Senn, M.M., Berger-Bachi, B., Tossi, A., Sahl, H.G. and Wiedemann, I. In vitro assembly of a complete, pentaglycine interpeptide bridge containing cell wall precursor (lipid II-Gly5) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol. 53 (2004) 675–685. [DOI] [PMID: 15228543]
[EC 2.3.2.16 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.3.2.17     
Accepted name: N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase
Reaction: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + 2 glycyl-tRNAGly = MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-tri-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + 2 tRNAGly
Other name(s): femA (gene name); N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-ditrans,octacis-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase
Systematic name: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc:glycine glycyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme catalyses the successive transfer of two Gly moieties from charged tRNAs to MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc, attaching them to a Gly residue previously attached by EC 2.3.2.16 (lipid II:glycine glycyltransferase) to the N6 of the L-Lys at position 3 of the pentapeptide. This is the second step in the synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide bridge that is used by Staphylococcus aureus for the crosslinking of different glycan strands to each other. The next step is catalysed by EC 2.3.2.18 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-triglycine)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase). This enzyme is essential for methicillin resistance [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Berger-Bachi, B., Barberis-Maino, L., Strassle, A. and Kayser, F.H. FemA, a host-mediated factor essential for methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: molecular cloning and characterization. Mol. Gen. Genet. 219 (1989) 263–269. [PMID: 2559314]
2.  Johnson, S., Kruger, D. and Labischinski, H. FemA of Staphylococcus aureus: isolation and immunodetection. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 132 (1995) 221–228. [DOI] [PMID: 7590176]
3.  Benson, T.E., Prince, D.B., Mutchler, V.T., Curry, K.A., Ho, A.M., Sarver, R.W., Hagadorn, J.C., Choi, G.H. and Garlick, R.L. X-ray crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus FemA. Structure 10 (2002) 1107–1115. [DOI] [PMID: 12176388]
4.  Schneider, T., Senn, M.M., Berger-Bachi, B., Tossi, A., Sahl, H.G. and Wiedemann, I. In vitro assembly of a complete, pentaglycine interpeptide bridge containing cell wall precursor (lipid II-Gly5) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol. 53 (2004) 675–685. [DOI] [PMID: 15228543]
[EC 2.3.2.17 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.3.2.18     
Accepted name: N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-triglycine)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase
Reaction: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-tri-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + 2 glycyl-tRNAGly = MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-penta-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + 2 tRNAGly
Other name(s): femB (gene name); N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-triglycine)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-ditrans,octacis-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase
Systematic name: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-tri-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc:glycine glycyltransferase
Comments: This Staphylococcus aureus enzyme catalyses the successive transfer of two Gly moieties from charged tRNAs to MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-tri-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphosphoundecaprenyl-GlcNAc, attaching them to the three Gly molecules that were previously attached to the N6 of the L-Lys at position 3 of the pentapeptide by EC 2.3.2.16 (lipid II:glycine glycyltransferase) and EC 2.3.2.17 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase). This is the last step in the synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide bridge that is used in this organism for the crosslinking of different glycan strands to each other.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ehlert, K., Schroder, W. and Labischinski, H. Specificities of FemA and FemB for different glycine residues: FemB cannot substitute for FemA in staphylococcal peptidoglycan pentaglycine side chain formation. J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 7573–7576. [DOI] [PMID: 9393725]
2.  Rohrer, S. and Berger-Bachi, B. Application of a bacterial two-hybrid system for the analysis of protein-protein interactions between FemABX family proteins. Microbiology 149 (2003) 2733–2738. [DOI] [PMID: 14523106]
3.  Schneider, T., Senn, M.M., Berger-Bachi, B., Tossi, A., Sahl, H.G. and Wiedemann, I. In vitro assembly of a complete, pentaglycine interpeptide bridge containing cell wall precursor (lipid II-Gly5) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol. 53 (2004) 675–685. [DOI] [PMID: 15228543]
[EC 2.3.2.18 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.38     
Accepted name: β-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
Other name(s): UDP-galactose—glycoprotein galactosyltransferase; glycoprotein 4-β-galactosyl-transferase; β-N-acetyl-β1-4-galactosyltransferase; thyroid glycoprotein β-galactosyltransferase; glycoprotein β-galactosyltransferase; thyroid galactosyltransferase; uridine diphosphogalactose-glycoprotein galactosyltransferase; β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase; GalT; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide β-1,4-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide 4-β-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide 4-β-galactosyltransferase
Comments: Terminal N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl residues in polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycopeptides can act as acceptor. High activity is shown towards such residues in branched-chain polysaccharides when these are linked by β-1,6-links to galactose residues; lower activity towards residues linked to galactose by β-1,3-links. A component of EC 2.4.1.22 (lactose synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37237-43-7
References:
1.  Beyer, T.A., Sadler, J.E., Rearick, J.I., Paulson, J.C. and Hill, R.L. Glucosyltransferases and their uses in assessing oligosaccharide structure and structure-function relationship. Adv. Enzymol. 52 (1981) 23–175. [PMID: 6784450]
2.  Blanken, W.M., Hooghwinkel, G.J.M. and van den Eijnden, D.H. Biosynthesis of blood-group I and i substances. Specificity of bovine colostrum β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide β1→4 galactosyltransferase. Eur. J. Biochem. 127 (1982) 547–552. [DOI] [PMID: 6816588]
3.  Blanken, W.M. and van den Eijnden, D.H. Biosynthesis of terminal Gal α 1→3Gal β 1→4GlcNAc-R oligosaccharide sequences on glycoconjugates. Purification and acceptor specificity of a UDP-Gal:N-acetyllactosaminide α 1→3-galactosyltransferase from calf thymus. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 12927–12934. [PMID: 3932335]
4.  Spiro, M.H. and Spiro, R.G. Glycoprotein biosynthesis: studies on thyroglobulin. Thyroid galactosyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 6529–6537. [PMID: 5726898]
[EC 2.4.1.38 created 1972, modified 1976, modified 1980, modified 1986]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.65     
Accepted name: 3-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminide 4-α-L-fucosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-β-L-fucose + β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R = GDP + β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[α-L-fucosyl-(1→4)]-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R
For diagram of reaction, click here
Other name(s): (Lea)-dependent (α-3/4)-fucosyltransferase; α(1,3/1,4) fucosyltransferase III; α-(1→4)-L-fucosyltransferase; α-4-L-fucosyltransferase; β-acetylglucosaminylsaccharide fucosyltransferase; FucT-II; Lewis α-(1→3/4)-fucosyltransferase; Lewis blood group α-(1→3/4)-fucosyltransferase; Lewis(Le) blood group gene-dependent α-(1→3/4)-L-fucosyltransferase; blood group Lewis α-4-fucosyltransferase; blood-group substance Lea-dependent fucosyltransferase; guanosine diphosphofucose-β-acetylglucosaminylsaccharide 4-α-L-fucosyltransferase; guanosine diphosphofucose-glycoprotein 4-α-L-fucosyltransferase; guanosine diphosphofucose-glycoprotein 4-α-fucosyltransferase; 3-α-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminide 4-α-L-fucosyltransferase; GDP-β-L-fucose:3-β-D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-R 4I-α-L-fucosyltransferase; GDP-L-fucose:3-β-D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-R 4I-α-L-fucosyltransferase
Systematic name: GDP-β-L-fucose:β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R 4I-α-L-fucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: This enzyme is the product of the Lewis blood group gene. Normally acts on a glycoconjugate where R (see reaction) is a glycoprotein or glycolipid. Although it is a 4-fucosyltransferase, it has a persistent 3-fucosyltransferase activity towards the glucose residue in free lactose. This enzyme fucosylates on O-4 of an N-acetylglucosamine that carries a galactosyl group on O-3, unlike EC 2.4.1.152, 4-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminide 3-α-L-fucosyltransferase, which fucosylates on O-3 of an N-acetylglucosamine that carries a galactosyl group on O-4. Enzymes catalysing the 4-α-fucosylation of the GlcNAc in β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-GlcNAc sequences (with some activity also as 3-α-fucosyltransferases) are present in plants, where the function in vivo is the modification of N-glycans. In addition, the fucTa gene of Helicobacter strain UA948 encodes a fucosyltransferase with both 3-α- and 4-α-fucosyltransferase activities.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37277-69-3
References:
1.  Prieels, J.-P., Monnom, D., Dolmans, M., Beyer, T.A. and Hill, R.L. Co-purification of the Lewis blood group N-acetylglucosaminide α1→4 fucosyltransferase and an N-acetylglucosaminide α1→3 fucosyltransferase from human milk. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 10456–10463. [PMID: 7287719]
2.  Rasko, D.A., Wang, G., Palcic, M.M. and Taylor, D.E. Cloning and characterization of the α(1,3/4) fucosyltransferase of Helicobacter pylori. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 4988–4994. [DOI] [PMID: 10671538]
3.  Wilson, I.B.H. Identification of a cDNA encoding a plant Lewis-type α1,4-fucosyltransferase. Glycoconj. J. 18 (2001) 439–447. [PMID: 12084979]
4.  Ma, B., Wang, G., Palcic, M.M., Hazes, B. and Taylor, D.E. C-terminal amino acids of Helicobacter pylori α1,3/4 fucosyltransferases determine type I and type II transfer. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 21893–21900. [DOI] [PMID: 12676935]
