The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.14.99.50     
Accepted name: γ-glutamyl hercynylcysteine S-oxide synthase
Reaction: hercynine + γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + O2 = γ-L-glutamyl-S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide + H2O
For diagram of ergothioneine and ovothiol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: hercynine = Nα,Nα,Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine
Other name(s): EgtB
Systematic name: hercynine,γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine:oxygen oxidoreductase [γ-L-glutamyl-S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide-forming]
Comments: Requires Fe2+ for activity. The enzyme, found in bacteria, is specific for both hercynine and γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine. It is part of the biosynthesis pathway of ergothioneine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Seebeck, F.P. In vitro reconstitution of mycobacterial ergothioneine biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 6632–6633. [DOI] [PMID: 20420449]
2.  Pluskal, T., Ueno, M. and Yanagida, M. Genetic and metabolomic dissection of the ergothioneine and selenoneine biosynthetic pathway in the fission yeast, S. pombe, and construction of an overproduction system. PLoS One 9:e97774 (2014). [DOI] [PMID: 24828577]
[EC 1.14.99.50 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.51     
Accepted name: hercynylcysteine S-oxide synthase
Reaction: hercynine + L-cysteine + O2 = S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide + H2O
For diagram of ergothioneine and ovothiol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: hercynine = Nα,Nα,Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine
Other name(s): Egt1; Egt-1
Systematic name: hercynine,L-cysteine:oxygen [S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide-forming]
Comments: Requires Fe2+ for activity. The enzyme, found in fungal species, is part of a fusion protein that also has the the activity of EC 2.1.1.44, L-histidine Nα-methyltransferase. It is part of the biosynthesis pathway of ergothioneine. The enzyme can also use L-selenocysteine to produce hercynylselenocysteine, which can be converted to selenoneine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Pluskal, T., Ueno, M. and Yanagida, M. Genetic and metabolomic dissection of the ergothioneine and selenoneine biosynthetic pathway in the fission yeast, S. pombe, and construction of an overproduction system. PLoS One 9:e97774 (2014). [DOI] [PMID: 24828577]
[EC 1.14.99.51 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.52     
Accepted name: L-cysteinyl-L-histidinylsulfoxide synthase
Reaction: L-histidine + L-cysteine + O2 = S-(L-histidin-5-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide + H2O
For diagram of ergothioneine and ovothiol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: S-(L-histidin-5-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide = 5-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl]sulfinyl}-L-histidine
Other name(s): OvoA
Systematic name: L-histidine,L-cysteine:oxygen [S-(L-histidin-5-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide-forming]
Comments: Requires Fe2+ for activity. The enzyme participates in ovothiol biosynthesis. It also has some activity as EC 1.13.11.20, cysteine dioxygenase, and can perform the reaction of EC 1.14.99.50, γ-glutamyl hercynylcysteine sulfoxide synthase, albeit with low activity [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Braunshausen, A. and Seebeck, F.P. Identification and characterization of the first ovothiol biosynthetic enzyme. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 1757–1759. [DOI] [PMID: 21247153]
2.  Song, H., Leninger, M., Lee, N. and Liu, P. Regioselectivity of the oxidative C-S bond formation in ergothioneine and ovothiol biosyntheses. Org. Lett. 15 (2013) 4854–4857. [DOI] [PMID: 24016264]
3.  Mashabela, G.T. and Seebeck, F.P. Substrate specificity of an oxygen dependent sulfoxide synthase in ovothiol biosynthesis. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49 (2013) 7714–7716. [DOI] [PMID: 23877651]
4.  Song, H., Her, A.S., Raso, F., Zhen, Z., Huo, Y. and Liu, P. Cysteine oxidation reactions catalyzed by a mononuclear non-heme iron enzyme (OvoA) in ovothiol biosynthesis. Org. Lett. 16 (2014) 2122–2125. [DOI] [PMID: 24684381]
[EC 1.14.99.52 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.44     
Accepted name: L-histidine Nα-methyltransferase
Reaction: 3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + L-histidine = 3 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + hercynine (overall reaction)
(1a) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + L-histidine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + Nα-methyl-L-histidine
(1b) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + Nα-methyl-L-histidine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + Nα,Nα-dimethyl-L-histidine
(1c) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + Nα,Nα-dimethyl-L-histidine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + hercynine
For diagram of ergothioneine and ovothiol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: hercynine = Nα,Nα,Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine
Other name(s): dimethylhistidine N-methyltransferase; dimethylhistidine methyltransferase; histidine-α-N-methyltransferase; S-adenosyl-L-methionine:α-N,α-N-dimethyl-L-histidine α-N-methyltransferase; S-adenosyl-L-methionine:Nα,Nα-dimethyl-L-histidine Nα-methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:L-histidine Nα-methyltransferase (hercynine-forming)
Comments: Part of the biosynthetic pathway of ergothioneine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 62213-53-0
References:
1.  Ishikawa, Y. and Melville, D.B. The enzymatic α-N-methylation of histidine. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 5967–5973. [PMID: 5484456]
2.  Seebeck, F.P. In vitro reconstitution of mycobacterial ergothioneine biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 6632–6633. [DOI] [PMID: 20420449]
[EC 2.1.1.44 created 1976, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 3.5.1.118     
Accepted name: γ-glutamyl hercynylcysteine S-oxide hydrolase
Reaction: γ-L-glutamyl-S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide + H2O = S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide + L-glutamate
For diagram of ergothioneine and ovothiol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: hercynine = Nα,Nα,Nα-trimethyl-L-histidine = 3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)-2-(trimethylamino)propanoate
S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide = S-(N,N,N-trimethyl-L-histidin-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide
Other name(s): EgtC
Systematic name: γ-glutamyl-S-(hercyn-2-yl)cysteine S-oxide amidohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is part of the biosynthesis pathway of ergothioneine in mycobacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Seebeck, F.P. In vitro reconstitution of mycobacterial ergothioneine biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 6632–6633. [DOI] [PMID: 20420449]
[EC 3.5.1.118 created 2015]
 
