The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: FMN reductase (NADPH)
Reaction: FMNH2 + NADP+ = FMN + NADPH + H+
For diagram of FAD biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): FRP; flavin reductase P; SsuE
Systematic name: FMNH2:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzymes from bioluminescent bacteria contain FMN [4], while the enzyme from Escherichia coli does not [8]. The enzyme often forms a two-component system with monooxygenases such as luciferase. Unlike EC, this enzyme does not use NADH as acceptor [1,2]. While FMN is the preferred substrate, the enzyme can also use FAD and riboflavin with lower activity [3,6,8].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Gerlo, E. and Charlier, J. Identification of NADH-specific and NADPH-specific FMN reductases in Beneckea harveyi. Eur. J. Biochem. 57 (1975) 461–467. [DOI] [PMID: 1175652]
2.  Jablonski, E. and DeLuca, M. Purification and properties of the NADH and NADPH specific FMN oxidoreductases from Beneckea harveyi. Biochemistry 16 (1977) 2932–2936. [PMID: 880288]
3.  Jablonski, E. and DeLuca, M. Studies of the control of luminescence in Beneckea harveyi: properties of the NADH and NADPH:FMN oxidoreductases. Biochemistry 17 (1978) 672–678. [PMID: 23827]
4.  Lei, B., Liu, M., Huang, S. and Tu, S.C. Vibrio harveyi NADPH-flavin oxidoreductase: cloning, sequencing and overexpression of the gene and purification and characterization of the cloned enzyme. J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 3552–3558. [DOI] [PMID: 8206832]
5.  Tanner, J.J., Lei, B., Tu, S.C. and Krause, K.L. Flavin reductase P: structure of a dimeric enzyme that reduces flavin. Biochemistry 35 (1996) 13531–13539. [DOI] [PMID: 8885832]
6.  Liu, M., Lei, B., Ding, Q., Lee, J.C. and Tu, S.C. Vibrio harveyi NADPH:FMN oxidoreductase: preparation and characterization of the apoenzyme and monomer-dimer equilibrium. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 337 (1997) 89–95. [DOI] [PMID: 8990272]
7.  Lei, B. and Tu, S.C. Mechanism of reduced flavin transfer from Vibrio harveyi NADPH-FMN oxidoreductase to luciferase. Biochemistry 37 (1998) 14623–14629. [DOI] [PMID: 9772191]
8.  Eichhorn, E., van der Ploeg, J.R. and Leisinger, T. Characterization of a two-component alkanesulfonate monooxygenase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 26639–26646. [DOI] [PMID: 10480865]
[EC created 2011]
Accepted name: methanesulfonate monooxygenase (NADH)
Reaction: methanesulfonate + NADH + H+ + O2 = formaldehyde + NAD+ + sulfite + H2O
Glossary: methanesulfonate = CH3-SO3-
formaldehyde = H-CHO
Other name(s): mesylate monooxygenase; mesylate,reduced-FMN:oxygen oxidoreductase; MsmABC; methanesulfonic acid monooxygenase; MSA monooxygenase; MSAMO
Systematic name: methanesulfonate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein. Methanesulfonate is the simplest of the sulfonates and is a substrate for the growth of certain methylotrophic microorganisms. Compared with EC, alkanesulfonate monooxygenase, this enzyme has a restricted substrate range that includes only the short-chain aliphatic sulfonates (methanesulfonate to butanesulfonate) and excludes all larger molecules, such as arylsulfonates [1]. The enzyme from the bacterium Methylosulfonomonas methylovora is a multicomponent system comprising a hydroxylase, a reductase (MsmD) and a ferredoxin (MsmC). The hydroxylase has both large (MsmA) and small (MsmB) subunits, with each large subunit containing a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster. cf. EC, methanesulfonate monooxygenase (FMNH2).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD
1.  de Marco, P., Moradas-Ferreira, P., Higgins, T.P., McDonald, I., Kenna, E.M. and Murrell, J.C. Molecular analysis of a novel methanesulfonic acid monooxygenase from the methylotroph Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. J. Bacteriol. 181 (1999) 2244–2251. [PMID: 10094704]
2.  Higgins, T.P., Davey, M., Trickett, J., Kelly, D.P. and Murrell, J.C. Metabolism of methanesulfonic acid involves a multicomponent monooxygenase enzyme. Microbiology 142 (1996) 251–260. [DOI] [PMID: 8932698]
[EC created 2009 as EC, transferred 2010 to EC, modified 2016]
Accepted name: alkanesulfonate monooxygenase
Reaction: an alkanesulfonate + FMNH2 + O2 = an aldehyde + FMN + sulfite + H2O
Glossary: an alkanesulfonate = R-CH2-SO3-
an aldehyde = R-CHO
Other name(s): SsuD; sulfate starvation-induced protein 6; alkanesulfonate,reduced-FMN:oxygen oxidoreductase
Systematic name: alkanesulfonate,FMNH2:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme from Escherichia coli catalyses the desulfonation of a wide range of aliphatic sulfonates (unsubstituted C1- to C14-sulfonates as well as substituted C2-sulfonates). Does not desulfonate taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) or aromatic sulfonates. Does not use FMN as a bound cofactor. Instead, it uses reduced FMN (i.e., FMNH2) as a substrate. FMNH2 is provided by SsuE, the associated FMN reductase (EC
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 256383-67-2
1.  Eichhorn, E., van der Ploeg, J.R. and Leisinger, T. Characterization of a two-component alkanesulfonate monooxygenase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 26639–26646. [DOI] [PMID: 10480865]
[EC created 2002]

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