[EC 2.4.1.65 created 1972, modified 2001, modified twice 2002]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.68     
Accepted name: glycoprotein 6-α-L-fucosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-β-L-fucose + N4-{β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc}-L-asparaginyl-[protein] = GDP + N4-{β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-[α-L-Fuc-(1→6)]-β-D-GlcNAc}-L-asparaginyl-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein fucosyl and xylosyl transferases, click here
Other name(s): GDP-fucose—glycoprotein fucosyltransferase; GDP-L-Fuc:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide α1→6fucosyltransferase; GDP-L-fucose-glycoprotein fucosyltransferase; glycoprotein fucosyltransferase; guanosine diphosphofucose-glycoprotein fucosyltransferase; GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of 4-N-{N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-mannosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl}asparagine) 6-α-L-fucosyltransferase; FucT; GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of N4-{N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-mannosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl}asparagine) 6-α-L-fucosyltransferase; GDP-β-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of N4-{N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-mannosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl}asparagine) 6-α-L-fucosyltransferase
Systematic name: GDP-β-L-fucose:N4-{β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc}-L-asparaginyl-[protein] 6-α-L-fucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: This enzyme catalyses a reaction similar to that of EC 2.4.1.214, glycoprotein 3-α-L-fucosyltransferase, but transfers the L-fucosyl group from GDP-β-L-fucose to form an α1,6-linkage rather than an α1,3-linkage.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9033-08-3
References:
1.  Longmore, G.D. and Schachter, H. Product-identification and substrate-specificity studies of the GDP-L-fucose:2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucoside (Fuc → Asn-linked GlcNAc) 6-α-L-fucosyltransferase in a Golgi-rich fraction from porcine liver. Carbohydr. Res. 100 (1982) 365–392. [DOI] [PMID: 7083256]
2.  Voynow, J.A., Scanlin, T.F. and Glick, M.C. A quantitative method for GDP-L-Fuc:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide α1→6fucosyltransferase activity with lectin affinity chromatography. Anal. Biochem. 168 (1988) 367–373. [DOI] [PMID: 3364733]
3.  Uozumi, N., Yanagidani, S., Miyoshi, E., Ihara, Y., Sakuma, T., Gao, C.-X., Teshima, T., Fujii, S., Shiba, T. and Taniguchi, N. Purification and cDNA cloning of porcine brain GDP-L-Fuc:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide α1→6fucosyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 27810–27817. [DOI] [PMID: 8910378]
[EC 2.4.1.68 created 1972, modified 2002]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.79     
Accepted name: globotriaosylceramide 3-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + α-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide = UDP + N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide
For diagram of globotetraosylceramide biosynthesis, click here. For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: α-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide = globotriaosylceramide = Pk antigen
N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide = globotetraosylceramide = globoside = P antigen
Other name(s): uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-galactosylgalactosylglucosylceramide acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; globoside synthetase; UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosylceramide β-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; galactosylgalactosylglucosylceramide β-D-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosylceramide β1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; globoside synthase; gUDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide β-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase; β3GalNAc-T1; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:α-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosylceramide 3III-β-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:α-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide 3III-β-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:α-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide III3-β-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:α-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide III3-β-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Comments: Globoside is a neutral glycosphingolipid in human erythrocytes and has blood-group-P-antigen activity [4]. The enzyme requires a divalent cation for activity, with Mn2+ required for maximal activity [3]. UDP-GalNAc is the only sugar donor that is used efficiently by the enzyme: UDP-Gal and UDP-GlcNAc result in very low enzyme activity [3]. Lactosylceramide, globoside and gangliosides GM3 and GD3 are not substrates [4]. For explanation of the superscripted ’3′ in the systematic name, see GL-5.3.4.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 62213-46-1
References:
1.  Chien, J.-L., Williams, T. and Basu, S. Biosynthesis of a globoside-type glycosphingolipid by a β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase from embryonic chicken brain. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 1778–1785. [PMID: 4632917]
2.  Ishibashi, T., Kijimoto, S. and Makita, A. Biosynthesis of globoside and Forssman hapten from trihexosylceramide and properties of β-N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase of guinea pig kidney. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 337 (1974) 92–106. [DOI] [PMID: 4433547]
3.  Taniguchi, N. and Makita, A. Purification and characterization of UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: globotriaosylceramide β-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, a synthase of human blood group P antigen, from canine spleen. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 5637–5642. [PMID: 6425294]
4.  Okajima, T., Nakamura, Y., Uchikawa, M., Haslam, D.B., Numata, S.I., Furukawa, K., Urano, T. and Furukawa, K. Expression cloning of human globoside synthase cDNAs. Identification of β3Gal-T3 as UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:globotriaosylceramide β1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 40498–40503. [DOI] [PMID: 10993897]
[EC 2.4.1.79 created 1976, modified 2006]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.86     
Accepted name: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide β-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R = UDP + β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R
For diagram of lactotetraosylceramide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): B3GALT1 (gene name); uridine diphosphogalactose-acetyl-glucosaminylgalactosylglucosylceramide galactosyltransferase; GalT-4; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide β-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-D-glucosylceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosylceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl(1↔1)ceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase; glucosaminylgalactosylglucosylceramide β-galactosyltransferase; UDP-α-D-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R 3-β-D-galactosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme transfers galactose from UDP-α-D-galactose to the 3-position of substrates with a non-reducing terminal N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine (β-GlcNAc) residue. It can act on both glycolipids and glycoproteins, generating a structure known as the type 1 histo-blood group antigen precursor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9073-46-5
References:
1.  Basu, M. and Basu, S. Enzymatic synthesis of a tetraglycosylceramide by a galactosyltransferase from rabbit bone marrow. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 1489–1495. [PMID: 4335001]
2.  Basu, M., Presper, K.A., Basu, S., Hoffman, L.M. and Brooks, S.E. Differential activities of glycolipid glycosyltransferases in Tay-Sachs disease: studies in cultured cells from cerebrum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76 (1979) 4270–4274. [DOI] [PMID: 291963]
3.  Amado, M., Almeida, R., Carneiro, F., Levery, S.B., Holmes, E.H., Nomoto, M., Hollingsworth, M.A., Hassan, H., Schwientek, T., Nielsen, P.A., Bennett, E.P. and Clausen, H. A family of human β3-galactosyltransferases. Characterization of four members of a UDP-galactose:β-N-acetyl-glucosamine/β-nacetyl-galactosamine β-1,3-galactosyltransferase family. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 12770–12778. [DOI] [PMID: 9582303]
4.  Amado, M., Almeida, R., Schwientek, T. and Clausen, H. Identification and characterization of large galactosyltransferase gene families: galactosyltransferases for all functions. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1473 (1999) 35–53. [DOI] [PMID: 10580128]
5.  Bardoni, A., Valli, M. and Trinchera, M. Differential expression of β1,3galactosyltransferases in human colon cells derived from adenocarcinomas or normal mucosa. FEBS Lett. 451 (1999) 75–80. [DOI] [PMID: 10356986]
[EC 2.4.1.86 created 1976, modified 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.87     
Accepted name: N-acetyllactosaminide 3-α-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-R = UDP + α-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-R (where R can be OH, an oligosaccharide or a glycoconjugate)
Other name(s): α-galactosyltransferase; UDP-Gal:β-D-Gal(1,4)-D-GlcNAc α(1,3)-galactosyltransferase; UDP-Gal:N-acetyllactosaminide α(1,3)-galactosyltransferase; UDP-Gal:N-acetyllactosaminide α-1,3-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-Gal:Galβ1→4GlcNAc-R α1→3-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose-acetyllactosamine α-D-galactosyltransferase; UDPgalactose:β-D-galactosyl-β-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-glycopeptide α-1,3-D-galactosyltransferase; glucosaminylglycopeptide α-1,3-galactosyltransferase; uridine diphosphogalactose-acetyllactosamine α1→3-galactosyltransferase; uridine diphosphogalactose-acetyllactosamine galactosyltransferase; uridine diphosphogalactose-galactosylacetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosylceramide galactosyltransferase; β-D-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide α-1,3-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:N-acetyllactosaminide 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:β-D-galactosyl-1,4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-R 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase; UDP-galactose:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-R 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-R 3-α-D-galactosyltransferase