 
EC 4.4.1.36     
Accepted name: hercynylcysteine S-oxide lyase
Reaction: S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide + reduced acceptor = ergothioneine + pyruvate + NH3 + acceptor (overall reaction)
(1a) S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine S-oxide + H2O = 2-(hydroxysulfanyl)hercynine + pyruvate + NH3
(1b) 2-(hydroxysulfanyl)hercynine + reduced acceptor = ergothioneine + acceptor + H2O (spontaneous)
Glossary: 2-(hydroxysulfanyl)hercynine = Nα,Nα,Nα-trimethyl-2-(hydroxysulfanyl)-L-histidine = 2-sulfenohercynine
ergothioneine = Nα,Nα,Nα-trimethyl-2-sulfanylidene-2,3-dihydro-L-histidine
Other name(s): egtE (gene name)
Systematic name: S-(hercyn-2-yl)-L-cysteine ergothioneine-hydroxysulfanolate-lyase
Comments: Contains pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis, cayalyses the last step in the pathway of ergothioneine biosynthesis. The enzyme forms a 2-(hydroxysulfanyl)hercynine intermediate, which is reduced to ergothioneine non-enzymically by a thiol. In vitro, DTT can serve this function.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Seebeck, F.P. In vitro reconstitution of mycobacterial ergothioneine biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 6632–6633. [DOI] [PMID: 20420449]
2.  Pluskal, T., Ueno, M. and Yanagida, M. Genetic and metabolomic dissection of the ergothioneine and selenoneine biosynthetic pathway in the fission yeast, S. pombe, and construction of an overproduction system. PLoS One 9:e97774 (2014). [DOI] [PMID: 24828577]
3.  Song, H., Hu, W., Naowarojna, N., Her, A.S., Wang, S., Desai, R., Qin, L., Chen, X. and Liu, P. Mechanistic studies of a novel C-S lyase in ergothioneine biosynthesis: the involvement of a sulfenic acid intermediate. Sci. Rep. 5:11870 (2015). [DOI] [PMID: 26149121]
[EC 4.4.1.36 created 2017]
 
 


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