The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.4.1.363     
Accepted name: ginsenoside 20-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + (20S)-protopanaxadiol = UDP + ginsenoside C-K
Glossary: (20S)-protopanaxadiol = (3β,12β)-dammar-24-ene-3,12,20-triol
ginsenoside C-K = (3β,12β)-3,12-dihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGT71A27 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:(20S)-protopanaxadiol 20-O-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, transfers a glucosyl moiety to the free C20(S)-OH group of dammarane derivative substrates, including protopanaxatriol, dammarenediol II, (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2, and (20S)-ginsenoside Rg3. It does not act on the 20R epimer of protopanaxadiol, or on ginsenosides that are glucosylated at the C-6 position, such as ginsenoside Rh1 or ginsenoside Rg2.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yan, X., Fan, Y., Wei, W., Wang, P., Liu, Q., Wei, Y., Zhang, L., Zhao, G., Yue, J. and Zhou, Z. Production of bioactive ginsenoside compound K in metabolically engineered yeast. Cell Res. 24 (2014) 770–773. [PMID: 24603359]
2.  Wei, W., Wang, P., Wei, Y., Liu, Q., Yang, C., Zhao, G., Yue, J., Yan, X. and Zhou, Z. Characterization of Panax ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases catalyzing protopanaxatriol and biosyntheses of bioactive ginsenosides F1 and Rh1 in metabolically engineered yeasts. Mol. Plant 8 (2015) 1412–1424. [PMID: 26032089]
[EC 2.4.1.363 created 2019]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.364     
Accepted name: protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + (20S)-protopanaxadiol = UDP + (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + ginsenoside C-K = UDP + ginsenoside F2
Glossary: (20S)-protopanaxadiol = (3β,12β)-dammar-24-ene-3,12,20-triol
ginsenoside C-K = (3β,12β)-3,12-dihydroxydammar-24-en-20-yl β-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): UGT74AE2 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 3-O-glucosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Panax ginseng, transfers a glucosyl moiety to the free C-3-OH group of (20S)-protopanaxadiol and ginsenoside C-K.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Jung, S.C., Kim, W., Park, S.C., Jeong, J., Park, M.K., Lim, S., Lee, Y., Im, W.T., Lee, J.H., Choi, G. and Kim, S.C. Two ginseng UDP-glycosyltransferases synthesize ginsenoside Rg3 and Rd. Plant Cell Physiol. 55 (2014) 2177–2188. [PMID: 25320211]
[EC 2.4.1.364 created 2019]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.193     
Accepted name: ginsenosidase type I
Reaction: (1) a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with two glucosyl residues at position 3 + H2O = a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with one glucosyl residue at position 3 + D-glucopyranose
(2) a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with one glucosyl residue at position 3 + H2O = a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with no glycosidic modifications at position 3 + D-glucopyranose
(3) a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 20 + H2O = a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside with a single glucosyl residue at position 20 + a monosaccharide
For diagram of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides ginsenosidases, click here
Glossary: ginsenoside Rb1 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rb2 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rb3 = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rc = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]-20-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D glucopyranosyloxy]dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside Rd = 3β-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-20-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside F2 = 3β,20-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-en-12β-ol
ginsenoside C-K = 20β-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-ene-3β,12β-diol
ginsenoside Rh2 = 3β-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)dammar-24-ene-12β,20-diol
Systematic name: ginsenoside glucohydrolase
Comments: Ginsenosidase type I is slightly activated by Mg2+ or Ca2+ [1]. The enzyme hydrolyses the 3-O-β-D-(1→2)-glucosidic bond, the 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl bond and the 20-O-β-D-(1→6)-glycosidic bond of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides. It usually leaves a single glucosyl residue attached at position 20 and one or no glucosyl residues at position 3. Starting with a ginsenoside that is glycosylated at both positions (e.g. ginsenoside Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc or Rd), the most common products are ginsenoside F2 and ginsenoside C-K, with low amounts of ginsenoside Rh2.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yu, H., Zhang, C., Lu, M., Sun, F., Fu, Y. and Jin, F. Purification and characterization of new special ginsenosidase hydrolyzing multi-glycisides of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, ginsenosidase type I. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 55 (2007) 231–235. [PMID: 17268094]
[EC 3.2.1.193 created 2014]
 
 


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