Comments: Acts on β-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl termini on asialo-α1-acid glycoprotein and N-acetyllactosamine (β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine), but not on 2′-fucosylated-N-acetyllactosamine. The non-reducing terminal N-acetyllactosamine residues of glycoproteins can also act as acceptor. Now includes EC 2.4.1.124 and EC 2.4.1.151.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 128449-51-4
References:
1.  Basu, M. and Basu, S. Enzymatic synthesis of a blood group B-related pentaglycosylceramide by an α-galactosyltransferase from rabbit bone marrow. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 1700–1706. [PMID: 4632915]
2.  Blanken, W.M. and van den Eijnden, D.H. Biosynthesis of terminal Gal α 1→3Gal β 1→4GlcNAc-R oligosaccharide sequences on glycoconjugates. Purification and acceptor specificity of a UDP-Gal:N-acetyllactosaminide α 1→3-galactosyltransferase from calf thymus. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 12927–12934. [PMID: 3932335]
3.  Blake, D.A. and Goldstein, I.J. An α-D-galactosyltransferase activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Biosynthesis and characterization of a trisaccharide (α-D-galactose-(1→3)-N-acetyllactosamine). J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 5387–5393. [PMID: 6787040]
[EC 2.4.1.87 created 1976, modified 1989, modified 2002 (EC 2.4.1.124 created 1984, incorporated 2002, EC 2.4.1.151 created 1984, incorporated 2002)]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.101     
Accepted name: α-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + Man5GlcNAc2-[protein] = UDP + Man5GlcNAc3-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, click here
Glossary: Man5GlcNAc2-[protein] = α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
Man5GlcNAc3-[protein]= β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
Other name(s): MGAT1 (gene name); N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; N-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-α-1,3-mannosylglycoprotein β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl:α-1,3-D-mannoside-β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl:α-3-D-mannoside β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; α-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTI; GlcNAc-T I; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:3-(α-D-mannosyl)-β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme, found in plants and animals, participates in the processing of N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. Its action is required before the other N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases involved in the process (GlcNAcT-II through VI) can act. While the natural substrate (produced by EC 3.2.1.113, mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,2-α-mannosidase) is described here, the minimal substrate recognized by the enzyme is α-D-Man-(1→3)-β-D-Man-R.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 102576-81-8
References:
1.  Harpaz, N. and Schachter, H. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. Bovine colostrum UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-D-mannoside β2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I. Separation from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-D-mannoside β2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II, partial purification, and substrate specificity. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 4885–4893. [PMID: 6445358]
2.  Mendicino, J., Chandrasekaran, E.V., Anumula, K.R. and Davila, M. Isolation and properties of α-D-mannose:β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase from trachea mucosa. Biochemistry 20 (1981) 967–976. [PMID: 6452163]
3.  Oppenheimer, C.L. and Hill, R.L. Purification and characterization of a rabbit liver α1→3 mannoside β1→2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 799–804. [PMID: 6450208]
4.  Oppenheimer, C.L., Eckhardt, A.E. and Hill, R.L. The nonidentity of porcine N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases I and II. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 11477–11482. [PMID: 6457827]
5.  Miyagi, T. and Tsuiki, S. Studies on UDP-N-acetylglucosamine : α-mannoside β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase of rat liver and hepatomas. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 661 (1981) 148–157. [DOI] [PMID: 6170335]
6.  Schachter, H., Narasimhan, S., Gleeson, P. and Vella, G. Glycosyltransferases involved in elongation of N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides of the complex or N-acetyllactosamine type. Methods Enzymol. 98 (1983) 98–134. [PMID: 6366476]
7.  Vella, G.J., Paulsen, H. and Schachter, H. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. IX. A terminal Man alphal-3Man β1- sequence in the substrate is the minimum requirement for UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine: α-D-mannoside (GlcNAc to Man α1-3) β2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I. Can. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 62 (1984) 409–417. [PMID: 6235906]
8.  Unligil, U.M., Zhou, S., Yuwaraj, S., Sarkar, M., Schachter, H. and Rini, J.M. X-ray crystal structure of rabbit N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I: catalytic mechanism and a new protein superfamily. EMBO J. 19 (2000) 5269–5280. [DOI] [PMID: 11032794]
[EC 2.4.1.101 created 1983, modified 2001 (EC 2.4.1.51 created 1972, part incorporated 1984), modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.102     
Accepted name: β-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + O3-[β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl]-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein] = UDP + O3-{β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)]-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl}-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein]
Glossary: core 1 = O3-[β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl]-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein]
core 2 = O3-{β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)]-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl}-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein]
Other name(s): O-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; β6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-mucin β-(1→6)-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; core 2 acetylglucosaminyltransferase; core 6-β-GlcNAc-transferase A; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:O-glycosyl-glycoprotein (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to N-acetyl-D-galactosamine of β-D-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R) β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; GCNT1; GCNT3; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:O-glycosyl-glycoprotein (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to N-acetyl-D-galactosamine of β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R) 6-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:O3-[β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl]-glycoprotein 6-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the addition of N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine to the core 1 structure of O-glycans forming core 2.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 95978-15-7
References:
1.  Brockhausen, I., Rachaman, E.S., Matta, K.L. and Schachter, H. The separation by liquid chromatography (under elevated pressure) of phenyl, benzyl, and O-nitrophenyl glycosides of oligosaccharides. Analysis of substrates and products for four N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-transferases involved in mucin synthesis. Carbohydr. Res. 120 (1983) 3–16. [DOI] [PMID: 6226356]
2.  Williams, D., Longmore, G., Matta, K.L. and Schachter, H. Mucin synthesis. II. Substrate specificity and product identification studies on canine submaxillary gland UDP-GlcNAc:Gal β1-3GalNAc(GlcNAc→GalNAc) β6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 11253–11261. [PMID: 6449508]
3.  Williams, D. and Schachter, H. Mucin synthesis. I. Detection in canine submaxillary glands of an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase which acts on mucin substrates. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 11247–11252. [PMID: 6449507]
[EC 2.4.1.102 created 1983, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.129     
Accepted name: peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase
Reaction: [GlcNAc-(1→4)-Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)]n-diphosphoundecaprenol + GlcNAc-(1→4)-Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol = [GlcNAc-(1→4)-Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)]n+1-diphosphoundecaprenol + undecaprenyl diphosphate
Glossary: Mur2Ac = N-acetylmuramic acid
Other name(s): PG-II; bactoprenyldiphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-pentapeptide:peptidoglycan N-acetylmuramoyl-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; penicillin binding protein (3 or 1B); peptidoglycan transglycosylase; undecaprenyldiphospho-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-muramoylpentapeptide):undecaprenyldiphospho-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-muramoylpentapeptide) disaccharidetransferase
Systematic name: [poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-(N-acetyl-D-muramoylpentapeptide)]-diphosphoundecaprenol:[N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-muramoylpentapeptide]-diphosphoundecaprenol disaccharidetransferase
Comments: The enzyme also works when the lysine residue is replaced by meso-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate (meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, A2pm) combined with adjacent residues through its L-centre, as it is in Gram-negative and some Gram-positive organisms. The undecaprenol involved is ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol (for definitions, click here). Involved in the synthesis of cell-wall peptidoglycan.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 79079-04-2
References:
1.  Taku, A., Stuckey, M. and Fan, D.P. Purification of the peptidoglycan transglycosylase of Bacillus megaterium. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 5018–5022. [PMID: 6802846]
2.  Goffin, C. and Ghuysen, J.-M. Multimodular penicillin-binding proteins: an enigmatic family of orthologs and paralogs. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62 (1998) 1079–1093. [PMID: 9841666]
3.  van Heijenoort, J. Formation of the glycan chains in the synthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan. Glycobiology 11 (2001) 25. [DOI] [PMID: 11320055]
[EC 2.4.1.129 created 1984, modified 2002]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.130      
Transferred entry: dolichyl-phosphate-mannose—glycolipid α-mannosyltransferase. Now covered by EC 2.4.1.258 (Dol-P-Man:Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase), EC 2.4.1.259 (Dol-P-Man:Man6GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase), EC 2.4.1.260 (Dol-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,6-mannosyltransferase) and EC 2.4.1.261 (Dol-P-Man:Man8GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase).
