The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.24     
Accepted name: quinate dehydrogenase
Reaction: L-quinate + NAD+ = 3-dehydroquinate + NADH + H+
For diagram of shikimate and chorismate biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: quinate = (1R,3R,4R,5R)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid and is a cyclical carboxylate
The numbering system used for the 3-dehydroquinate is that of the recommendations on cyclitols, sections I-8 and I-9: and is shown in the reaction diagram. The use of the term ’5-dehydroquinate’ for this compound is based on an earlier system of numbering.
Other name(s): quinic dehydrogenase; quinate:NAD oxidoreductase; quinate 5-dehydrogenase; quinate:NAD+ 5-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: L-quinate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme is specific for quinate as substrate; phenylpyruvate, phenylalanine, cinnamate and shikimate will not act as substrates. NAD+ cannot be replaced by NADP+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-28-8
References:
1.  Gamborg, O.L. Aromatic metabolism in plants. III. Quinate dehydrogenase from mung bean cell suspension cultures. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 128 (1966) 483–491.
2.  Mitsuhashi, S. and Davis, B.D. Aromatic biosynthesis. XIII. Conversion of quinic acid to 5-dehydroquinic acid by quinic dehydrogenase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15 (1954) 268–280. [DOI] [PMID: 13208693]
[EC 1.1.1.24 created 1961, modified 1976, modified 2004]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.48     
Accepted name: D-galactose 1-dehydrogenase
Reaction: D-galactose + NAD+ = D-galactono-1,4-lactone + NADH + H+
Other name(s): D-galactose dehydrogenase; β-galactose dehydrogenase (ambiguous); NAD+-dependent D-galactose dehydrogenase
Systematic name: D-galactose:NAD+ 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme is part of the De Ley-Doudoroff pathway, which is used by some bacteria during growth on D-galactose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-54-0
References:
1.  De Ley, J. and Doudoroff, M. The metabolism of D-galactose in Pseudomonas saccharophila. J. Biol. Chem. 227 (1957) 745–757. [PMID: 13462997]
2.  Hu, A.S.L. and Cline, A.L. The regulation of some sugar dehydrogenases in a pseudomonad. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 93 (1964) 237–245. [DOI] [PMID: 14251301]
[EC 1.1.1.48 created 1961, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.52     
Accepted name: 3α-hydroxycholanate dehydrogenase (NAD+)
Reaction: lithocholate + NAD+ = 3-oxo-5β-cholan-24-oate + NADH + H+
For diagram of cholesterol catabolism (rings A, B and C), click here
Glossary: lithocholate = 3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oate
Other name(s): α-hydroxy-cholanate dehydrogenase; lithocholate:NAD+ oxidoreductase; 3α-hydroxycholanate dehydrogenase
Systematic name: lithocholate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Also acts on other 3α-hydroxysteroids with an acidic side-chain. cf. EC 1.1.1.392, 3α-hydroxycholanate dehydrogenase (NADP+).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9028-57-3
References:
1.  Hayaishi, O., Saito, Y., Jakoby, W.B. and Stohlman, E.F. Reversible enzymatic oxidation of bile acids. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 56 (1955) 554–555. [DOI] [PMID: 14377608]
[EC 1.1.1.52 created 1961, modified 1976, modified 2016]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.86     
Accepted name: ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NADP+)
Reaction: (2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate + NADP+ = (2S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate + NADPH + H+
For diagram of isoleucine and valine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (2S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate = (2S)-2-acetolactate
Other name(s): dihydroxyisovalerate dehydrogenase (isomerizing); acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase; ketol acid reductoisomerase; α-keto-β-hydroxylacyl reductoisomerase; 2-hydroxy-3-keto acid reductoisomerase; acetohydroxy acid reductoisomerase; acetolactate reductoisomerase; dihydroxyisovalerate (isomerizing) dehydrogenase; isomeroreductase; reductoisomerase; ketol-acid reductoisomerase; (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (isomerizing)
Systematic name: (2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (isomerizing)
Comments: Also catalyses the reduction of 2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxobutanoate to 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylpentanoate. The enzyme, found in many bacteria and archaea, is specific for NADPH (cf. EC 1.1.1.382, ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NAD+) and EC 1.1.1.383, ketol-acid reductoisomerase [NAD(P)+]).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9075-02-9
References:
1.  Arfin, S.M. and Umbarger, H.E. Purification and properties of the acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 1118–1127. [PMID: 4388025]
2.  Hill, R.K., Sawada, S. and Arfin, S.M. Stereochemistry of valine and isoleucine biosynthesis. IV. Synthesis, configuration, and enzymatic specificity of α-acetolactate and α-aceto-α-hydroxybutyrate. Bioorg. Chem. 8 (1979) 175–189.
3.  Kiritani, K., Narise, S. and Wagner, R.P. The reductoisomerase of Neurospora crassa. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 2047–2051.
4.  Satyanarayana, T. and Radhakrishnan, A.N. Biosynthesis of valine and isoleucine in plants. 3. Reductoisomerase of Phaseolus radiatus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 110 (1965) 380–388. [PMID: 5866387]
5.  Brinkmann-Chen, S., Cahn, J.K. and Arnold, F.H. Uncovering rare NADH-preferring ketol-acid reductoisomerases. Metab. Eng. 26C (2014) 17–22. [DOI] [PMID: 25172159]
[EC 1.1.1.86 created 1972, modified 1976, modified 1981 (EC 1.1.1.89 created 1972, incorporated 1976), modified 2015]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.90     
Accepted name: aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase
Reaction: an aromatic alcohol + NAD+ = an aromatic aldehyde + NADH + H+
Other name(s): p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase; benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase; coniferyl alcohol dehydrogenase
Systematic name: aryl-alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: A group of enzymes with broad specificity towards primary alcohols with an aromatic or cyclohex-1-ene ring, but with low or no activity towards short-chain aliphatic alcohols.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37250-26-3
References:
1.  Suhara, K., Takemori, S. and Katagiri, M. The purification and properties of benzylalcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 130 (1969) 422–429. [DOI] [PMID: 5778658]
2.  Yamanaka, K. and Minoshima, R. Identification and characterization of a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent para-hydroxybenzyl alcohol-dehydrogenase from Rhodopseudomonas acidophila M402. Agric. Biol. Chem. 48 (1984) 1161–1171.
[EC 1.1.1.90 created 1972, modified 1989]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.96     
Accepted name: diiodophenylpyruvate reductase
Reaction: 3-(3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate + NAD+ = 3-(3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate + NADH + H+
Other name(s): aromatic α-keto acid; KAR; 2-oxo acid reductase
Systematic name: 3-(3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Substrates contain an aromatic ring with a pyruvate side chain. The most active substrates are halogenated derivatives. Compounds with hydroxy or amino groups in the 3 or 5 position are inactive.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37250-31-0
References:
1.  Zannoni, V.G. and Weber, W.W. Isolation and properties of aromatic α-keto acid reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 1340–1344. [PMID: 5935348]
[EC 1.1.1.96 created 1972]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.144     
Accepted name: perillyl-alcohol dehydrogenase
Reaction: perillyl alcohol + NAD+ = perillyl aldehyde + NADH + H+
For diagram of (-)-carvone, perillyl aldehyde and pulegone biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): perillyl alcohol dehydrogenase
Systematic name: perillyl-alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Oxidizes a number of primary alcohols with the alcohol group allylic to an endocyclic double bond and a 6-membered ring, either aromatic or hydroaromatic.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37250-73-0
References:
1.  Ballal, N.R., Bhattacharyya, P.K. and Rangachari, P.N. Perillyl alcohol dehydrogenase from a soil pseudomonad. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 23 (1966) 473–478. [DOI] [PMID: 4289759]
[EC 1.1.1.144 created 1972]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.145     
Accepted name: 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase
Reaction: a 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid + NAD+ = a 3-oxo-Δ5-steroid + NADH + H+
For diagram of cholesterol catabolism (rings A, B and C), click here
Other name(s): progesterone reductase; Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3β-hydroxy-5-ene steroid dehydrogenase; 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase; 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase; 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase; 3β-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid oxidoreductase; steroid-Δ5-3β-ol dehydrogenase; 3β-HSDH; 5-ene-3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3β-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase
Systematic name: 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: This activity is found in several bifunctional enzymes that catalyse the oxidative conversion of Δ5-3-hydroxy steroids to a Δ4-3-oxo configuration. This conversion is carried out in two separate, sequential reactions; in the first reaction, which requires NAD+, the enzyme catalyses the dehydrogenation of the 3β-hydroxy steroid to a 3-oxo intermediate. In the second reaction the reduced coenzyme, which remains attached to the enzyme, activates the isomerization of the Δ5 form to a Δ4 form (cf. EC 5.3.3.1, steroid Δ-isomerase). Substrates include dehydroepiandrosterone (which is converted into androst-5-ene-3,17-dione), pregnenolone (converted to progesterone) and cholest-5-en-3-one, an intermediate of cholesterol degradation.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9044-85-3
References:
1.  Cheatum, S.G. and Warren, J.C. Purification and properties of 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and Δ-5-3-ketosteroid isomerase from bovine corpora lutea. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 122 (1966) 1–13. [PMID: 4226148]
2.  Koritz, S.B. The conversion of prepnenolone to progesterone by small particle from rat adrenal. Biochemistry 3 (1964) 1098–1102. [PMID: 14220672]
3.  Neville, A.M., Orr, J.C. and Engel, L.L. Δ5-3β-Hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activities of bovine adrenal cortex. Biochem. J. 107 (1968) 20.
