The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.13.11.44      
Deleted entry: linoleate diol synthase. Activity is covered by EC 1.13.11.60, linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase and EC 5.4.4.6, 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8S-isomerase.
[EC 1.13.11.44 created 2000, deleted 2011]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.45     
Accepted name: linoleate 11-lipoxygenase
Reaction: linoleate + O2 = (9Z,12Z)-(11S)-11-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate
Glossary: arachidonate = (all-Z)-icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoate
linoleate = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoate
α-linolenate = (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoate
γ-linolenate = (6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadeca-6,9,12-trienoate
oleate = (Z)-octadec-9-enoate
Other name(s): linoleate dioxygenase; manganese lipoxygenase
Systematic name: linoleate:oxygen 11S-oxidoreductase
Comments: The product (9Z,12Z)-(11S)-11-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate, is converted, more slowly, into (9Z,11E)-(13R)-13-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoate. The enzyme from the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis requires Mn2+. It also acts on α-linolenate, whereas γ-linolenate is a poor substrate. Oleate and arachidonate are not substrates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hamberg, M., Su, C. and Oliw, E.H. Manganese lipoxygenase: Discovery of bis-allylic hydroperoxide as product and intermediate in a lipoxygenase reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 13080–13088. [DOI] [PMID: 9582346]
2.  Oliw, E.H., Su, C., Skogstrom, T. and Benthin, G. Analysis of novel hydroperoxides and other metabolites of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with ion trap MSn. Lipids 33 (1998) 843–852. [DOI] [PMID: 9778131]
3.  Su, C. and Oliw, E.H. Manganese lipoxygenase: Purification and characterization. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 13072–13079. [DOI] [PMID: 9582345]
[EC 1.13.11.45 created 2000]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.4     
Accepted name: acyl-lipid (11-3)-desaturase
Reaction: (1) an (11Z,14Z)-icosa-11,14-dienoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = an (8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-8,11,14-trienoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) an (11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosa-11,14,17-trienoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = an (8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosa-8,11,14,17-tetraenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: di-homo-γ-linolenate = (8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-8,11,14-trienoate
Other name(s): acyl-lipid 8-desaturase; Δ8 fatty acid desaturase; Δ8-desaturase; Δ8-fatty-acid desaturase; efd1 (gene name); D8Des (gene name); phytosphinganine,hydrogen donor:oxygen Δ8-oxidoreductase (incorrect); SLD
Systematic name: acyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase [(11-3),(11-2)-cis-dehydrogenating]
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the protist Euglena gracilis [1] and the microalga Rebecca salina [2], introduces a cis double bond at the 8-position in 20-carbon fatty acids that are incorporated into a glycerolipid and have an existing Δ11 desaturation. The enzyme is a front-end desaturase, introducing the new double bond between the pre-existing double bond and the carboxyl-end of the fatty acid. It contains a cytochrome b5 domain that acts as the direct electron donor to the active site of the desaturase, and does not require an external cytochrome. Involved in alternative pathways for the biosynthesis of the polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonate and icosapentaenoate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Wallis, J.G. and Browse, J. The Δ8-desaturase of Euglena gracilis: an alternate pathway for synthesis of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 365 (1999) 307–316. [DOI] [PMID: 10328826]
2.  Zhou, X.R., Robert, S.S., Petrie, J.R., Frampton, D.M., Mansour, M.P., Blackburn, S.I., Nichols, P.D., Green, A.G. and Singh, S.P. Isolation and characterization of genes from the marine microalga Pavlova salina encoding three front-end desaturases involved in docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 68 (2007) 785–796. [DOI] [PMID: 17291553]
[EC 1.14.19.4 created 2008, modified 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.30     
Accepted name: acyl-lipid (8-3)-desaturase
Reaction: (1) an (8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-8,11,14-trienoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosatetra-5,8,11,14-tetraenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) an (8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosa-8,11,14,17-tetraenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosa-5,8,11,14,17-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: (8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-8,11,14-trienoate = di-homo-γ-linolenate
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-8,11,14-trienoate = arachidonate
Other name(s): acyl-lipid 5-desaturase; Δ5-fatty-acid desaturase; DES5 (gene name); D5des (gene name); FADS1
Systematic name: Δ8 acyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (5,6 cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: The enzyme, which has been characterized from multiple organisms including the moss Physcomitrella patens, the marine microalga Rebecca salina, and the filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina, introduces a cis double bond at the 5-position in 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids incorporated in a glycerolipid that contain a Δ8 double bond. The enzyme contains a cytochrome b5 domain that acts as the direct electron donor to the active site of the desaturase, and does not require an external cytochrome.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Michaelson, L.V., Lazarus, C.M., Griffiths, G., Napier, J.A. and Stobart, A.K. Isolation of a Δ5-fatty acid desaturase gene from Mortierella alpina. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 19055–19059. [DOI] [PMID: 9668087]
2.  Kaewsuwan, S., Cahoon, E.B., Perroud, P.F., Wiwat, C., Panvisavas, N., Quatrano, R.S., Cove, D.J. and Bunyapraphatsara, N. Identification and functional characterization of the moss Physcomitrella patens Δ5-desaturase gene involved in arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acid biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 21988–21997. [DOI] [PMID: 16728405]
3.  Zhou, X.R., Robert, S.S., Petrie, J.R., Frampton, D.M., Mansour, M.P., Blackburn, S.I., Nichols, P.D., Green, A.G. and Singh, S.P. Isolation and characterization of genes from the marine microalga Pavlova salina encoding three front-end desaturases involved in docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 68 (2007) 785–796. [DOI] [PMID: 17291553]
[EC 1.14.19.30 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.38     
Accepted name: acyl-lipid Δ6-acetylenase
Reaction: (1) a γ-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dien-6-ynoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) a stearidonoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trien-6-ynoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: γ-linolenoate = (6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadeca-6,9,12-trienoate
stearidonate = (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoate
dicranin = (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trien-6-ynoic acid
Systematic name: Δ6 acyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (6,7-dehydrogenating)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the moss Ceratodon purpureus, converts the double bond at position 6 of γ-linolenate and stearidonate into a triple bond. The product of the latter, dicranin, is the main fatty acid found in C. purpureus. The enzyme contains a cytochrome b5 domain that acts as the direct electron donor to the desaturase active site. The enzyme also has the activity of EC 1.14.19.47, acyl-lipid (9-3)-desaturase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sperling, P., Lee, M., Girke, T., Zähringer, U., Stymne, S. and Heinz, E. A bifunctional Δ6-fatty acyl acetylenase/desaturase from the moss Ceratodon purpureus. A new member of the cytochrome b5 superfamily. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 3801–3811. [DOI] [PMID: 10848999]
[EC 1.14.19.38 created 2015]
 