[EC 2.4.1.130 created 1984, deleted 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.131     
Accepted name: GDP-Man:Man3GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: 2 GDP-α-D-mannose + α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = 2 GDP + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG11; ALG11 mannosyltransferase; LEW3 (gene name); At2G40190 (gene name); gmd3 (gene name); galactomannan deficiency protein 3; GDP-mannose:glycolipid 1,2-α-D-mannosyltransferase; glycolipid 2-α-mannosyltransferase; GDP-mannose:glycolipid 2-α-D-mannosyltransferase; GDP-Man:Man3GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase; GDP-α-D-mannose:D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 2-α-D-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 2-α-D-mannosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The biosynthesis of asparagine-linked glycoproteins (N-linked protein glycosylation) utilizes a dolichyl diphosphate-linked glycosyl donor, which is assembled by the series of membrane-bound glycosyltransferases that comprise the dolichol pathway. ALG11 mannosyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae carries out two sequential steps in the formation of the lipid-linked core oligosaccharide, adding two mannose residues in α(1→2) linkages to the nascent oligosaccharide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 74506-43-7
References:
1.  O'Reilly, M.K., Zhang, G. and Imperiali, B. In vitro evidence for the dual function of Alg2 and Alg11: essential mannosyltransferases in N-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 9593–9603. [DOI] [PMID: 16878994]
2.  Absmanner, B., Schmeiser, V., Kampf, M. and Lehle, L. Biochemical characterization, membrane association and identification of amino acids essential for the function of Alg11 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an α1,2-mannosyltransferase catalysing two sequential glycosylation steps in the formation of the lipid-linked core oligosaccharide. Biochem. J. 426 (2010) 205–217. [DOI] [PMID: 19929855]
3.  Schutzbach, J.S., Springfield, J.D. and Jensen, J.W. The biosynthesis of oligosaccharide-lipids. Formation of an α-1,2-mannosyl-mannose linkage. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 4170–4175. [PMID: 6154707]
[EC 2.4.1.131 created 1984, modified 2011, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.132     
Accepted name: GDP-Man:Man1GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-mannose + β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = GDP + α-D-Man-(1→3)-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = β-D-mannosyl-(1→4)-N,N′-diacetylchitobiosyldiphosphodolichol
Other name(s): Alg2 mannosyltransferase (ambiguous); ALG2 (gene name, ambiguous); glycolipid 3-α-mannosyltransferase; GDP-mannose:glycolipid 3-α-D-mannosyltransferase; GDP-Man:Man1GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-mannosyltransferase; GDP-D-mannose:D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 3-α-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 3-α-D-mannosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The biosynthesis of asparagine-linked glycoproteins utilizes a dolichyl diphosphate-linked glycosyl donor, which is assembled by the series of membrane-bound glycosyltransferases that comprise the dolichol pathway. Alg2 mannosyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae carries out an α1,3-mannosylation of D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol, followed by an α1,6-mannosylation (cf. EC 2.4.1.257), to form the first branched pentasaccharide intermediate of the dolichol pathway [1,2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 81181-76-2
References:
1.  Kampf, M., Absmanner, B., Schwarz, M. and Lehle, L. Biochemical characterization and membrane topology of Alg2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a bifunctional α1,3- and 1,6-mannosyltransferase involved in lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11900–11912. [DOI] [PMID: 19282279]
2.  O'Reilly, M.K., Zhang, G. and Imperiali, B. In vitro evidence for the dual function of Alg2 and Alg11: essential mannosyltransferases in N-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 9593–9603. [DOI] [PMID: 16878994]
[EC 2.4.1.132 created 1984, modified 2011, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.138     
Accepted name: mannotetraose 2-α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-D-Man = UDP + α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)]-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-D-Man
Other name(s): α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine mannoside α1→2-αcetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:mannotetraose α-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-D-mannose α-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 81032-47-5
References:
1.  Douglas, R.H. and Ballou, C.E. Purification of an α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis and a study of mutants defective in this enzyme activity. Biochemistry 21 (1982) 1561–1570. [PMID: 6211189]
[EC 2.4.1.138 created 1984]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.141     
Accepted name: N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphodolichol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol = UDP + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol = N,N′-diacetylchitobiosyl-diphosphodolichol
Other name(s): UDP-GlcNAc:dolichyl-pyrophosphoryl-GlcNAc GlcNAc transferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-dolichylacetylglucosamine pyrophosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase; N,N′-diacetylchitobiosylpyrophosphoryldolichol synthase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 75536-54-8
References:
1.  Sharma, C.B., Lehle, L. and Tanner, W. Solubilization and characterization of the initial enzymes of the dolichol pathway from yeast. Eur. J. Biochem. 126 (1982) 319–325. [DOI] [PMID: 6215245]
2.  Turco, S.J. and Heath, E.C. Glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl pyrophosphoryldolichol. Formation in SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts and biosynthesis in rat lung microsomal preparations. J. Biol. Chem. 252 (1977) 2918–2928. [PMID: 192724]
[EC 2.4.1.141 created 1984]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.143     
Accepted name: α-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein] = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, click here
Other name(s): MGAT2 (gene name); N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II; N-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II; acetylglucosaminyltransferase II; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-mannoside α1→6-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-α-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein β-1-2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-α-D-mannoside β1-2-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-GlcNAc:mannoside α1-6 acetylglucosaminyltransferase; α-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTII; GlcNAc-T II; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:6-(α-D-mannosyl)-β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:α-D-mannosyl-(1→6)-β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme, found in plants and animals, participates in the processing of N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. Its activity initiates the synthesis of the second antenna of di-antennary complex N-glycans. While the natural substrate (produced by EC 3.2.1.114, mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,3-1,6-α-mannosidase) is described here, the minimal substrate recognized by the enzyme is α-D-Man-(1→6)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)]-β-D-Man-R.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 105913-04-0
References:
1.  Harpaz, N. and Schachter, H. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. Bovine colostrum UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-D-mannoside β2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I. Separation from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-D-mannoside β2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II, partial purification, and substrate specificity. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 4885–4893. [PMID: 6445358]
2.  Mendicino, J., Chandrasekaran, E.V., Anumula, K.R. and Davila, M. Isolation and properties of α-D-mannose:β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase from trachea mucosa. Biochemistry 20 (1981) 967–976. [PMID: 6452163]
3.  Oppenheimer, C.L., Eckhardt, A.E. and Hill, R.L. The nonidentity of porcine N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases I and II. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 11477–11482. [PMID: 6457827]
4.  Schachter, H., Narasimhan, S., Gleeson, P. and Vella, G. Glycosyltransferases involved in elongation of N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides of the complex or N-acetyllactosamine type. Methods Enzymol. 98 (1983) 98–134. [PMID: 6366476]
5.  Bendiak, B. and Schachter, H. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. Kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity, and inhibition characteristics of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-D-mannoside β-1-2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II from rat liver. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 5784–5790. [PMID: 2952645]
6.  Bendiak, B. and Schacter, H. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. Purification of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-D-mannoside β1-2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II from rat liver. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 5775–5783. [PMID: 2952644]
7.  Tan, J., D'Agostaro, A.F., Bendiak, B., Reck, F., Sarkar, M., Squire, J.A., Leong, P. and Schachter, H. The human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α-6-D-mannoside-β-1,2- N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II gene (MGAT2). Cloning of genomic DNA, localization to chromosome 14q21, expression in insect cells and purification of the recombinant protein. Eur. J. Biochem. 231 (1995) 317–328. [DOI] [PMID: 7635144]
[EC 2.4.1.143 created 1984, modified 2001 (EC 2.4.1.51 created 1972, part incorporated 1984), modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.144     
Accepted name: β-1,4-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein] = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, click here
Other name(s): N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III; N-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-glycopeptide β4-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III; β-1,4-mannosyl-glycoprotein β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTIII; GlcNAc-T III; MGAT3 (gene name); UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme, found in vertebrates, participates in the processing of N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. The residue added by the enzyme at position 4 of the β-linked mannose of the trimannosyl core of N-glycans is known as a bisecting GlcNAc. Unlike GlcNAc residues added to other positions, it is not extended or modified. In addition, its presence prevents the action of other branching enzymes involved in the process such as GlcNAc-T IV (EC 2.4.1.145) and GlcNAc-T V (EC 2.4.1.155), and thus increased activity of GlcNAc-T III leads to a decrease in highly branched N-glycan structures.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 83744-93-8