[EC 1.1.1.145 created 1972]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.170     
Accepted name: 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
Reaction: a 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate + NAD(P)+ = a 3-oxosteroid + CO2 + NAD(P)H
For diagram of sterol ring A modification, click here
Other name(s): 3β-hydroxy-4β-methylcholestenecarboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating); 3β-hydroxy-4β-methylcholestenoate dehydrogenase; sterol 4α-carboxylic decarboxylase; sterol-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) (ambiguous); ERG26 (gene name); NSDHL (gene name)
Systematic name: 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate:NAD(P)+ 3-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: The enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of several important sterols such as ergosterol and cholesterol. It is part of a three enzyme system that removes methyl groups from the C-4 position of steroid molecules. The first enzyme, EC 1.14.18.9, 4α-methylsterol monooxygenase, catalyses three successive oxidations of the methyl group, resulting in a carboxyl group; the second enzyme, EC 1.1.1.170, catalyses an oxidative decarboxylation that results in a reduction of the 3β-hydroxy group at the C-3 carbon to an oxo group; and the last enzyme, EC 1.1.1.270, 3β-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase, reduces the 3-oxo group back to a 3β-hydroxyl. If a second methyl group remains at the C-4 position, this enzyme also catalyses its epimerization from 4β to 4α orientation, so it could serve as a substrate for a second round of demethylation. cf. EC 1.1.1.418, plant 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 71822-23-6
References:
1.  Sharpless, K.B., Snyder, T.E., Spencer, T.A., Maheshwari, K.K. and Nelson, J.A. Biological demethylation of 4,4-dimethyl sterols, Evidence for enzymic epimerization of the 4β-methyl group prior to its oxidative removal. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 91 (1969) 3394–3396. [PMID: 5791927]
2.  Rahimtula, A.D. and Gaylor, J.L. Partial purification of a microsomal sterol 4α-carboxylic acid decarboxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 9–15. [PMID: 4401584]
3.  Brady, D.R., Crowder, R.D. and Hayes, W.J. Mixed function oxidases in sterol metabolism. Source of reducing equivalents. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 10624–10629. [PMID: 7430141]
4.  Gachotte, D., Barbuch, R., Gaylor, J., Nickel, E. and Bard, M. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG26 gene encoding the C-3 sterol dehydrogenase (C-4 decarboxylase) involved in sterol biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 13794–13799. [DOI] [PMID: 9811880]
5.  Caldas, H. and Herman, G.E. NSDHL, an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, traffics through the Golgi and accumulates on ER membranes and on the surface of lipid droplets. Hum. Mol. Genet. 12 (2003) 2981–2991. [DOI] [PMID: 14506130]
[EC 1.1.1.170 created 1978, modified 2002, modified 2012, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.181     
Accepted name: cholest-5-ene-3β,7α-diol 3β-dehydrogenase
Reaction: cholest-5-ene-3β,7α-diol + NAD+ = 7α-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one + NADH + H+
For diagram of cholesterol catabolism (rings A, B and C), click here
Other name(s): 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: cholest-5-ene-3β,7α-diol:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Highly specific for 3β,7α-dihydroxy-C27-steroids with Δ5-double bond.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 56626-16-5
References:
1.  Wikvall, K. Purification and properties of a 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase from rabbit liver microsomes. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 3376–3380. [PMID: 6937465]
2.  Schwarz, M., Wright, A.C., Davis, D.L., Nazer, H., Bjorkhem, I. and Russell, D.W. The bile acid synthetic gene 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase is mutated in progressive intrahepatic cholestasis. J. Clin. Invest. 106 (2000) 1175–1184. [PMID: 11067870]
[EC 1.1.1.181 created 1983]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.205     
Accepted name: IMP dehydrogenase
Reaction: IMP + NAD+ + H2O = XMP + NADH + H+
For diagram of AMP and GMP biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: IMP = inosine 5′-phosphate
XMP = xanthosine 5′-phosphate
Other name(s): inosine-5′-phosphate dehydrogenase; inosinic acid dehydrogenase; inosinate dehydrogenase; inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase; inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase; IMP oxidoreductase; inosine monophosphate oxidoreductase
Systematic name: IMP:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme acts on the hydroxy group of the hydrated derivative of the substrate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9028-93-7
References:
1.  Magasanik, B., Moyed, H.S. and Gehring, L.B. Enzymes essential for the biosynthesis of nucleic acid guanine; inosine 5′-phosphate dehydrogenase of Aerobacter aerogenes. J. Biol. Chem. 226 (1957) 339–350. [PMID: 13428767]
2.  Turner, J.F. and King, J.E. Inosine 5-phosphate dehydrogenase of pea seeds. Biochem. J. 79 (1961) 147. [PMID: 13778733]
[EC 1.1.1.205 created 1961 as EC 1.2.1.14, transferred 1984 to EC 1.1.1.205]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.234     
Accepted name: flavanone 4-reductase
Reaction: (2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+ = (2S)-flavanone + NADPH + H+
For diagram of the biosynthesis of naringenin derivatives, click here
Systematic name: (2S)-flavan-4-ol:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins from flavanones such as naringenin or eriodictyol.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 115232-53-6
References:
1.  Stich, K. and Forkmann, G. Biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanins with flower extracts from Sinningia cardinalis. Phytochemistry 27 (1988) 785–789.
[EC 1.1.1.234 created 1992]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.241     
Accepted name: 6-endo-hydroxycineole dehydrogenase
Reaction: 6-endo-hydroxycineole + NAD+ = 6-oxocineole + NADH + H+
For diagram of 1,8-cineole catabolism, click here
Systematic name: 6-endo-hydroxycineole:NAD+ 6-oxidoreductase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 122933-68-0
References:
1.  Williams, D.R., Trudgill, P.W. and Taylor, D.G. Metabolism of 1,8-cineole by Rhodococcus species: ring cleavage reactions. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135 (1989) 1957–1967.
[EC 1.1.1.241 created 1992]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.247     
Accepted name: codeinone reductase (NADPH)
Reaction: codeine + NADP+ = codeinone + NADPH + H+
For diagram of morphine biosynthesis, click here
Systematic name: codeine:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Catalyses the reversible reduction of codeinone to codeine, which is a direct precursor of morphine in the opium poppy plant, Papaver somniferum.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 153302-41-1
References:
1.  Lenz, R. and Zenk, M.H. Stereoselective reduction of codeinone, the penultimate step during morphine biosynthesis in Papaver somniferum. Tetrahedron Lett. 36 (1995) 2449–2452.
2.  Lenz, R. and Zenk, M.H. Purification and properties of codeinone reductase (NADPH) from Papaver somniferum cell cultures. Eur. J. Biochem. 233 (1995) 132–139. [DOI] [PMID: 7588736]
[EC 1.1.1.247 created 1999, modified 2001]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.251     
Accepted name: galactitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase
Reaction: galactitol 1-phosphate + NAD+ = D-tagatose 6-phosphate + NADH + H+
Other name(s): gatD (gene name)
Systematic name: galactitol-1-phosphate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from the bacterium Escherichia coli is involved in a galactitol degradation pathway. It contains two zinc atoms per subunit.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 60120-43-6
References:
1.  Wolff, J.B., Kaplan, N.O. Hexitol metabolism in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 71 (1956) 557–564. [PMID: 13331868]
2.  Nobelmann, B. and Lengeler, J.W. Sequence of the gat operon for galactitol utilization from a wild-type strain EC3132 of Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1262 (1995) 69–72. [DOI] [PMID: 7772602]
3.  Benavente, R., Esteban-Torres, M., Kohring, G.W., Cortes-Cabrera, A., Sanchez-Murcia, P.A., Gago, F., Acebron, I., de las Rivas, B., Munoz, R. and Mancheno, J.M. Enantioselective oxidation of galactitol 1-phosphate by galactitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 71 (2015) 1540–1554. [DOI] [PMID: 26143925]
[EC 1.1.1.251 created 1999]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.256     
Accepted name: fluoren-9-ol dehydrogenase
Reaction: fluoren-9-ol + NAD(P)+ = fluoren-9-one + NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of reaction, click here
Systematic name: fluoren-9-ol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Involved in the pathway for fluorene metabolism in Arthrobacter sp.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 154215-16-4
References:
1.  Casellas, M., Grifoll, M., Bayona, J.M. and Solanas, A.M. New metabolites in the degradation of fluorene by Arthrobacter sp. strain F101. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 819–826. [PMID: 9055403]
2.  Grifoll, M., Casellas, M., Bayona, J.M. and Solanas, A.M. Isolation and characterization of a fluorene-degrading bacterium: identification of ring oxidation and ring fission products. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58 (1992) 2910–2917. [PMID: 1444405]
[EC 1.1.1.256 created 2000]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.259     
Accepted name: 3-hydroxypimeloyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: 3-hydroxypimeloyl-CoA + NAD+ = 3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + NADH + H+
Glossary: pimelic acid = heptanedioic acid
Systematic name: 3-hydroxypimeloyl-CoA:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Involved in the anaerobic pathway of benzoate degradation in bacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 1187536-27-1
References:
1.  Harwood, C.S. and Gibson, J. Shedding light on anaerobic benzene ring degradation: a process unique to prokaryotes? J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 301–309. [DOI] [PMID: 8990279]
[EC 1.1.1.259 created 2000]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.265     
Accepted name: 3-methylbutanal reductase
Reaction: 3-methylbutanol + NAD(P)+ = 3-methylbutanal + NAD(P)H + H+
Systematic name: 3-methylbutanol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyses the reduction of a number of straight-chain and branched aldehydes, as well as some aromatic aldehydes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 214265-44-8
References:
1.  van Iersel, M.F.M., Eppink, M.H.M., van Berkel, W.J.H., Rombouts, F.M. and Abee, T. Purification and characterization of a novel NADP-dependent branched-chain alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 4079–4082. [PMID: 9327572]
2.  Ven Nedervelde, L., Verlinden, V., Philipp, D. and Debourg, A. Purification and characterization of yeast 3-methyl butanal reductases involved in the removal of wort carbonyls during fermentation. Proc. 26th Congr.-Eur. Brew. Conv. (1997) 447–454.
