The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase
Reaction: ATP + 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate = ADP + 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate
For diagram of myo-inositol-phosphate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): 1D-myo-inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase; Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase
Systematic name: ATP:1D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphotransferase
Comments: Activated by Ca2+. Three isoforms have been shown to exist [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 106283-10-7
1.  Hansen, C.A., Mah, S. and Williamson, J.R. Formation and metabolism of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate in liver. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 8100–8103. [PMID: 3487541]
2.  Irvine, R.F., Letcher, A.J., Heslop, J.P. and Berridge, M.J. The inositol tris/tetrakisphosphate pathway - demonstration of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase activity in animal tissues. Nature 320 (1986) 631–634. [DOI] [PMID: 3010126]
3.  Irvine, R.F. and Schell, M.J. Back in the water - the return of the inositol phosphates. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol. 2 (2001) 327–338. [DOI] [PMID: 11331907]
[EC created 1989, modified 2002]
Accepted name: inositol-polyphosphate multikinase
Reaction: 2 ATP + 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate = 2 ADP + 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (overall reaction)
(1a) ATP + 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate = ADP + 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate
(1b) ATP + 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate = ADP + 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate
For diagram of myo-inositol-phosphate metabolism, click here
Other name(s): IpK2; IP3/IP4 6-/3-kinase; IP3/IP4 dual-specificity 6-/3-kinase; IpmK; ArgRIII; AtIpk2α; AtIpk2β; inositol polyphosphate 6-/3-/5-kinase
Systematic name: ATP:1D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 6-phosphotransferase
Comments: This enzyme also phosphorylates Ins(1,4,5)P3 to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 to Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P4 to Ins(PP)P4, isomer unknown. The enzyme from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana can also phosphorylate Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P5 at the D-5-position to produce 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate and inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), respectively [3]. Yeast produce InsP6 from Ins(1,4,5)P3 by the actions of this enzyme and EC, inositol-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9077-69-4
1.  Saiardi, A., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Snowman, A.M., Tempst, P. and Snyder, S.H. Synthesis of diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate by a newly identified family of higher inositol polyphosphate kinases. Curr. Biol. 9 (1999) 1323–1326. [DOI] [PMID: 10574768]
2.  Odom, A.R., Stahlberg, A., Wente, S.R. and York, J.D. A role for nuclear inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate kinase in transcriptional control. Science 287 (2000) 2026–2029. [DOI] [PMID: 10720331]
3.  Stevenson-Paulik, J., Odom, A.R. and York, J.D. Molecular and biochemical characterization of two plant inositol polyphosphate 6-/3-/5-kinases. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 42711–42718. [DOI] [PMID: 12226109]
4.  Verbsky, J.W., Chang, S.C., Wilson, M.P., Mochizuki, Y. and Majerus, P.W. The pathway for the production of inositol hexakisphosphate in human cells. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 1911–1920. [DOI] [PMID: 15531582]
[EC created 2002, modified 2006]
Accepted name: phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase
Reaction: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate + H2O = 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate + phosphate
For diagram of 1-phosphatidyl-myo-inositol metabolism, click here
Glossary: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate = PtdIns4P
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate = PtdIns(1,4)P2
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate = PtdIns(4,5)P2
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate = PtdIns(1,3,4)P3
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate = PtdIns(1,4,5)P3
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate = PtdIns(3,4,5)P3
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate = PtdIns(1,3,4,5)P4
Other name(s): type II inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; triphosphoinositide phosphatase; IP3 phosphatase; PtdIns(4,5)P2 phosphatase; triphosphoinositide phosphomonoesterase; diphosphoinositide phosphatase; inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase; inositol triphosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase; phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphatase; phosphatidyl-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphatase; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphatase; polyphosphoinositol lipid 5-phosphatase; phosphatidyl-inositol-bisphosphate phosphatase
Systematic name: phosphatidyl-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate 4-phosphohydrolase
Comments: These enzymes can also remove the 5-phosphate from Ins(1,4,5)P3 and/or Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. They are a diverse family of enzymes, with differing abilities to catalyse two or more of the four reactions listed. They are thought to use inositol lipids rather than inositol phosphates as substrates in vivo. All of them can use either or both of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 as substrates; this is the main property that distinguishes them from EC, inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9036-01-5
1.  Dawson, R.M.C. and Thompson, W. The triphosphoinositide phosphomonoesterase of brain tissue. Biochem. J. 91 (1964) 244–250. [PMID: 4284485]
2.  Roach, P.D. and Palmer, F.B.S. Human erythrocyte cytosol phosphatidyl-inositol-bisphosphate phosphatase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 661 (1981) 323–333. [DOI] [PMID: 6271223]
3.  Woscholski, R. and Parker, P.J. Inositol phosphatases: constructive destruction of phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates. In: Cockcroft, S. (Ed.), Biology of Phosphoinositides, Biology of Phosphoinositides, Oxford, 2000, pp. 320–338.