References:
1.  Narasimhan, S. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc:glycopeptide β4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III, an enzyme in hen oviduct which adds GlcNAc in β1-4 linkage to the β-linked mannose of the trimannosyl core of N-glycosyl oligosaccharides. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 10235–10242. [PMID: 6213618]
2.  Schachter, H., Narasimhan, S., Gleeson, P. and Vella, G. Glycosyltransferases involved in elongation of N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides of the complex or N-acetyllactosamine type. Methods Enzymol. 98 (1983) 98–134. [PMID: 6366476]
3.  Brockhausen, I., Carver, J.P. and Schachter, H. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. The use of oligosaccharide substrates and HPLC to study the sequential pathway for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases I, II, III, IV, V, and VI in the biosynthesis of highly branched N-glycans by hen oviduct membranes. Biochem. Cell Biol. 66 (1988) 1134–1151. [PMID: 2975180]
4.  Nishikawa, A., Ihara, Y., Hatakeyama, M., Kangawa, K. and Taniguchi, N. Purification, cDNA cloning, and expression of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: β-D-mannoside β-1,4N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III from rat kidney. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 18199–18204. [PMID: 1325461]
5.  Ihara, Y., Nishikawa, A., Tohma, T., Soejima, H., Niikawa, N. and Taniguchi, N. cDNA cloning, expression, and chromosomal localization of human N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III). J. Biochem. 113 (1993) 692–698. [PMID: 8370666]
[EC 2.4.1.144 created 1984, modified 2001 (EC 2.4.1.51 created 1972, part incorporated 1984), modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.145     
Accepted name: α-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein] = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, click here
Other name(s): N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IV; N-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IV; β-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IV; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-glycopeptide β4-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IV; α-1,3-mannosylglycoprotein β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTIV; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:3-[2-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl)-α-D-mannosyl]-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Requires Mn2+. The enzyme, found in vertebrates, participates in the processing of N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. By adding a glucosaminyl residue to biantennary N-linked glycans, it enables the synthesis of tri- and tetra-antennary complexes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 86498-16-0
References:
1.  Gleeson, P.A. and Schachter, H. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 6162–6173. [PMID: 6222042]
2.  Oguri, S., Minowa, M.T., Ihara, Y., Taniguchi, N., Ikenaga, H. and Takeuchi, M. Purification and characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α1,3-D-mannoside β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IV) from bovine small intestine. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 22721–22727. [DOI] [PMID: 9278430]
3.  Minowa, M.T., Oguri, S., Yoshida, A., Hara, T., Iwamatsu, A., Ikenaga, H. and Takeuchi, M. cDNA cloning and expression of bovine UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α1, 3-D-mannoside β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IV. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 11556–11562. [DOI] [PMID: 9565571]
4.  Yoshida, A., Minowa, M.T., Takamatsu, S., Hara, T., Oguri, S., Ikenaga, H. and Takeuchi, M. Tissue specific expression and chromosomal mapping of a human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α1,3-d-mannoside β1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. Glycobiology 9 (1999) 303–310. [DOI] [PMID: 10024668]
5.  Yoshida, A., Minowa, M.T., Takamatsu, S., Hara, T., Ikenaga, H. and Takeuchi, M. A novel second isoenzyme of the human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α1,3-D-mannoside β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family: cDNA cloning, expression, and chromosomal assignment. Glycoconj. J. 15 (1998) 1115–1123. [PMID: 10372966]
6.  Takamatsu, S., Antonopoulos, A., Ohtsubo, K., Ditto, D., Chiba, Y., Le, D.T., Morris, H.R., Haslam, S.M., Dell, A., Marth, J.D. and Taniguchi, N. Physiological and glycomic characterization of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IVa and -IVb double deficient mice. Glycobiology 20 (2010) 485–497. [DOI] [PMID: 20015870]
[EC 2.4.1.145 created 1984, modified 2001 (EC 2.4.1.51 created 1972, part incorporated 1984), modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.147     
Accepted name: acetylgalactosaminyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + O3-[N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl]-L-threonyl/L-seryl-[protein] = UDP + O3-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl]-L-threonyl/L-seryl-[protein]
Other name(s): O-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-mucin β(1→3)-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; mucin core 3 β3-GlcNAc-transferase; Core 3β-GlcNAc-transferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:O-glycosyl-glycoprotein (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R) β-1,3-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-R 3-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (incorrect)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:O3-[N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl]-L-threonyl/L-seryl-[protein] 3-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Comments: The product of the enzyme is known as core 3, one of the eight core structures of mucin-type O-glycans. O-Linked glycans are polysaccharides or oligosaccharides that are linked to a protein via the oxygen atom in the side chain of an L-serine or L-threonine residue.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 87927-96-6
References:
1.  Brockhausen, I., Rachaman, E.S., Matta, K.L. and Schachter, H. The separation by liquid chromatography (under elevated pressure) of phenyl, benzyl, and O-nitrophenyl glycosides of oligosaccharides. Analysis of substrates and products for four N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-transferases involved in mucin synthesis. Carbohydr. Res. 120 (1983) 3–16. [DOI] [PMID: 6226356]
2.  Brockhausen, I., Matta, K.L., Orr, J. and Schachter, H. Mucin synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc:GalNAc-R β 3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and UDP-GlcNAc:GlcNAc β 1-3GalNAc-R (GlcNAc to GalNAc) β 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase from pig and rat colon mucosa. Biochemistry 24 (1985) 1866–1874. [PMID: 3160388]
3.  Vavasseur, F., Yang, J.M., Dole, K., Paulsen, H. and Brockhausen, I. Synthesis of O-glycan core 3: characterization of UDP-GlcNAc: GalNAc-R β 3-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase activity from colonic mucosal tissues and lack of the activity in human cancer cell lines. Glycobiology 5 (1995) 351–357. [DOI] [PMID: 7655172]
[EC 2.4.1.147 created 1984, modified 2015]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.149     
Accepted name: N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R = UDP + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R
Other name(s): uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-acetyllactosaminide β1→3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; poly-N-acetyllactosamine extension enzyme; Galβ1→4GlcNAc-R β1→3 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-GlcNAc:GalR β-D-3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; N-acetyllactosamine β(1-3)N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-GlcNAc:Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ-Rβ1→3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTE; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine β-1,3-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; β-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide β-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 3-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R 3-β N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Acts on β-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl termini on glycoproteins, glycolipids, and oligosaccharides.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 85638-39-7
References:
1.  Van den Eijnden, D.H., Winterwerp, H., Smeeman, P. and Schiphorst, W.E.C.M. Novikoff ascites tumor cells contain N-acetyllactosaminide β1→3 and β1→6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 3435–3437. [PMID: 6219989]
2.  Basu, M. and Basu, S. Biosynthesis in vitro of Ii core glycosphingolipids from neolactotetraosylceramide by β 1-3- and β 1-6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases from mouse T-lymphoma. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 12557–12562. [PMID: 6238026]
3.  Takeya, A., Hosomi, O. and Kogure, T. The presence of N-acetyllactosamine and lactose: β (1-3)N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity in human urine. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 38 (1985) 1–8. [PMID: 3160874]
[EC 2.4.1.149 created 1984 (EC 2.4.1.163 created 1989, incorporated 2016), modified 2016]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.150     
Accepted name: N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-R = UDP + β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-R
Glossary: β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-R = type 2 precursor disaccharide
Other name(s): GCNT2 (gene name); GCNT3 (gene name); IGnT; I-branching β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-acetyllactosaminide β1→6-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; Galβ1→4GlcNAc-R β1→6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme acts on poly-N-acetyllactosamine [glycan chains of β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units connected by β(1,3) linkages] attached to proteins or lipids. It transfers a GlcNAc residue by β(1,6)-linkage to galactosyl residues close to non-reducing terminals, introducing a branching pattern known as I branching.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 85638-40-0
References:
1.  Van den Eijnden, D.H., Winterwerp, H., Smeeman, P. and Schiphorst, W.E.C.M. Novikoff ascites tumor cells contain N-acetyllactosaminide β1→3 and β1→6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 3435–3437. [PMID: 6219989]
2.  Basu, M. and Basu, S. Biosynthesis in vitro of Ii core glycosphingolipids from neolactotetraosylceramide by β 1-3- and β 1-6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases from mouse T-lymphoma. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 12557–12562. [PMID: 6238026]
3.  Piller, F., Cartron, J.P., Maranduba, A., Veyrieres, A., Leroy, Y. and Fournet, B. Biosynthesis of blood group I antigens. Identification of a UDP-GlcNAc:GlcNAc β 1-3Gal(-R) β 1-6(GlcNAc to Gal) N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in hog gastric mucosa. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 13385–13390. [PMID: 6490658]
4.  Bierhuizen, M.F., Maemura, K., Kudo, S. and Fukuda, M. Genomic organization of core 2 and I branching β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases. Implication for evolution of the β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase gene family. Glycobiology 5 (1995) 417–425. [DOI] [PMID: 7579796]