[EC 1.1.1.265 created 2000]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.270     
Accepted name: 3β-hydroxysteroid 3-dehydrogenase
Reaction: a 3β-hydroxysteroid + NADP+ = a 3-oxosteroid + NADPH + H+
For diagram of sterol ring A modification, click here
Other name(s): 3-keto-steroid reductase; 3-KSR; HSD17B7 (gene name); ERG27 (gene name)
Systematic name: 3β-hydroxysteroid:NADP+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme acts on multiple 3β-hydroxysteroids. Participates in the biosynthesis of zemosterol and cholesterol, where it catalyses the reaction in the opposite direction to that shown. The mammalian enzyme is bifunctional and also catalyses EC 1.1.1.62, 17β-estradiol 17-dehydrogenase [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 42616-29-5
References:
1.  Swindell, A.C. and Gaylor, J.L. Investigation of the component reactions of oxidative sterol demethylation. Formation and metabolism of 3-ketosteroid intermediates. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 5546–5555. [PMID: 4387005]
2.  Billheimer, J.T., Alcorn, M. and Gaylor, J.L. Solubilization and partial purification of a microsomal 3-ketosteroid reductase of cholesterol biosynthesis. Purification and properties of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase from bovine corpora lutea. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 211 (1981) 430–438. [DOI] [PMID: 6946726]
3.  Gachotte, D., Sen, S.E., Eckstein, J., Barbuch, R., Krieger, M., Ray, B.D. and Bard, M. Characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG27 gene encoding the 3-keto reductase involved in C-4 sterol demethylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 12655–12660. [DOI] [PMID: 10535978]
4.  Marijanovic, Z., Laubner, D., Moller, G., Gege, C., Husen, B., Adamski, J. and Breitling, R. Closing the gap: identification of human 3-ketosteroid reductase, the last unknown enzyme of mammalian cholesterol biosynthesis. Mol. Endocrinol. 17 (2003) 1715–1725. [DOI] [PMID: 12829805]
[EC 1.1.1.270 created 2002, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.282     
Accepted name: quinate/shikimate dehydrogenase
Reaction: (1) L-quinate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroquinate + NAD(P)H + H+
(2) shikimate + NAD(P)+ = 3-dehydroshikimate + NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of shikimate and chorismate biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: quinate = (1R,3R,4R,5R)-1,3,4,5-tetrahydroxycyclohexanecarboxylic acid and is a cyclitol carboxylate
The numbering system used for the 3-dehydroquinate is that of the recommendations on cyclitols, sections I-8 and I-9: and is shown in the reaction diagram). The use of the term ’5-dehydroquinate’ for this compound is based on an earlier system of numbering.
Other name(s): YdiB
Systematic name: L-quinate:NAD(P)+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: This is the second shikimate dehydrogenase enzyme found in Escherichia coli and differs from EC 1.1.1.25, shikimate dehydrogenase, in that it can use both quinate and shikimate as substrate and either NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Michel, G., Roszak, A.W., Sauvé, V., Maclean, J., Matte, A., Coggins, J.R., Cygler, M. and Lapthorn, A.J. Structures of shikimate dehydrogenase AroE and its paralog YdiB. A common structural framework for different activities. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 19463–19472. [DOI] [PMID: 12637497]
2.  Benach, J., Lee, I., Edstrom, W., Kuzin, A.P., Chiang, Y., Acton, T.B., Montelione, G.T. and Hunt, J.F. The 2.3-&Aring; crystal structure of the shikimate 5-dehydrogenase orthologue YdiB from Escherichia coli suggests a novel catalytic environment for an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 19176–19182. [DOI] [PMID: 12624088]
[EC 1.1.1.282 created 2004]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.294     
Accepted name: chlorophyll(ide) b reductase
Reaction: 71-hydroxychlorophyllide a + NAD(P)+ = chlorophyllide b + NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of the chlorophyll cycle, click here
Other name(s): chlorophyll b reductase; Chl b reductase
Systematic name: 71-hydroxychlorophyllide-a:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme carries out the first step in the conversion of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a. It is involved in chlorophyll degradation, which occurs during leaf senescence [3] and it also forms part of the chlorophyll cycle, which interconverts chlorophyll a and b in response to changing light conditions [4,5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Scheumann, V., Ito, H., Tanaka, A., Schoch, S. and Rüdiger, W. Substrate specificity of chlorophyll(ide) b reductase in etioplasts of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Eur. J. Biochem. 242 (1996) 163–170. [DOI] [PMID: 8954166]
2.  Scheumann, V., Schoch, S. and Rüdiger, W. Chlorophyll a formation in the chlorophyll b reductase reaction requires reduced ferredoxin. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 35102–35108. [DOI] [PMID: 9857045]
3.  Hörtensteiner, S. Chlorophyll degradation during senescence. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57 (2006) 55–77. [DOI] [PMID: 16669755]
4.  Ito, H., Ohtsuka, T. and Tanaka, A. Conversion of chlorophyll b to chlorophyll a via 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 1475–1479. [DOI] [PMID: 8576141]
5.  Rüdiger, W. Biosynthesis of chlorophyll b and the chlorophyll cycle. Photosynth. Res. 74 (2002) 187–193. [DOI] [PMID: 16228557]
[EC 1.1.1.294 created 2007]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.307     
Accepted name: D-xylose reductase
Reaction: xylitol + NAD(P)+ = D-xylose + NAD(P)H + H+
Other name(s): XylR; XyrA; msXR; dsXR; monospecific xylose reductase; dual specific xylose reductase; NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase; xylose reductase
Systematic name: xylitol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Xylose reductase catalyses the initial reaction in the xylose utilization pathway, the NAD(P)H dependent reduction of xylose to xylitol.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Neuhauser, W., Haltrich, D., Kulbe, K.D. and Nidetzky, B. NAD(P)H-dependent aldose reductase from the xylose-assimilating yeast Candida tenuis. Isolation, characterization and biochemical properties of the enzyme. Biochem. J. 326 (1997) 683–692. [PMID: 9307017]
2.  Nidetzky, B., Bruggler, K., Kratzer, R. and Mayr, P. Multiple forms of xylose reductase in Candida intermedia: comparison of their functional properties using quantitative structure-activity relationships, steady-state kinetic analysis, and pH studies. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (2003) 7930–7935. [DOI] [PMID: 14690376]
3.  Iablochkova, E.N., Bolotnikova, O.I., Mikhailova, N.P., Nemova, N.N. and Ginak, A.I. The activity of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase in yeasts. Mikrobiologiia 72 (2003) 466–469. [PMID: 14526534] (in Russian)
4.  Chen, L.C., Huang, S.C., Chuankhayan, P., Chen, C.D., Huang, Y.C., Jeyakanthan, J., Pang, H.F., Men, L.C., Chen, Y.C., Wang, Y.K., Liu, M.Y., Wu, T.K. and Chen, C.J. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 65 (2009) 419–421. [DOI] [PMID: 19342796]
5.  Verduyn, C., Van Kleef, R., Frank, J., Schreuder, H., Van Dijken, J.P. and Scheffers, W.A. Properties of the NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase from the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis. Biochem. J. 226 (1985) 669–677. [PMID: 3921014]
6.  Fernandes, S., Tuohy, M.G. and Murray, P.G. Xylose reductase from the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii: cloning and heterologous expression of the native gene (Texr) and a double mutant (TexrK271R + N273D) with altered coenzyme specificity. J. Biosci. 34 (2009) 881–890. [PMID: 20093741]
7.  Lee, J.K., Koo, B.S. and Kim, S.Y. Cloning and characterization of the xyl1 gene, encoding an NADH-preferring xylose reductase from Candida parapsilosis, and its functional expression in Candida tropicalis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69 (2003) 6179–6188. [DOI] [PMID: 14532079]
8.  Woodyer, R., Simurdiak, M., van der Donk, W.A. and Zhao, H. Heterologous expression, purification, and characterization of a highly active xylose reductase from Neurospora crassa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 1642–1647. [DOI] [PMID: 15746370]
[EC 1.1.1.307 created 2010]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.314      
Deleted entry: germacrene A alcohol dehydrogenase. Now known to be catalyzed by EC 1.14.14.95, germacrene A hydroxylase
[EC 1.1.1.314 created 2011, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.324     
Accepted name: 8-hydroxygeraniol dehydrogenase
Reaction: (6E)-8-hydroxygeraniol + 2 NADP+ = (6E)-8-oxogeranial + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ (overall reaction)
(1a) (6E)-8-hydroxygeraniol + NADP+ = (6E)-8-hydroxygeranial + NADPH + H+
(1b) (6E)-8-hydroxygeraniol + NADP+ = (6E)-8-oxogeraniol + NADPH + H+
(1c) (6E)-8-hydroxygeranial + NADP+ = (6E)-8-oxogeranial + NADPH + H+
(1d) (6E)-8-oxogeraniol + NADP+ = (6E)-8-oxogeranial + NADPH + H+
For diagram of acyclic monoterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): 8-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase; CYP76B10; G10H; CrG10H; SmG10H; acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Systematic name: (6E)-8-hydroxygeraniol:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains Zn2+. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of (6E)-8-hydroxygeraniol to (6E)-8-oxogeranial via either (6E)-8-hydroxygeranial or (6E)-8-oxogeraniol. Also acts on geraniol, nerol and citronellol. May be identical to EC 1.1.1.183 geraniol dehydrogenase. The recommended numbering of geraniol gives 8-hydroxygeraniol as the substrate rather than 10-hydroxygeraniol as used by references 1 and 2. See prenol nomenclature Pr-1.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ikeda, H., Esaki, N., Nakai, S., Hashimoto, K., Uesato, S., Soda, K. and Fujita, T. Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase of Rauwolfia serpentina cells: the key enzyme in biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols. J. Biochem. 109 (1991) 341–347. [PMID: 1864846]