[EC created 1972, modified 2002]
Accepted name: inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase
Reaction: (1) D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate + phosphate
(2) 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate + H2O = 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate + phosphate
For diagram of myo-inositol-phosphate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): type I inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase; inositol trisphosphate phosphomonoesterase; InsP3/Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatase; inosine triphosphatase; D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate 5-phosphatase; D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase; L-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-monoesterase; inositol phosphate 5-phosphomonoesterase; inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate/1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate 5-phosphatase; Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase; D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)/(1,3,4,5)-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase; myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase
Systematic name: 1D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphohydrolase
Comments: One mammalian isoform is known. This enzyme is distinguished from the family of enzymes classified under EC, phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase, by its inability to dephosphorylate inositol lipids.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 106283-14-1
1.  Downes, C.P., Mussat, M.C. and Michell, R.H. The inositol trisphosphate phosphomonoesterase of the human erythrocyte membrane. Biochem. J. 203 (1982) 169–177. [PMID: 6285891]
2.  Erneux, C., Lemos, M., Verjans, B., Vanderhaeghen, P., Delvaux, A. and Dumont, J.E. Soluble and particulate Ins(1,4,5)P3/Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 5-phosphatase in bovine brain. Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1989) 317–322. [DOI] [PMID: 2540972]
3.  Woscholski, R. and Parker, P.J. Inositol phosphatases: constructive destruction of phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates. In: Cockcroft, S. (Ed.), Biology of Phosphoinositides, Biology of Phosphoinositides, Oxford, 2000, pp. 320–338.
4.  Verjans, B., De Smedt, F., Lecocq, R., Vanweyenberg, V., Moreau, C. and Erneux, C. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a dog thyroid cDNA encoding a novel inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase. Biochem. J. 300 (1994) 85–90. [PMID: 8198557]
[EC created 1989, modified 2002]
Accepted name: inositol-1,4-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase
Reaction: 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate + H2O = 1D-myo-inositol 4-phosphate + phosphate
For diagram of myo-inositol-phosphate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): inositol-polyphosphate 1-phosphatase
Systematic name: 1D-myo-inositol-1,4-bisphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme acts on inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (forming inositol 3,4-bisphosphate) with similar Vmax values for both substrates, but with a five-times higher affinity for the bisphosphate. Does not act on inositol 1-phosphate, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 111070-17-8, 111694-13-4
1.  Berridge, M.J., Dawson, R.M.C., Downes, C.P., Heslop, J.P. and Irvine, R.F. Changes in the levels of inositol phosphates after agonist-dependent hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides. Biochem. J. 212 (1983) 473–482. [PMID: 6309146]
2.  Connolly, T.M., Bansal, V.S., Bross, T.E., Irvine, R.F. and Majerus, P.W. The metabolism of tris- and tetraphosphates of inositol by 5-phosphomonoesterase and 3-kinase enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 2146–2149. [PMID: 3029066]
3.  Inhorn, R.C. and Majerus, P.W. Inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase from calf brain. Purification and inhibition by Li+, Ca2+, and Mn2+. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 15946–15952. [PMID: 2824473]
[EC created 1989, modified 2002]
Accepted name: multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase
Reaction: myo-inositol hexakisphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol pentakisphosphate (mixed isomers) + phosphate