5.  Ujita, M., McAuliffe, J., Suzuki, M., Hindsgaul, O., Clausen, H., Fukuda, M.N. and Fukuda, M. Regulation of I-branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthesis. Concerted actions by I-extension enzyme, I-branching enzyme, and β1,4-galactosyltransferase I. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 9296–9304. [DOI] [PMID: 10092606]
6.  Yeh, J.C., Ong, E. and Fukuda, M. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel β-1, 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that forms core 2, core 4, and I branches. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 3215–3221. [DOI] [PMID: 9915862]
[EC 2.4.1.150 created 1984 (EC 2.4.1.164 created 1989, incorporated 2016), modified 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.155     
Accepted name: α-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein] = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein n-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, click here
Other name(s): MGAT5 (gene name); N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V; α-mannoside β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-α-mannoside β1→6-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-mannoside-β1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; α-1,3(6)-mannosylglycoprotein β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTV; GlcNAc-T V; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:6-[2-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl)-α-D-mannosyl]-glycoprotein 6-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→6)-β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 6-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Requires Mg2+. The enzyme, found in vertebrates, participates in the processing of N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. It catalyses the addition of N-acetylglucosamine in β 1-6 linkage to the α-linked mannose of biantennary N-linked oligosaccharides, and thus enables the synthesis of tri- and tetra-antennary complexes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 83588-90-3
References:
1.  Cummings, R.D., Trowbridge, I.S. and Kornfeld, S. A mouse lymphoma cell line resistant to the leukoagglutinating lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris is deficient in UDP-GlcNAc: α-D-mannoside β1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 13421–13427. [PMID: 6216250]
2.  Hindsgaul, O., Tahir, S.H., Srivastava, O.P. and Pierce, M. The trisaccharide β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-β-D-Manp, as its 8-methoxycarbonyloctyl glycoside, is an acceptor selective for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V. Carbohydr. Res. 173 (1988) 263–272. [DOI] [PMID: 2834054]
3.  Shoreibah, M.G., Hindsgaul, O. and Pierce, M. Purification and characterization of rat kidney UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α-6-D-mannoside β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 2920–2927. [PMID: 1531335]
4.  Gu, J., Nishikawa, A., Tsuruoka, N., Ohno, M., Yamaguchi, N., Kangawa, K. and Taniguchi, N. Purification and characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α-6-D-mannoside β 1-6N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V) from a human lung cancer cell line. J. Biochem. 113 (1993) 614–619. [PMID: 8393437]
5.  Park, C., Jin, U.H., Lee, Y.C., Cho, T.J. and Kim, C.H. Characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-6-D-mannoside β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V from a human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 367 (1999) 281–288. [PMID: 10395745]
6.  Saito, T., Miyoshi, E., Sasai, K., Nakano, N., Eguchi, H., Honke, K. and Taniguchi, N. A secreted type of β 1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V) induces tumor angiogenesis without mediation of glycosylation: a novel function of GnT-V distinct from the original glycosyltransferase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 17002–17008. [PMID: 11872751]
[EC 2.4.1.155 created 1986, modified 2001, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.163      
Transferred entry: β-galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide β-1,3-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, now included in EC 2.4.1.149, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
[EC 2.4.1.163 created 1989, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.164      
Transferred entry: galactosyl-N-acetylglucosaminylgalactosylglucosyl-ceramide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, now included with EC 2.4.1.150, N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
[EC 2.4.1.164 created 1989, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.180     
Accepted name: lipopolysaccharide N-acetylmannosaminouronosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosaminouronate + N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = UDP + N-acetyl-β-D-mannosaminouronyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Glossary: N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = lipid I = GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol = ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl diphosphate
Other name(s): ManNAcA transferase; uridine diphosphoacetylmannosaminuronate-acetylglucosaminylpyrophosphorylundecaprenol acetylmannosaminuronosyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-β-D-mannosaminouronate:lipid I N-acetyl-β-D-mannosaminouronosyltransferase (incorrect)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosaminouronate:lipid I N-acetyl-α-D-mannosaminouronosyltransferase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of common antigen in Enterobacteriaceae.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 113478-30-1
References:
1.  Barr, K., Ward, S., Meier-Dieter, U., Mayer, H. and Rick, P.D. Characterization of an Escherichia coli rff mutant defective in transfer of N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid (ManNAcA) from UDP-ManNAcA to a lipid-linked intermediate involved in enterobacterial common antigen synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 170 (1988) 228–233. [DOI] [PMID: 3275612]
[EC 2.4.1.180 created 1990, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.197     
Accepted name: high-mannose-oligosaccharide β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: Transfers an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residue from UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to the 4-position of a mannose linked α-(1→6) to the core mannose of high-mannose oligosaccharides produced by Dictyostelium discoideum
Other name(s): uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-oligosaccharide acetylglucosaminyltransferase; acetylglucosamine-oligosaccharide acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-GlcNAc:oligosaccharide β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:high-mannose-oligosaccharide β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:high-mannose-oligosaccharide 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Comments: The activity of the intersecting mannose residue as acceptor is dependent on two other mannose residues attached by α-1,3 and α-1,6 links.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 123425-54-7
References:
1.  Sharkey, D.J. and Kornfeld, R. Identification of an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in Dictyostelium discoideum that transfers an "intersecting" N-acetylglucosamine residue to high mannose oligosaccharides. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 10411–10419. [PMID: 2525124]
[EC 2.4.1.197 created 1992]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.198     
Accepted name: phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol = UDP + 6-(N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl)-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol
For diagram of glycosylphosphatidyl-myo-inositol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol = PtdIns
Other name(s): UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:phosphatidylinositol N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine α1,6-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 6-(N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl)transferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 6-(N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl)transferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: Involved in the first step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor formation in all eukaryotes. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of at least five subunits (PIG-A, PIG-H, PIG-C, GPI1 and PIG-P). PIG-A subunit is the catalytic subunit. In some species, the long-chain acyl groups of the phosphatidyl group are partly replaced by long-chain alkyl or alk-1-enyl groups.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 144388-35-2
References:
1.  Doering, T.L., Masteron, W.J., Englund, P.T. and Hart, G.W. Biosynthesis of the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor of the trypanosome variant surface glycoprotein. Origin of the non-acetylated glucosamine. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 11168–11173. [PMID: 2525555]
2.  Watanabe, R., Inoue, N., Westfall, B., Taron, C.H., Orlean, P., Takeda, J. and Kinoshita, T. The first step of glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is mediated by a complex of PIG-A, PIG-H , PIG-C and GPI1. EMBO J. 17 (1998) 877–885. [DOI] [PMID: 9463366]
3.  Watanabe, R., Murakami, Y., Marmor, M.D., Inoue, N., Maeda, Y., Hino, J., Kangawa, K., Julius, M. and Kinoshita, T. Initial enzyme for glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis requires PIG-P and is regulated by DPM2. EMBO J. 19 (2000) 4402–4411. [DOI] [PMID: 10944123]
[EC 2.4.1.198 created 1992, modified 2002]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.201     
Accepted name: α-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein] = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein n-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, click here
Other name(s): MGAT4C (gene name); N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI; N-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-glycopeptide β-1→4-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI; mannosyl-glycoprotein β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTVI; GlcNAc-T VI; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:2,6-bis(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl)-α-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)]-α-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Requires a high concentration of Mn2+ for maximal activity. The enzyme, characterized from hen oviduct membranes, participates in the processing of N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. It transfers GlcNAc in β1-4 linkage to a D-mannose residue that already has GlcNAc residues attached at positions 2 and 6 by β linkages. No homologous enzyme appears to exist in mammals.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 119699-68-2
References:
1.  Brockhausen, I., Hull, E., Hindsgaul, O., Schachter, H., Shah, R.N., Michnick, S.W. and Carver, J.P. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. Detection and characterization of a novel branching enzyme from hen oviduct, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:GlcNAc β1-6 (GlcNAc β1-2)Man α-R (GlcNAc to Man) β-4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 11211–11221. [PMID: 2525556]