2.  Hallahan, D.L., West, J.M., Wallsgrove, R.M., Smiley, D.W., Dawson, G.W., Pickett, J.A. and Hamilton, J.G. Purification and characterization of an acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase from catmint (Nepeta racemosa). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 318 (1995) 105–112. [DOI] [PMID: 7726550]
[EC 1.1.1.324 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.328     
Accepted name: nicotine blue oxidoreductase
Reaction: 3,3′-bipyridine-2,2′,5,5′,6,6′-hexol + NAD(P)+ = (E)-2,2′,5,5′-tetrahydroxy-6H,6′H-[3,3′-bipyridinylidene]-6,6′-dione + NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of nicotine catabolism by arthrobacter, click here
Glossary: 3,3′-bipyridine-2,2′,5,5′,6,6′-hexol = nicotine blue leuco form
(E)-2,2′,5,5′-tetrahydroxy-6H,6′H-[3,3′-bipyridinylidene]-6,6′-dione = nicotine blue
Other name(s): nboR (gene name)
Systematic name: 3,3′-bipyridine-2,2′,5,5′,6,6′-hexol:NADP+ 11-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the nicotine degrading bacterium Arthrobacter nicotinovorans, catalyses the reduction of "nicotine blue" to its hydroquinone form (the opposite direction from that shown). Nicotine blue is the name given to the compound formed by the autocatalytic condensation of two molecules of 2,3,6-trihydroxypyridine, an intermediate in the nicotine degradation pathway. The main role of the enzyme may be to prevent the intracellular formation of nicotine blue semiquinone radicals, which by redox cycling would lead to the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species. The enzyme possesses a slight preference for NADH over NADPH.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Mihasan, M., Chiribau, C.B., Friedrich, T., Artenie, V. and Brandsch, R. An NAD(P)H-nicotine blue oxidoreductase is part of the nicotine regulon and may protect Arthrobacter nicotinovorans from oxidative stress during nicotine catabolism. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73 (2007) 2479–2485. [DOI] [PMID: 17293530]
[EC 1.1.1.328 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.344     
Accepted name: dTDP-6-deoxy-L-talose 4-dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]
Reaction: dTDP-6-deoxy-β-L-talose + NAD(P)+ = dTDP-4-dehydro-β-L-rhamnose + NAD(P)H + H+
Glossary: dTDP-4-dehydro-β-L-rhamnose = dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-β-L-mannose
dTDP-6-deoxy-β-L-talose = dTDP-β-L-pneumose
Other name(s): tal (gene name)
Systematic name: dTDP-6-deoxy-β-L-talose:NAD(P)+ 4-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme works equally well with NAD+ and NADP+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Karki, S., Yoo, H.G., Kwon, S.Y., Suh, J.W. and Kwon, H.J. Cloning and in vitro characterization of dTDP-6-deoxy-L-talose biosynthetic genes from Kitasatospora kifunensis featuring the dTDP-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase that synthesizes dTDP-6-deoxy-L-talose. Carbohydr. Res. 345 (2010) 1958–1962. [DOI] [PMID: 20667525]
[EC 1.1.1.344 created 2013]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.349     
Accepted name: norsolorinic acid ketoreductase
Reaction: (1′S)-averantin + NADP+ = norsolorinic acid + NADPH + H+
Glossary: norsolorinic acid = 2-hexanoyl-1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
(1′S)-averantin = 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-[(1S)-2-hydroxyhexyl]-9,10-anthraquinone
Other name(s): aflD (gene name); nor-1 (gene name)
Systematic name: (1′S)-averantin:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Involved in the synthesis of aflatoxins in the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yabe, K., Matsuyama, Y., Ando, Y., Nakajima, H. and Hamasaki, T. Stereochemistry during aflatoxin biosynthesis: conversion of norsolorinic acid to averufin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59 (1993) 2486–2492. [PMID: 8368836]
2.  Zhou, R. and Linz, J.E. Enzymatic function of the nor-1 protein in aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65 (1999) 5639–5641. [PMID: 10584035]
[EC 1.1.1.349 created 2013]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.363     
Accepted name: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]
Reaction: D-glucose 6-phosphate + NAD(P)+ = 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone + NAD(P)H + H+
Other name(s): G6PDH; G6PD; Glc6PD
Systematic name: D-glucose-6-phosphate:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step of the pentose phosphate pathway. The enzyme from the Gram-positive bacterium Leuconostoc mesenteroides prefers NADP+ while the enzyme from the Gram-negative bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus prefers NAD+. cf. EC 1.1.1.49, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP+) and EC 1.1.1.388, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Olive, C., Geroch, M.E. and Levy, H.R. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Kinetic studies. J. Biol. Chem. 246 (1971) 2047–2057. [PMID: 4396688]
2.  Lee, W.T. and Levy, H.R. Lysine-21 of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase participates in substrate binding through charge-charge interaction. Protein Sci. 1 (1992) 329–334. [DOI] [PMID: 1304341]
3.  Cosgrove, M.S., Naylor, C., Paludan, S., Adams, M.J. and Levy, H.R. On the mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry 37 (1998) 2759–2767. [DOI] [PMID: 9485426]
4.  Ragunathan, S. and Levy, H.R. Purification and characterization of the NAD-preferring glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Acetobacter hansenii (Acetobacter xylinum). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 310 (1994) 360–366. [DOI] [PMID: 8179320]
[EC 1.1.1.363 created 2013, modified 2015]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.365     
Accepted name: D-galacturonate reductase
Reaction: L-galactonate + NADP+ = D-galacturonate + NADPH + H+
Other name(s): GalUR; gar1 (gene name)
Systematic name: L-galactonate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from plants is involved in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis [1,2]. The enzyme from the fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is involved in a eukaryotic degradation pathway of D-galacturonate. It is also active with D-glucuronate and glyceraldehyde [3]. Neither enzyme shows any activity with NADH.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Isherwood, F.A. and Mapson, L.W. Biological synthesis of ascorbic acid: the conversion of derivatives of D-galacturonic acid into L-ascorbic acid by plant extracts. Biochem. J. 64 (1956) 13–22. [PMID: 13363799]
2.  Agius, F., Gonzalez-Lamothe, R., Caballero, J.L., Munoz-Blanco, J., Botella, M.A. and Valpuesta, V. Engineering increased vitamin C levels in plants by overexpression of a D-galacturonic acid reductase. Nat. Biotechnol. 21 (2003) 177–181. [DOI] [PMID: 12524550]
3.  Kuorelahti, S., Kalkkinen, N., Penttila, M., Londesborough, J. and Richard, P. Identification in the mold Hypocrea jecorina of the first fungal D-galacturonic acid reductase. Biochemistry 44 (2005) 11234–11240. [DOI] [PMID: 16101307]
4.  Martens-Uzunova, E.S. and Schaap, P.J. An evolutionary conserved D-galacturonic acid metabolic pathway operates across filamentous fungi capable of pectin degradation. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45 (2008) 1449–1457. [DOI] [PMID: 18768163]
[EC 1.1.1.365 created 2013]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.382     
Accepted name: ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NAD+)
Reaction: (2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate + NAD+ = (2S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate + NADH + H+
Glossary: (2S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate = (2S)-2-acetolactate
Systematic name: (2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (isomerizing)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacteria Thermacetogenium phaeum and Desulfococcus oleovorans and from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, is specific for NADH [cf. EC 1.1.1.86, ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NADP+) and EC 1.1.1.383, ketol-acid reductoisomerase [NAD(P)+]].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Brinkmann-Chen, S., Cahn, J.K. and Arnold, F.H. Uncovering rare NADH-preferring ketol-acid reductoisomerases. Metab. Eng. 26C (2014) 17–22. [DOI] [PMID: 25172159]
[EC 1.1.1.382 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.383     
Accepted name: ketol-acid reductoisomerase [NAD(P)+]
Reaction: (2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate + NAD(P)+ = (2S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate + NAD(P)H + H+
Glossary: (2S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate = (2S)-2-acetolactate
Systematic name: (2R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase (isomerizing)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacteria Hydrogenobaculum sp. and Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei and from the archaea Metallosphaera sedula and Ignisphaera aggregans, can use both NADH and NADPH with similar efficiency [cf. EC 1.1.1.86, ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NADP+) and EC 1.1.1.382, ketol-acid reductoisomerase (NAD+)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9075-02-9