 
EC 5.3.3.13     
Accepted name: polyenoic fatty acid isomerase
Reaction: (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoate = (5Z,7E,9E,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoate
For diagram of reaction, click here
Other name(s): PFI; eicosapentaenoate cis5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoate cis5-trans7,9-cis14,17 isomerase; (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate Δ8,117,8-isomerase (incorrect); (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-eicosapentaenoate Δ8,117,9-isomerase (trans-double-bond-forming)
Systematic name: (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoate Δ8,117,9-isomerase (trans-double-bond-forming)
Comments: The enzyme from the red alga Ptilota filicina catalyses the isomerization of skip dienes (methylene-interrupted double bonds) in a broad range of fatty acids and fatty-acid analogues, such as arachidonate and γ-linolenate, to yield a conjugated triene.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 159002-84-3
References:
1.  Wise, M.L., Hamberg, M. and Gerwick, W.H. Biosynthesis of conjugated fatty acids by a novel isomerase from the red marine alga Ptilota filicina. Biochemistry 33 (1994) 15223–15232. [PMID: 7803384]
2.  Wise, M.L., Soderstrom, K., Murray, T.F. and Gerwick, W.H. Synthesis and cannabinoid receptor binding activity of conjugated triene anandamide, a novel eicosanoid. Experientia 52 (1996) 88–92. [PMID: 8575565]
3.  Wise, M.L., Rossi, J. and Gerwick, W.H. Binding site characterization of polyenoic fatty-acid isomerase from the marine alga Ptilota filicina. Biochemistry 36 (1997) 2985–2992. [DOI] [PMID: 9062129]
4.  Zheng, W., Wise, M.L., Wyrick, A., Metz, J.G., Yuan, L. and Gerwick, W.H. Polyenoic fatty-acid isomerase from the marine red alga Ptilota filicina: protein characterization and functional expression of the cloned cDNA. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 401 (2002) 11–20. [DOI] [PMID: 12054482]
[EC 5.3.3.13 created 2004]
 
 


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