2.  Taguchi, T., Ogawa, T., Inoue, S., Inoue, Y., Sakamoto, Y., Korekane, H. and Taniguchi, N. Purification and characterization of UDP-GlcNAc:GlcNAcβ1-6(GlcNAcβ1-2)Manα1-R [GlcNAc to Man]-β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI from hen oviduct. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 32598–32602. [DOI] [PMID: 10903319]
3.  Sakamoto, Y., Taguchi, T., Honke, K., Korekane, H., Watanabe, H., Tano, Y., Dohmae, N., Takio, K., Horii, A. and Taniguchi, N. Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA encoding chicken UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc): GlcNAcβ 1-6(GlcNAcβ 1-2)- manα 1-R[GlcNAc to man]β 1,4N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase VI. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 36029–36034. [DOI] [PMID: 10962001]
[EC 2.4.1.201 created 1992, modified 2001, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.212     
Accepted name: hyaluronan synthase
Reaction: (1) UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-[nascent hyaluronan] = UDP + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-[nascent hyaluronan]
(2) UDP-α-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-[nascent hyaluronan] = UDP + β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-[nascent hyaluronan]
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: GlcA = glucuronic acid
Other name(s): spHAS; seHAS; Alternating UDP-α-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-[nascent hyaluronan] 4-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyltransferase and UDP-α-D-glucuronate:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-[nascent hyaluronan] 3-β-D-glucuronosyltransferase
Systematic name: Alternating UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-[nascent hyaluronan] 4-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyltransferase and UDP-α-D-glucuronate:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-[nascent hyaluronan] 3-β-D-glucuronosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme from Streptococcus Group A and Group C requires Mg2+. The enzyme adds GlcNAc to nascent hyaluronan when the non-reducing end is GlcA, but it adds GlcA when the non-reducing end is GlcNAc [3]. The enzyme is highly specific for UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GlcA; no copolymerization is observed if either is replaced by UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAc or UDP-GalA. Similar enzymes have been found in a variety of organisms.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 39346-43-5
References:
1.  DeAngelis, P.L., Papaconstantinou, J. and Weigel, P.H. Molecular cloning, identification and sequence of the hyaluronan synthase gene from Group A Streptococcus pyogenes. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 19181–19184. [PMID: 8366070]
2.  Jing, W. and DeAngelis, P.L. Dissection of the two transferase activities of the Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase: two active sites exist in one polypeptide. Glycobiology 10 (2000) 883–889. [DOI] [PMID: 10988250]
3.  DeAngelis, P.L. Molecular directionality of polysaccharide polymerization by the Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 26557–26562. [DOI] [PMID: 10473619]
4.  Tlapak-Simmons, V.L., Baron, C.A. and Weigel, P.H. Characterization of the purified hyaluronan synthase from Streptococcus equisimilis. Biochemistry 43 (2004) 9234–9242. [DOI] [PMID: 15248781]
[EC 2.4.1.212 created 2001, modified 2007]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.214     
Accepted name: glycoprotein 3-α-L-fucosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-β-L-fucose + N4-{β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc}-L-asparaginyl-[protein] = GDP + N4-{β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-[α-L-Fuc-(1→3)]-β-D-GlcNAc}-L-asparaginyl-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein fucosyl and xylosyl transferases, click here
Other name(s): GDP-L-Fuc:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide α1,3-fucosyltransferase; GDP-L-Fuc:Asn-linked GlcNAc α1,3-fucosyltransferase; GDP-fucose:β-N-acetylglucosamine (Fuc to (Fucα1→6GlcNAc)-Asn-peptide) α1→3-fucosyltransferase; GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of 4-N-{N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-mannosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl}asparagine) 3-α-L-fucosyl-transferase; GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of N4-{N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-mannosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl}asparagine) 3-α-L-fucosyl-transferase; GDP-β-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of N4-{N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-mannosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl}asparagine) 3-α-L-fucosyl-transferase
Systematic name: GDP-β-L-fucose:N4-{β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc}-L-asparaginyl-[protein] 3-α-L-fucosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: Requires Mn2+. The enzyme transfers to N-linked oligosaccharide structures (N-glycans), generally with a specificity for N-glycans with one unsubstituted non-reducing terminal GlcNAc residue. This enzyme catalyses a reaction similar to that of EC 2.4.1.68, glycoprotein 6-α-L-fucosyltransferase, but transferring the L-fucosyl group from GDP-β-L-fucose to form an α1,3-linkage rather than an α1,6-linkage. The N-glycan products of this enzyme are present in plants, insects and some other invertebrates (e.g., Schistosoma, Haemonchus, Lymnaea).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 68247-53-0
References:
1.  Wilson, I.B.H., Rendic, D., Freilinger, A., Dumic, J., Altmann, F., Mucha, J., Müller, S. and Hauser, M.-T. Cloning and expression of α1,3-fucosyltransferase homologues from Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1527 (2001) 88–96. [DOI] [PMID: 11420147]
2.  Fabini, G., Freilinger, A., Altmann, F. and Wilson, I.B.H. Identification of core α1,3-fucosylated glycans and cloning of the requisite fucosyltransferase cDNA from Drosophila melanogaster. Potential basis of the neural anti-horseradish peroxidase epitope. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 28058–28067. [DOI] [PMID: 11382750]
3.  Leiter, H., Mucha, J., Staudacher, E., Grimm, R., Glössl, J. and Altmann, F. Purification, cDNA cloning, and expression of GDP-L-Fuc:Asn-linked GlcNAc α1,3-fucosyltransferase from mung beans. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 21830–21839. [DOI] [PMID: 10419500]
4.  van Tetering, A., Schiphorst, W.E.C.M., van den Eijnden, D.H. and van Die, I. Characterization of core α1→3-fucosyltransferase from the snail Lymnaea stagnalis that is involved in the synthesis of complex type N-glycans. FEBS Lett. 461 (1999) 311–314. [DOI] [PMID: 10567717]
5.  Staudacher, E., Altmann, F., Glössl, J., März, L., Schachter, H., Kamerling, J.P., Haard, K. and Vliegenthart, J.F.G. GDP-fucose:β-N-acetylglucosamine (Fuc to (Fucα1→6GlcNAc)-Asn-peptide) α1→3-fucosyltransferase activity in honeybee (Apis mellifica) venom glands. The difucosylation of asparagine-bound N-acetylglucosamine. Eur. J. Biochem. 199 (1991) 745–751. [DOI] [PMID: 1868856]
[EC 2.4.1.214 created 2001]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.222     
Accepted name: O-fucosylpeptide 3-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: transfers a β-D-GlcNAc residue from UDP-D-GlcNAc to the fucose residue of a fucosylated protein acceptor
Other name(s): O-fucosylpeptide β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; fringe (ambiguous)
Systematic name: UDP-D-GlcNAc:O-L-fucosylpeptide 3-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Comments: O-Fucosylpeptide 3-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases are the products of fringe genes. O-linked fucose is an unusual form of glycosylation where the fucose is attached directly to proteins through the hydroxy groups of Ser or Thr residues.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 299203-70-6
References:
1.  Moloney, D.J., Panin, V.M., Johnston, S.H., Chen, J., Shao, L., Wilson, R., Wang, Y., Stanley, P., Irvine, K.D., Haltiwanger, R.S. and Vogt, T.F. Fringe is a glycosyltransferase that modifies Notch. Nature 406 (2000) 369–375. [DOI] [PMID: 10935626]
[EC 2.4.1.222 created 2002]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.223     
Accepted name: glucuronosyl-galactosyl-proteoglycan 4-α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(α-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine
For diagram of heparan biosynthesis (later stages), click here
Glossary: [protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine = [protein]-3-O-(β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylosyl)-L-serine
Other name(s): α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; glucuronosylgalactosyl-proteoglycan 4-α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-glucuronosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylosyl-proteoglycan 4IV-α-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; glucuronyl-galactosyl-proteoglycan 4-α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:[protein]-3-O-(β-D-GlcA-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-Xyl)-L-serine 4IV-α-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: Enzyme involved in the initiation of heparin and heparan sulfate synthesis, transferring GlcNAc to the (GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-)Ser core. Apparently products of both the human EXTL2 and EXTL3 genes can catalyse this reaction. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the product of the rib-2 gene displays this activity as well as that of EC 2.4.1.224, glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. For explanation of the use of a superscript in the systematic name, see 2-Carb-37.2.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 179241-74-8
References:
1.  Kitagawa, H., Shimakawa, H. and Sugahara, K. The tumor suppressor EXT-like gene EXTL2 encodes an α1,4-N-acetylhexosaminyltransferase that transfers N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine to the common glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region. The key enzyme for the chain initiation of heparan sulfate. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 13933–13937. [DOI] [PMID: 10318803]
2.  Kitagawa, H., Egusa, N., Tamura, J.I., Kusche-Gullberg, M., Lindahl, U. and Sugahara, K. rib-2, a Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the human tumor suppressor EXT genes encodes a novel α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase involved in the biosynthetic initiation and elongation of heparan sulfate. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 4834–4838. [DOI] [PMID: 11121397]
[EC 2.4.1.223 created 2002, modified 2016]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.227     
Accepted name: undecaprenyldiphospho-muramoylpentapeptide β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol
For diagram of peptidoglycan biosynthesis (part 2), click here
Other name(s): MurG transferase; UDP-N-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-α-D-muramyl(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminlytransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-α-D-muramyl(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminlytransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-α-D-muramyl(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminlytransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme also works when the lysine residue is replaced by meso-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate (meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, A2pm) combined with adjacent residues through its L-centre, as it is in Gram-negative and some Gram-positive organisms. The undecaprenol involved is ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol (for definitions, click here).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 60976-26-3