References:
1.  Brinkmann-Chen, S., Cahn, J.K. and Arnold, F.H. Uncovering rare NADH-preferring ketol-acid reductoisomerases. Metab. Eng. 26C (2014) 17–22. [DOI] [PMID: 25172159]
[EC 1.1.1.383 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.394     
Accepted name: aurachin B dehydrogenase
Reaction: aurachin B + NAD+ + H2O = 4-[(2E,6E)-farnesyl]-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinoline 1-oxide + NADH + H+ (overall reaction)
(1a) 4-[(2E,6E)-farnesyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinoline 1-oxide + NAD+ = 4-[(2E,6E)-farnesyl]-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinoline 1-oxide + NADH + H+
(1b) aurachin B + H2O = 4-[(2E,6E)-farnesyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-2-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinoline 1-oxide (spontaneous)
For diagram of aurachine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: aurachin B= 4-[(2E,6E,10E)-3,7-dimethyldodeca-2,6,10-trien-1-yl]-3-hydroxy-2-methylquinoline 1-oxide
Other name(s): AuaH
Systematic name: aurachin B:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from the bacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca catalyses the final step in the conversion of aurachin C to aurachin B. In vivo the enzyme catalyses the reduction of 4-[(2E,6E)-farnesyl]-4-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinoline-1-oxide to form 4-[(2E,6E)-farnesyl]-2-methyl-1-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinoline-3,4-diol (note that the reactions written above proceed from right to left), which then undergoes a spontaneous dehydration to form aurachin B.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Katsuyama, Y., Harmrolfs, K., Pistorius, D., Li, Y. and Muller, R. A semipinacol rearrangement directed by an enzymatic system featuring dual-function FAD-dependent monooxygenase. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51 (2012) 9437–9440. [DOI] [PMID: 22907798]
[EC 1.1.1.394 created 2016]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.396     
Accepted name: bacteriochlorophyllide a dehydrogenase
Reaction: (1) 3-deacetyl-3-(1-hydroxyethyl)bacteriochlorophyllide a + NAD+ = bacteriochlorophyllide a + NADH + H+
(2) 3-devinyl-3-(1-hydroxyethyl)chlorophyllide a + NAD+ = 3-acetyl-3-devinylchlorophyllide a + NADH + H+
For diagram of bacteriochlorophyllide a biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): bchC (gene name)
Systematic name: 3-deacetyl-3-(1-hydroxyethyl)bacteriochlorophyllide-a:NAD+ oxidoreductase (bacteriochlorophyllide a-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, together with EC 1.3.7.15, chlorophyllide-a reductase, and EC 4.2.1.165, chlorophyllide-a 31-hydratase, is involved in the conversion of chlorophyllide a to bacteriochlorophyllide a. The enzymes can act in multiple orders, resulting in the formation of different intermediates, but the final product of the cumulative action of the three enzymes is always bacteriochlorophyllide a. The enzyme oxidizes a hydroxyl group on ring A, converting it to an oxo group.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Wellington, C.L. and Beatty, J.T. Promoter mapping and nucleotide sequence of the bchC bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis gene from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Gene 83 (1989) 251–261. [DOI] [PMID: 2555268]
2.  McGlynn, P. and Hunter, C.N. Genetic analysis of the bchC and bchA genes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mol. Gen. Genet. 236 (1993) 227–234. [PMID: 8437569]
3.  Lange, C., Kiesel, S., Peters, S., Virus, S., Scheer, H., Jahn, D. and Moser, J. Broadened substrate specificity of 3-hydroxyethyl bacteriochlorophyllide a dehydrogenase (BchC) indicates a new route for the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll a. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (2015) 19697–19709. [DOI] [PMID: 26088139]
[EC 1.1.1.396 created 2016]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.400     
Accepted name: 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol dehydrogenase
Reaction: 2-methylpropane-1,2-diol + NAD+ = 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal + NADH + H+
Other name(s): mpdB (gene name)
Systematic name: 2-methylpropane-1,2-diol:NAD+ 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: This bacterial enzyme is involved in the degradation pathways of the alkene 2-methylpropene and the fuel additive tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), a widely occurring groundwater contaminant.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lopes Ferreira, N., Labbe, D., Monot, F., Fayolle-Guichard, F. and Greer, C.W. Genes involved in the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolic pathway of Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. Microbiology 152 (2006) 1361–1374. [DOI] [PMID: 16622053]
2.  Kottegoda, S., Waligora, E. and Hyman, M. Metabolism of 2-methylpropene (isobutylene) by the aerobic bacterium Mycobacterium sp. strain ELW1. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 81 (2015) 1966–1976. [DOI] [PMID: 25576605]
[EC 1.1.1.400 created 2016]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.406     
Accepted name: galactitol 2-dehydrogenase (L-tagatose-forming)
Reaction: galactitol + NAD+ = L-tagatose + NADH + H+
Other name(s): GatDH
Systematic name: galactitol:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase (L-tagatose-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized in the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, has a wide subtrate specificity. In addition to galactitol, it primarily oxidizes D-threitol and xylitol, and in addition to L-tagatose, it primarily reduces L-erythrulose, D-ribulose and L-glyceraldehyde. It is specific for NAD+. The enzyme also shows activity with D-tagatose (cf. EC 1.1.1.16, galactitol 2-dehydrogenase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schneider, K.H., Jakel, G., Hoffmann, R. and Giffhorn, F. Enzyme evolution in Rhodobacter sphaeroides: selection of a mutant expressing a new galactitol dehydrogenase and biochemical characterization of the enzyme. Microbiology 141 (1995) 1865–1873. [DOI] [PMID: 7551050]
2.  Carius, Y., Christian, H., Faust, A., Zander, U., Klink, B.U., Kornberger, P., Kohring, G.W., Giffhorn, F. and Scheidig, A.J. Structural insight into substrate differentiation of the sugar-metabolizing enzyme galactitol dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides D. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 20006–20014. [DOI] [PMID: 20410293]
[EC 1.1.1.406 created 2017]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.418     
Accepted name: plant 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating)
Reaction: a 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate + NAD+ = a 3-oxosteroid + CO2 + NADH
For diagram of sterol ring A modification, click here
Other name(s): 3β-HSD/D1 (gene name); 3β-HSD/D2 (gene name); 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: The enzyme, found in plants, catalyses multiple reactions during plant sterol biosynthesis. Unlike the fungal/animal enzyme EC 1.1.1.170, 3β-hydroxysteroid-4α-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), the plant enzyme is specific for NAD+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 71822-23-6
References:
1.  Rondet, S., Taton, M. and Rahier, A. Identification, characterization, and partial purification of 4 α-carboxysterol-C3-dehydrogenase/ C4-decarboxylase from Zea mays. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 366 (1999) 249–260. [PMID: 10356290]
2.  Rahier, A., Darnet, S., Bouvier, F., Camara, B. and Bard, M. Molecular and enzymatic characterizations of novel bifunctional 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylases from Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 27264–27277. [PMID: 16835224]
3.  Rahier, A., Bergdoll, M., Genot, G., Bouvier, F. and Camara, B. Homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis reveal catalytic key amino acids of 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase/C4-decarboxylase from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 149 (2009) 1872–1886. [PMID: 19218365]
[EC 1.1.1.418 created 2019]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.422     
Accepted name: pseudoephedrine dehydrogenase
Reaction: (+)-(1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine + NAD+ = (S)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-one + NADH + H+
Glossary: (+)-(1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine = (1S,2S)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-ol
(S)-2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpropan-1-one = (S)-methcathinone
Other name(s): PseDH
Systematic name: (+)-(1S,2S)-pseudoephedrine:NAD+ 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Arthrobacter sp. TS-15, acts on a broad range of different aryl-alkyl ketones, such as haloketones, ketoamines, diketones, and ketoesters. It accepts various types of aryl groups including phenyl-, pyridyl-, thienyl-, and furyl-rings, but the presence of an aromatic ring is essential for the activity. In addition, the presence of a functional group on the alkyl chain, such as an amine, a halogen, or a ketone, is also crucial. The enzyme exhibits a strict anti-Prelog enantioselectivity. When acting on diketones, it catalyses the reduction of only the keto group closest to the ring, with no further reduction to the diol. cf. EC 1.1.1.423, ephedrine dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Shanati, T., Lockie, C., Beloti, L., Grogan, G. and Ansorge-Schumacher, M.B. Two enantiocomplementary ephedrine dehydrogenases from Arthrobacter sp. TS-15 with broad substrate specificity. ACS Catal. 9 (2019) 6202–6211.