Other name(s): inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate 3-phosphatase; inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate 3-phosphomonoesterase; inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate-5-phosphomonoesterase; inositol tetrakisphosphate phosphomonoesterase; inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate 3-phosphatase; MIPP
Systematic name: 1D-myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 5-phosphohydrolase
Comments: This enzyme exists in two isoforms. It also acts on Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 to yield Ins(1,4,5)P3.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 116958-30-6
1.  Cullen, P.J., Irvine, R.F., Drøbak, B.J. and Dawson, A.P. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate causes release of Ca2+ from permeabilized mouse lymphoma L1210 cells by its conversion into inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Biochem. J. 259 (1989) 931–933. [PMID: 2786415]
2.  Craxton, A., Caffrey, J.J., Burkhart, W., Safrany, S.T. and Shears, S.B. Molecular cloning and expression of a rat hepatic multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase. Biochem. J. 328 (1997) 75–81. [PMID: 9359836]
[EC created 1992, modified 2002]
Accepted name: phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase
Reaction: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate + H2O = 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate + phosphate
For diagram of 1-phosphatidyl-myo-inositol metabolism (part 2), click here
Glossary: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate = Ins(1,4,5)P3
inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate = Ins(1,3,4,5)P4
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate = PtdIns(4,5)P2
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate = PtdIns(3,4,5)P3
Other name(s): PTEN; MMAC1; phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase
Systematic name: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase
Comments: Requires Mg2+. Does not dephosphorylate inositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This enzyme still works when the 2,3-bis(acyloxy)propyl group is removed, i.e., it hydrolyses Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 to Ins(1,4,5)P3
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 210488-47-4
1.  Kabuyama, Y., Nakatsu, N., Homma, Y., Fukui, Y. Purification and characterization of phosphatidyl inositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatase in bovine thymus. Eur. J. Biochem. 238 (1996) 350–356. [DOI] [PMID: 8681945]
2.  Maehama, T. and Dixon, J.E. The tumor suppressor, PTEN /MMAC1, dephosphorylates the lipid second messenger, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 13375–13378. [DOI] [PMID: 9593664]
[EC created 1999, modified 2002]
Accepted name: phosphoinositide phospholipase C
Reaction: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate + H2O = 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate + diacylglycerol
For diagram of myo-inositol-phosphate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): triphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase; phosphoinositidase C; 1-phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase; monophosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase; phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C; PI-PLC; 1-phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate inositoltrisphosphohydrolase
Systematic name: 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate inositoltrisphosphohydrolase
Comments: These enzymes form some of the cyclic phosphate Ins(cyclic1,2)P(4,5)P2 as well as Ins(1,4,5)P3. They show activity towards phosphatidylinositol, i.e., the activity of EC, phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase, in vitro at high [Ca2+]. Four β-isoforms regulated by G-proteins, two γ-forms regulated by tyrosine kinases, four δ-forms regulated at least in part by calcium and an ε-form, probably regulated by the oncogene ras, have been found.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 63551-76-8
1.  Downes, C.P. and Michell, R.H. The polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase of erythrocyte membranes. Biochem. J. 198 (1981) 133–140. [PMID: 6275838]
2.  Thompson, W. and Dawson, R.M.C. The triphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase of brain tissue. Biochem. J. 91 (1964) 237–243. [PMID: 4284484]
3.  Rhee, S.G. and Bae, Y.S. Regulation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C isozymes. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 15045–15048. [DOI] [PMID: 9182519]
[EC created 1972, modified 2002]

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