References:
1.  van Heijenoort, J. Recent advances in the formation of the bacterial peptidoglycan monomer unit. Nat. Prod. Rep. 18 (2001) 503–519. [PMID: 11699883]
[EC 2.4.1.227 created 2002]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.229     
Accepted name: [Skp1-protein]-hydroxyproline N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + [Skp1-protein]-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline = UDP + [Skp1-protein]-O-(N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl)-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline
Other name(s): Skp1-HyPro GlcNAc-transferase; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc):hydroxyproline polypeptide GlcNAc-transferase; UDP-GlcNAc:Skp1-hydroxyproline GlcNAc-transferase; UDP-GlcNAc:hydroxyproline polypeptide GlcNAc-transferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:[Skp1-protein]-hydroxyproline N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-transferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:[Skp1-protein]-trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-transferase
Comments: Skp1 is a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein required for the ubiquitination of cell cycle regulatory proteins and transcriptional factors. In Dictyostelium Skp1 is modified by the linear pentasaccharide Galα1-6Galα1-L-Fucα1-2Galβ1-3GlcNAc, which is attached to a hydroxyproline residue at position 143. This enzyme catalyses the first step in the building up of the pentasaccharide by attaching an N-acetylglucosaminyl group to the hydroxyproline residue. It requires dithiothreitol and a divalent cation for activity.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 256531-81-4
References:
1.  van der Wel, H., Morris, H.R., Panico, M., Paxton, T., Dell, A., Kaplan, L. and West, C.M. Molecular cloning and expression of a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc):hydroxyproline polypeptide GlcNAc-transferase that modifies Skp1 in the cytoplasm of Dictyostelium. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 46328–46337. [DOI] [PMID: 12244115]
2.  Teng-umnuay, P., van der Wel, H. and West, C.M. Identification of a UDP-GlcNAc:Skp1-hydroxyproline GlcNAc-transferase in the cytoplasm of Dictyostelium. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 36392–36402. [DOI] [PMID: 10593934]
3.  West, C.M., van der Wel, H. and Gaucher, E.A. Complex glycosylation of Skp1 in Dictyostelium: implications for the modification of other eukaryotic cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins. Glycobiology 12 (2002) 17. [DOI] [PMID: 11886837]
[EC 2.4.1.229 created 2003, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.232     
Accepted name: initiation-specific α-1,6-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: Transfers an α-D-mannosyl residue from GDP-mannose into lipid-linked oligosaccharide, forming an α-(1→6)-D-mannosyl-D-mannose linkage
Other name(s): α-1,6-mannosyltransferase; GDP-mannose:oligosaccharide 1,6-α-D-mannosyltransferase; GDP-mannose:glycolipid 1,6-α-D-mannosyltransferase; glycolipid 6-α-mannosyltransferase; GDP-mannose:oligosaccharide 1,6-α-D-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: GDP-mannose:oligosaccharide 6-α-D-mannosyltransferase
Comments: Requires Mn2+. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this enzyme catalyses an essential step in the outer chain elongation of N-linked oligosaccharides. Man8GlcNAc and Man9GlcNAc are equally good substrates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 346003-17-6
References:
1.  Romero, P.A. and Herscovics, A. Glycoprotein biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Characterization of α-1,6-mannosyltransferase which initiates outer chain formation. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 1946–1950. [PMID: 2644248]
2.  Reason, A.J., Dell, A., Romero, P.A. and Herscovics, A. Specificity of the mannosyltransferase which initiates outer chain formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glycobiology 1 (1991) 387–391. [DOI] [PMID: 1820199]
3.  Nakanishi-Shindo, Y., Nakayama, K., Tanaka, A., Toda, Y. and Jigami, Y. Structure of the N-linked oligosaccharides that show the complete loss of α-1,6-polymannose outer chain from och1, och1 mnn1, and och1 mnn1 alg3 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 26338–26345. [PMID: 8253757]
4.  Yamamoto, K., Okamoto, M., Yoko-o, T. and Jigami, Y. Salt stress induces the expression of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe och1+, which encodes an initiation-specific α-1,6-mannosyltransferase for N-linked outer chain synthesis of cell wall mannoproteins. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 67 (2003) 927–929. [DOI] [PMID: 12784644]
5.  Cui, Z., Horecka, J. and Jigami, Y. Cdc4 is involved in the transcriptional control of OCH1, a gene encoding α-1,6-mannosyltransferase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 19 (2002) 69–77. [DOI] [PMID: 11754484]
6.  Tsukahara, K., Watanabe, T., Yoko-o, T. and Chigami, Y. Schizosaccharomyces pombe och1+ gene encoding α-1,6-mannosyltransferase and use of och1+ gene knockout fission yeast for production of glycoproteins with reduced glycosylation. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho Koho (2001) 11.
7.  Nakayama, K., Nakanishi-Shindo, Y., Tanaka, A., Haga-Toda, Y. and Jigami, Y. Substrate specificity of α-1,6-mannosyltransferase that initiates N-linked mannose outer chain elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett. 412 (1997) 547–550. [DOI] [PMID: 9276464]
8.  Suzuki, A., Shibata, N., Suzuki, M., Saitoh, F., Takata, Y., Oshie, A., Oyamada, H., Kobayashi, H., Suzuki, S. and Okawa, Y. Characterization of α-1,6-mannosyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of branched side chains in Candida albicans mannan. Eur. J. Biochem. 240 (1996) 37–44. [DOI] [PMID: 8797833]
9.  Yip, C.L., Welch, S.K., Klebl, F., Gilbert, T., Seidel, P., Grant, F., O'Hara, P.J. and MacKay, V.L. Cloning and analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNN9 and MNN1 genes required for complex glycosylation of secreted proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 (1994) 2723–2727. [DOI] [PMID: 8146181]
[EC 2.4.1.232 created 2004]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.244     
Accepted name: N-acetyl-β-glucosaminyl-glycoprotein 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl group = UDP + N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl group
Glossary: N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine = N,N′-diacetyllactosediamine
Other name(s): β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase III; β4GalNAc-T3; β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase IV; β4GalNAc-T4; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-group β-1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-group 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-group 4-β-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme from human can transfer N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) to N-glycan and O-glycan substrates that have N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) but not D-glucuronic acid (GlcUA) at their non-reducing end. The N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl group is normally on a core oligosaccharide although benzyl glycosides have been used in enzyme-characterization experiments. Some glycohormones, e.g. lutropin and thyrotropin contain the N-glycan structure containing the N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl group.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sato, T., Gotoh, M., Kiyohara, K., Kameyama, A., Kubota, T., Kikuchi, N., Ishizuka, Y., Iwasaki, H., Togayachi, A., Kudo, T., Ohkura, T., Nakanishi, H. and Narimatsu, H. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, β4GalNAc-T3, responsible for the synthesis of N,N'-diacetyllactosediamine, GalNAc β1-4GlcNAc. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 47534–47544. [DOI] [PMID: 12966086]
2.  Gotoh, M., Sato, T., Kiyohara, K., Kameyama, A., Kikuchi, N., Kwon, Y.D., Ishizuka, Y., Iwai, T., Nakanishi, H. and Narimatsu, H. Molecular cloning and characterization of β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases IV synthesizing N,N'-diacetyllactosediamine. FEBS Lett. 562 (2004) 134–140. [DOI] [PMID: 15044014]
[EC 2.4.1.244 created 2006]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.255     
Accepted name: protein O-GlcNAc transferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + [protein]-L-serine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl)-L-serine
(2) UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + [protein]-L-threonine = UDP + [protein]-3-O-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl)-L-threonine
Other name(s): O-GlcNAc transferase; OGTase; O-linked N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine:polypeptide β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; protein O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-α-acetyl-D-glucosamine:[protein]-3-O-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl transferase
Comments: Within higher eukaryotes post-translational modification of protein serines/threonines with N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is dynamic, inducible and abundant, regulating many cellular processes by interfering with protein phosphorylation. EC 2.4.1.255 (protein O-GlcNAc transferase) transfers GlcNAc onto substrate proteins and EC 3.2.1.169 (protein O-GlcNAcase) cleaves GlcNAc from the modified proteins.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Banerjee, S., Robbins, P.W. and Samuelson, J. Molecular characterization of nucleocytosolic O-GlcNAc transferases of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Glycobiology 19 (2009) 331–336. [DOI] [PMID: 18948359]
2.  Clarke, A.J., Hurtado-Guerrero, R., Pathak, S., Schuttelkopf, A.W., Borodkin, V., Shepherd, S.M., Ibrahim, A.F. and van Aalten, D.M. Structural insights into mechanism and specificity of O-GlcNAc transferase. EMBO J. 27 (2008) 2780–2788. [DOI] [PMID: 18818698]
3.  Rao, F.V., Dorfmueller, H.C., Villa, F., Allwood, M., Eggleston, I.M. and van Aalten, D.M. Structural insights into the mechanism and inhibition of eukaryotic O-GlcNAc hydrolysis. EMBO J. 25 (2006) 1569–1578. [DOI] [PMID: 16541109]
4.  Haltiwanger, R.S., Blomberg, M.A. and Hart, G.W. Glycosylation of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Purification and characterization of a uridine diphospho-N-acetylglucosamine:polypeptide β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 9005–9013. [PMID: 1533623]
5.  Lubas, W.A., Frank, D.W., Krause, M. and Hanover, J.A. O-Linked GlcNAc transferase is a conserved nucleocytoplasmic protein containing tetratricopeptide repeats. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 9316–9324. [DOI] [PMID: 9083068]
6.  Lazarus, M.B., Nam, Y., Jiang, J., Sliz, P. and Walker, S. Structure of human O-GlcNAc transferase and its complex with a peptide substrate. Nature 469 (2011) 564–567. [DOI] [PMID: 21240259]
[EC 2.4.1.255 created 2011]
 
 


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