2.  Shanati, T., Ansorge-Schumacher, M. Enzymes and methods for the stereoselective reduction of carbonyl compounds, oxidation and stereoselective reductive amination - for the enantioselective preparation of alcohol amine compounds. (2019) Patent WO2019002459.
3.  Shanati, T. and Ansorge-Schumacher, M.B. Biodegradation of ephedrine isomers by Arthrobacter sp. strain TS-15: discovery of novel ephedrine and pseudoephedrine dehydrogenases. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 86(6):e02487-19 (2020). [DOI] [PMID: 31900306]
[EC 1.1.1.422 created 2020]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.423     
Accepted name: ephedrine dehydrogenase
Reaction: (–)-(1R,2S)-ephedrine + NAD+ = (S)-2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-one + NADH + H+
Glossary: (–)-(1R,2S)-ephedrine = (1R,2S)-1-phenyl-1-hydroxy-2-methylaminopropane
(S)-2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-one = (S)-methcathinone
Other name(s): EDH
Systematic name: (–)-(1R,2S)-ephedrine:NAD+ 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Arthrobacter sp. TS-15, acts on a broad range of different aryl-alkyl ketones, such as haloketones, ketoamines, diketones, and ketoesters. It accepts various types of aryl groups including phenyl-, pyridyl-, thienyl-, and furyl-rings, but the presence of an aromatic ring is essential for the activity. In addition, the presence of a functional group on the alkyl chain, such as an amine, a halogen, or a ketone, is also crucial. The enzyme exhibits a strict Prelog enantioselectivity. When acting on diketones, it catalyses the reduction of only the keto group closest to the ring, with no further reduction to the diol. cf. EC 1.1.1.422, pseudoephedrine dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Shanati, T., Lockie, C., Beloti, L., Grogan, G. and Ansorge-Schumacher, M.B. Two enantiocomplementary ephedrine dehydrogenases from Arthrobacter sp. TS-15 with broad substrate specificity. ACS Catal. 9 (2019) 6202–6211.
2.  Shanati, T., Ansorge-Schumacher, M. Enzymes and methods for the stereoselective reduction of carbonyl compounds, oxidation and stereoselective reductive amination - for the enantioselective preparation of alcohol amine compounds. (2019) Patent WO2019002459.
[EC 1.1.1.423 created 2020]
 
 
EC 1.1.2.7     
Accepted name: methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c)
Reaction: a primary alcohol + 2 ferricytochrome cL = an aldehyde + 2 ferrocytochrome cL + 2 H+
Other name(s): methanol dehydrogenase; MDH (ambiguous)
Systematic name: methanol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase
Comments: A periplasmic quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase that only occurs in methylotrophic bacteria. It uses the novel specific cytochrome cL as acceptor. Acts on a wide range of primary alcohols, including ethanol, duodecanol, chloroethanol, cinnamyl alcohol, and also formaldehyde. Activity is stimulated by ammonia or methylamine. It is usually assayed with phenazine methosulfate. Like all other quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases it has an 8-bladed ’propeller’ structure, a calcium ion bound to the PQQ in the active site and an unusual disulfide ring structure in close proximity to the PQQ. It differs from EC 1.1.2.8, alcohol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c), in having a high affinity for methanol and in having a second essential small subunit (no known function).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37205-43-9
References:
1.  Anthony, C. and Zatman, L.J. The microbial oxidation of methanol. 2. The methanol-oxidizing enzyme of Pseudomonas sp. M 27. Biochem. J. 92 (1964) 614–621. [PMID: 4378696]
2.  Anthony, C. and Zatman, L.J. The microbial oxidation of methanol. The prosthetic group of the alcohol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas sp. M27: a new oxidoreductase prosthetic group. Biochem. J. 104 (1967) 960–969. [PMID: 6049934]
3.  Duine, J.A., Frank, J. and Verweil, P.E.J. Structure and activity of the prosthetic group of methanol dehydrogenase. Eur. J. Biochem. 108 (1980) 187–192. [DOI] [PMID: 6250827]
4.  Salisbury, S.A., Forrest, H.S., Cruse, W.B.T. and Kennard, O. A novel coenzyme from bacterial primary alcohol dehydrogenases. Nature (Lond.) 280 (1979) 843–844. [PMID: 471057]
5.  Cox, J.M., Day, D.J. and Anthony, C. The interaction of methanol dehydrogenase and its electron acceptor, cytochrome cL in methylotrophic bacteria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1119 (1992) 97–106. [DOI] [PMID: 1311606]
6.  Blake, C.C., Ghosh, M., Harlos, K., Avezoux, A. and Anthony, C. The active site of methanol dehydrogenase contains a disulphide bridge between adjacent cysteine residues. Nat. Struct. Biol. 1 (1994) 102–105. [PMID: 7656012]
7.  Xia, Z.X., He, Y.N., Dai, W.W., White, S.A., Boyd, G.D. and Mathews, F.S. Detailed active site configuration of a new crystal form of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylophilus W3A1 at 1.9 &Aring; resolution. Biochemistry 38 (1999) 1214–1220. [DOI] [PMID: 9930981]
8.  Afolabi, P.R., Mohammed, F., Amaratunga, K., Majekodunmi, O., Dales, S.L., Gill, R., Thompson, D., Cooper, J.B., Wood, S.P., Goodwin, P.M. and Anthony, C. Site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray crystallography of the PQQ-containing quinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase and its electron acceptor, cytochrome cL. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 9799–9809. [DOI] [PMID: 11502173]
9.  Anthony, C. and Williams, P. The structure and mechanism of methanol dehydrogenase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1647 (2003) 18–23. [DOI] [PMID: 12686102]
10.  Williams, P.A., Coates, L., Mohammed, F., Gill, R., Erskine, P.T., Coker, A., Wood, S.P., Anthony, C. and Cooper, J.B. The atomic resolution structure of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium extorquens. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 61 (2005) 75–79. [DOI] [PMID: 15608378]
[EC 1.1.2.7 created 1972 as EC 1.1.99.8, modified 1982, part transferred 2010 to EC 1.1.2.7]
 
 
EC 1.1.2.8     
Accepted name: alcohol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c)
Reaction: a primary alcohol + 2 ferricytochrome c = an aldehyde + 2 ferrocytochrome c + 2 H+
Other name(s): type I quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase; quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase
Systematic name: alcohol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase
Comments: A periplasmic PQQ-containing quinoprotein. Occurs in Pseudomonas and Rhodopseudomonas. The enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a specific inducible cytochrome c550 as electron acceptor. Acts on a wide range of primary and secondary alcohols, but not methanol. It has a homodimeric structure [contrasting with the heterotetrameric structure of EC 1.1.2.7, methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c)]. It is routinely assayed with phenazine methosulfate as electron acceptor. Activity is stimulated by ammonia or amines. Like all other quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases it has an 8-bladed ’propeller’ structure, a calcium ion bound to the PQQ in the active site and an unusual disulfide ring structure in close proximity to the PQQ.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Rupp, M. and Gorisch, H. Purification, crystallisation and characterization of quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 369 (1988) 431–439. [PMID: 3144289]
2.  Toyama, H., Fujii, A., Matsushita, K., Shinagawa, E., Ameyama, M. and Adachi, O. Three distinct quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases are expressed when Pseudomonas putida is grown on different alcohols. J. Bacteriol. 177 (1995) 2442–2450. [DOI] [PMID: 7730276]
3.  Schobert, M. and Gorisch, H. Cytochrome c550 is an essential component of the quinoprotein ethanol oxidation system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding cytochrome c550 and an adjacent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Microbiology 145 (1999) 471–481. [DOI] [PMID: 10075429]
4.  Keitel, T., Diehl, A., Knaute, T., Stezowski, J.J., Hohne, W. and Gorisch, H. X-ray structure of the quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: basis of substrate specificity. J. Mol. Biol. 297 (2000) 961–974. [DOI] [PMID: 10736230]
5.  Kay, C.W., Mennenga, B., Gorisch, H. and Bittl, R. Characterisation of the PQQ cofactor radical in quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. FEBS Lett. 564 (2004) 69–72. [DOI] [PMID: 15094044]
6.  Mennenga, B., Kay, C.W. and Gorisch, H. Quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: the unusual disulfide ring formed by adjacent cysteine residues is essential for efficient electron transfer to cytochrome c550. Arch. Microbiol. 191 (2009) 361–367. [DOI] [PMID: 19224199]
[EC 1.1.2.8 created 1972 as EC 1.1.99.8, modified 1982, part transferred 2010 to EC 1.1.2.8]
 
 
EC 1.1.3.6     
Accepted name: cholesterol oxidase
Reaction: cholesterol + O2 = cholest-5-en-3-one + H2O2
For diagram of cholesterol catabolism (rings A, B and C), click here
Other name(s): cholesterol- O2 oxidoreductase; 3β-hydroxy steroid oxidoreductase; 3β-hydroxysteroid:oxygen oxidoreductase
Systematic name: cholesterol:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD. Cholesterol oxidases are secreted bacterial bifunctional enzymes that catalyse the first two steps in the degradation of cholesterol. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of the 3β-hydroxyl group to a keto group, and the isomerization of the double bond in the oxidized steroid ring system from the Δ5 position to Δ6 position (cf. EC 5.3.3.1, steroid Δ-isomerase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9028-76-6
References:
1.  Richmond, W. Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin. Chem. 19 (1973) 1350–1356. [PMID: 4757363]
2.  Stadtman, T.C., Cherkes, A. and Anfinsen, C.B. Studies on the microbiological degradation of cholesterol. J. Biol. Chem. 206 (1954) 511–523. [PMID: 13143010]
3.  MacLachlan, J., Wotherspoon, A.T., Ansell, R.O. and Brooks, C.J. Cholesterol oxidase: sources, physical properties and analytical applications. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 72 (2000) 169–195. [DOI] [PMID: 10822008]
4.  Vrielink, A. Cholesterol oxidase: structure and function. Subcell. Biochem. 51 (2010) 137–158. [DOI] [PMID: 20213543]
[EC 1.1.3.6 created 1961, modified 1982, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.3.7     
Accepted name: aryl-alcohol oxidase
Reaction: an aromatic primary alcohol + O2 = an aromatic aldehyde + H2O2
Other name(s): aryl alcohol oxidase; veratryl alcohol oxidase; arom. alcohol oxidase
Systematic name: aryl-alcohol:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: Oxidizes many primary alcohols containing an aromatic ring; best substrates are (2-naphthyl)methanol and 3-methoxybenzyl alcohol.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9028-77-7
References:
1.  Farmer, V.C., Henderson, M.E.K. and Russell, J.D. Aromatic-alcohol-oxidase activity in the growth medium of Polystictus versicolor. Biochem. J. 74 (1960) 257–262. [PMID: 13821599]
[EC 1.1.3.7 created 1965]
 
 
EC 1.1.3.10     
Accepted name: pyranose oxidase
Reaction: D-glucose + O2 = 2-dehydro-D-glucose + H2O2
Other name(s): glucose 2-oxidase; pyranose-2-oxidase
Systematic name: pyranose:oxygen 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Also oxidizes D-xylose, L-sorbose and D-glucono-1,5-lactone, which have the same ring conformation and configuration at C-2, C-3 and C-4.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37250-80-9
References:
1.  Janssen, F.W. and Ruelius, H.W. Carbohydrate oxidase, a novel enzyme from Polyporus obtusus. II. Specificity and characterization of reaction products. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 167 (1968) 501–510. [DOI] [PMID: 5722278]
2.  Machida, Y. and Nakanishi, T. Purification and properties of pyranose oxidase from Coriolus versicolor. Agric. Biol. Chem. 48 (1984) 2463–2470.
3.  Neidleman, S.L., Amon, W.F., Jr. and Geigert, J. Process for the production of fructose. Patent US4246347, Chem. Abstr. (1981), 94, 20737 (PDF).
4.  Ruelius, H.W., Kerwin, R.M. and Janssen, F.W. Carbohydrate oxidase, a novel enzyme from Polyporus obtusus. I. Isolation and purification. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 167 (1968) 493–500. [DOI] [PMID: 5725162]
[EC 1.1.3.10 created 1972]
 
 
EC 1.1.3.43     
Accepted name: paromamine 6′-oxidase
Reaction: paromamine + O2 = 6′-dehydroparomamine + H2O2
Other name(s): btrQ (gene name); neoG (gene name); kanI (gene name); tacB (gene name); neoQ (obsolete gene name)
Systematic name: paromamine:oxygen 6′-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD. Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several clinically important aminocyclitol antibiotics, including kanamycin, butirosin, neomycin and ribostamycin. Works in combination with EC 2.6.1.93, neamine transaminase, to replace the 6′-hydroxy group of paromamine with an amino group. The enzyme from the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae also catalyses EC 1.1.3.44, 6′′′-hydroxyneomycin C oxidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Huang, F., Spiteller, D., Koorbanally, N.A., Li, Y., Llewellyn, N.M. and Spencer, J.B. Elaboration of neosamine rings in the biosynthesis of neomycin and butirosin. ChemBioChem 8 (2007) 283–288. [DOI] [PMID: 17206729]
2.  Yu, Y., Hou, X., Ni, X. and Xia, H. Biosynthesis of 3′-deoxy-carbamoylkanamycin C in a Streptomyces tenebrarius mutant strain by tacB gene disruption. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 61 (2008) 63–69. [DOI] [PMID: 18408324]
3.  Clausnitzer, D., Piepersberg, W. and Wehmeier, U.F. The oxidoreductases LivQ and NeoQ are responsible for the different 6′-modifications in the aminoglycosides lividomycin and neomycin. J. Appl. Microbiol. 111 (2011) 642–651. [DOI] [PMID: 21689223]
[EC 1.1.3.43 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.3.44     
Accepted name: 6′′′-hydroxyneomycin C oxidase
Reaction: 6′′′-deamino-6′′′-hydroxyneomycin C + O2 = 6′′′-deamino-6′′′-oxoneomycin C + H2O2
Other name(s): neoG (gene name); neoQ (obsolete gene name)
Systematic name: 6′′′-deamino-6′′′-hydroxyneomycin C:oxygen 6′′′-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD. Involved in the biosynthetic pathway of aminoglycoside antibiotics of the neomycin family. Works in combination with EC 2.6.1.95, neomycin C transaminase, to replace the 6′′′-hydroxy group of 6′′′-hydroxyneomycin C with an amino group. Also catalyses EC 1.1.3.43, paromamine 6′-oxidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Huang, F., Spiteller, D., Koorbanally, N.A., Li, Y., Llewellyn, N.M. and Spencer, J.B. Elaboration of neosamine rings in the biosynthesis of neomycin and butirosin. ChemBioChem 8 (2007) 283–288. [DOI] [PMID: 17206729]
2.  Clausnitzer, D., Piepersberg, W. and Wehmeier, U.F. The oxidoreductases LivQ and NeoQ are responsible for the different 6′-modifications in the aminoglycosides lividomycin and neomycin. J. Appl. Microbiol. 111 (2011) 642–651. [DOI] [PMID: 21689223]
[EC 1.1.3.44 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.3.46     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxymandelate oxidase
Reaction: (S)-4-hydroxymandelate + O2 = 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxoacetate + H2O2
Glossary: (S)-4-hydroxymandelate = (S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate
2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxoacetate = 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate = (4-hydroxyphenyl)(oxo)acetate
L-(4-hydroxyphenyl)glycine = (S)-4-hydroxyphenylglycine
L-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)glycine = (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine
Other name(s): 4HmO; HmO
Systematic name: (S)-4-hydroxymandelate:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FMN). The enzyme from the bacterium Amycolatopsis orientalis is involved in the biosynthesis of L-(4-hydroxyphenyl)glycine and L-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)glycine, two non-proteinogenic amino acids occurring in the vancomycin group of antibiotics.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hubbard, B.K., Thomas, M.G. and Walsh, C.T. Biosynthesis of L-p-hydroxyphenylglycine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid constituent of peptide antibiotics. Chem. Biol. 7 (2000) 931–942. [DOI] [PMID: 11137816]
2.  Li, T.L., Choroba, O.W., Charles, E.H., Sandercock, A.M., Williams, D.H. and Spencer, J.B. Characterisation of a hydroxymandelate oxidase involved in the biosynthesis of two unusual amino acids occurring in the vancomycin group of antibiotics. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2001) 1752–1753. [PMID: 12240298]
[EC 1.1.3.46 created 2014]
 
 
EC 1.1.3.49     
Accepted name: (R)-mandelonitrile oxidase
Reaction: (R)-mandelonitrile + O2 = benzoyl cyanide + H2O2
Glossary: (R)-mandelonitrile = (R)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetonitrile
Other name(s): ChuaMOX (gene name)
Systematic name: (R)-mandelonitrile:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD. The enzyme, characterized from the millipede Chamberlinius hualienensis, is segregated from its substrate, which is contained in special sacs. The sacs are ruptured during defensive behavior, allowing the enzyme and substrate to mix in special reaction chambers leading to production of the defensive chemical benzoyl cyanide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ishida, Y., Kuwahara, Y., Dadashipour, M., Ina, A., Yamaguchi, T., Morita, M., Ichiki, Y. and Asano, Y. A sacrificial millipede altruistically protects its swarm using a drone blood enzyme, mandelonitrile oxidase. Sci. Rep. 6:26998 (2016). [DOI] [PMID: 27265180]
[EC 1.1.3.49 created 2016]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.3     
Accepted name: glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Reaction: sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a quinone = glycerone phosphate + a quinol
Glossary: glycerone phosphate = dihydroxyacetone phosphate = 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl phosphate
Other name(s): α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase; α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (acceptor); anaerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; DL-glycerol 3-phosphate oxidase (misleading); FAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; FAD-dependent sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; FAD-GPDH; FAD-linked glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; FAD-linked L-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; flavin-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; flavoprotein-linked L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; glycerol 3-phosphate cytochrome c reductase (misleading); glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase; glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (acceptor); glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (FAD); glycerol-3-phosphate CoQ reductase; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (flavin-linked); glycerol-3-phosphate:CoQ reductase; glycerophosphate dehydrogenase; L-3-glycerophosphate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase; L-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (ambiguous); L-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase; mGPD; mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase; NAD+-independent glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase; pyridine nucleotide-independent L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; sn-glycerol 3-phosphate oxidase (misleading); sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; sn-glycerol-3-phosphate:(acceptor) 2-oxidoreductase; sn-glycerol-3-phosphate:acceptor 2-oxidoreductase
Systematic name: sn-glycerol 3-phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: This flavin-dependent dehydrogenase is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of glycolysis, respiration and phospholipid biosynthesis. In bacteria, the enzyme is localized to the cytoplasmic membrane [6], while in eukaryotes it is tightly bound to the outer surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane [2]. In eukaryotes, this enzyme, together with the cytosolic enzyme EC 1.1.1.8, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+), forms the glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle by which NADH produced in the cytosol, primarily from glycolysis, can be reoxidized to NAD+ by the mitochondrial electron-transport chain [3]. This shuttle plays a critical role in transferring reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH into the mitochondrial matrix [7,8]. Insect flight muscle uses only CoQ10 as the physiological quinone whereas hamster and rat mitochondria use mainly CoQ9 [4]. The enzyme is activated by calcium [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9001-49-4
References:
1.  Ringler, R.L. Studies on the mitochondrial α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. II. Extraction and partial purification of the dehydrogenase from pig brain. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 1192–1198. [PMID: 13741763]
2.  Schryvers, A., Lohmeier, E. and Weiner, J.H. Chemical and functional properties of the native and reconstituted forms of the membrane-bound, aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 253 (1978) 783–788. [PMID: 340460]
3.  MacDonald, M.J. and Brown, L.J. Calcium activation of mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase restudied. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 326 (1996) 79–84. [DOI] [PMID: 8579375]
4.  Rauchová, H., Fato, R., Drahota, Z. and Lenaz, G. Steady-state kinetics of reduction of coenzyme Q analogs by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in brown adipose tissue mitochondria. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 344 (1997) 235–241. [DOI] [PMID: 9244403]
5.  Shen, W., Wei, Y., Dauk, M., Zheng, Z. and Zou, J. Identification of a mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana: evidence for a mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle in plants. FEBS Lett. 536 (2003) 92–96. [DOI] [PMID: 12586344]
6.  Walz, A.C., Demel, R.A., de Kruijff, B. and Mutzel, R. Aerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli binds to the cytoplasmic membrane through an amphipathic α-helix. Biochem. J. 365 (2002) 471–479. [DOI] [PMID: 11955283]
7.  Ansell, R., Granath, K., Hohmann, S., Thevelein, J.M. and Adler, L. The two isoenzymes for yeast NAD+-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by GPD1 and GPD2 have distinct roles in osmoadaptation and redox regulation. EMBO J. 16 (1997) 2179–2187. [DOI] [PMID: 9171333]
8.  Larsson, C., P&aring;hlman, I.L., Ansell, R., Rigoulet, M., Adler, L. and Gustafsson, L. The importance of the glycerol 3-phosphate shuttle during aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 14 (1998) 347–357. [DOI] [PMID: 9559543]
[EC 1.1.5.3 created 1961 as EC 1.1.2.1, transferred 1965 to EC 1.1.99.5, transferred 2009 to EC 1.1.5.3]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.4     
Accepted name: malate dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: (S)-malate + a quinone = oxaloacetate + reduced quinone
Other name(s): FAD-dependent malate-vitamin K reductase; malate-vitamin K reductase; (S)-malate:(acceptor) oxidoreductase; L-malate-quinone oxidoreductase; malate:quinone oxidoreductase; malate quinone oxidoreductase; MQO; malate:quinone reductase; malate dehydrogenase (acceptor); FAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase
Systematic name: (S)-malate:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Vitamin K and several other quinones can act as acceptors. Different from EC 1.1.1.37 (malate dehydrogenase (NAD+)), EC 1.1.1.82 (malate dehydrogenase (NADP+)) and EC 1.1.1.299 (malate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Imai, D. and Brodie, A.F. A phospholipid-requiring enzyme, malate-vitamin K reductase. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 7487–7494.
2.  Imai, T. FAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase, a phospholipid-requiring enzyme from Mycobacterium sp. strain Takeo. Purification and some properties. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 523 (1978) 37–46. [DOI] [PMID: 629992]
3.  Reddy, T.L.P., Suryanarayana, P.M. and Venkitasubramanian, T.A. Variations in the pathways of malate oxidation and phosphorylation in different species of Mycobacteria. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 376 (1975) 210–218. [DOI] [PMID: 234747]
4.  Molenaar, D., van der Rest, M.E. and Petrovic, S. Biochemical and genetic characterization of the membrane-associated malate dehydrogenase (acceptor) from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Eur. J. Biochem. 254 (1998) 395–403. [DOI] [PMID: 9660197]
5.  Kather, B., Stingl, K., van der Rest, M.E., Altendorf, K. and Molenaar, D. Another unusual type of citric acid cycle enzyme in Helicobacter pylori: the malate:quinone oxidoreductase. J. Bacteriol. 182 (2000) 3204–3209. [DOI] [PMID: 10809701]
[EC 1.1.5.4 created 1978 as EC 1.1.99.16, transferred 2009 to EC 1.1.5.4]
 
 
EC 1.1.5.5     
Accepted name: alcohol dehydrogenase (quinone)
Reaction: ethanol + ubiquinone = acetaldehyde + ubiquinol
Other name(s): type III ADH; membrane associated quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase
Systematic name: alcohol:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: Only described in acetic acid bacteria where it is involved in acetic acid production. Associated with membrane. Electron acceptor is membrane ubiquinone. A model structure suggests that, like all other quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases, the catalytic subunit has an 8-bladed ‘propeller’ structure, a calcium ion bound to the PQQ in the active site and an unusual disulfide ring structure in close proximity to the PQQ; the catalytic subunit also has a heme c in the C-terminal domain. The enzyme has two additional subunits, one of which contains three molecules of heme c. It does not require amines for activation. It has a restricted substrate specificity, oxidizing a few primary alcohols (C2 to C6), but not methanol, secondary alcohols and some aldehydes. It is assayed with phenazine methosulfate or with ferricyanide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gomez-Manzo, S., Contreras-Zentella, M., Gonzalez-Valdez, A., Sosa-Torres, M., Arreguin-Espinoza, R. and Escamilla-Marvan, E. The PQQ-alcohol dehydrogenase of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 125 (2008) 71–78. [DOI] [PMID: 18321602]
2.  Shinagawa, E., Toyama, H., Matsushita, K., Tuitemwong, P., Theeragool, G. and Adachi, O. A novel type of formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme from the membrane of Acetobacter sp. SKU 14. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70 (2006) 850–857. [DOI] [PMID: 16636451]
3.  Chinnawirotpisan, P., Theeragool, G., Limtong, S., Toyama, H., Adachi, O.O. and Matsushita, K. Quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase is involved in catabolic acetate production, while NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase in ethanol assimilation in Acetobacter pasteurianus SKU1108. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 96 (2003) 564–571. [DOI] [PMID: 16233574]
4.  Frebortova, J., Matsushita, K., Arata, H. and Adachi, O. Intramolecular electron transport in quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase of Acetobacter methanolicus: a redox-titration stud. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1363 (1998) 24–34. [DOI] [PMID: 9526036]
5.  Matsushita, K., Kobayashi, Y., Mizuguchi, M., Toyama, H., Adachi, O., Sakamoto, K. and Miyoshi, H. A tightly bound quinone functions in the ubiquinone reaction sites of quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase of an acetic acid bacterium, Gluconobacter suboxydans. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 72 (2008) 2723–2731. [DOI] [PMID: 18838797]
6.  Matsushita, K., Yakushi, T., Toyama, H., Shinagawa, E. and Adachi, O. Function of multiple heme c moieties in intramolecular electron transport and ubiquinone reduction in the quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase-cytochrome c complex of Gluconobacter suboxydans. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 4850–4857. [DOI] [PMID: 8617755]
7.  Matsushita, K., Takaki, Y., Shinagawa, E., Ameyama, M. and Adachi, O. Ethanol oxidase respiratory chain of acetic acid bacteria. Reactivity with ubiquinone of pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases purified from Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter suboxydans. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 56 (1992) 304–310.
8.  Matsushita, K., Toyama, H. and Adachi, O. Respiratory chains and bioenergetics of acetic acid bacteria. Adv. Microb. Physiol. 36 (1994) 247–301. [PMID: 7942316]
9.  Cozier, G.E., Giles, I.G. and Anthony, C. The structure of the quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase of Acetobacter aceti modelled on that of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium extorquens. Biochem. J. 308 (1995) 375–379. [PMID: 7772016]
[EC 1.1.5.5 created 2009, modified 2010]
 
 


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