The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.3.99.24     
Accepted name: 2-amino-4-deoxychorismate dehydrogenase
Reaction: (2S)-2-amino-4-deoxychorismate + FMN = 3-(1-carboxyvinyloxy)anthranilate + FMNH2
For diagram of enediyne antitumour antibiotic biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (2S)-2-amino-4-deoxychorismate = (2S,3S)-3-(1-carboxyvinyloxy)-2,3-dihydroanthranilate
3-enolpyruvoylanthranilate = 3-(1-carboxyvinyloxy)anthranilate
Other name(s): ADIC dehydrogenase; 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate dehydrogenase; SgcG
Systematic name: (2S)-2-amino-4-deoxychorismate:FMN oxidoreductase
Comments: The sequential action of EC 2.6.1.86, 2-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase and this enzyme leads to the formation of the benzoxazolinate moiety of the enediyne antitumour antibiotic C-1027 [1,2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Van Lanen, S.G., Lin, S. and Shen, B. Biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 involves a new branching point in chorismate metabolism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105 (2008) 494–499. [DOI] [PMID: 18182490]
2.  Yu, L., Mah, S., Otani, T. and Dedon, P. The benzoxazolinate of C-1027 confers intercalative DNA binding. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117 (1995) 8877–8878.
[EC 1.3.99.24 created 2008]
 
 
EC 2.2.1.9     
Accepted name: 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase
Reaction: isochorismate + 2-oxoglutarate = 5-enolpyruvoyl-6-hydroxy-2-succinyl-cyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate + CO2
Other name(s): SEPHCHC synthase; MenD
Systematic name: isochorismate:2-oxoglutarate 4-oxopentanoatetransferase (decarboxylating)
Comments: Requires Mg2+ for maximal activity. This enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of vitamin K2 (menaquinone). In most anaerobes and all Gram-positive aerobes, menaquinone is the sole electron transporter in the respiratory chain and is essential for their survival. It had previously been thought that the products of the reaction were (1R,6R)-6-hydroxy-2-succinylcyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-carboxylate (SHCHC), pyruvate and CO2 but it is now known that two separate enzymes are involved: this enzyme and EC 4.2.99.20, 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase. Under basic conditions, the product can spontaneously lose pyruvate to form SHCHC.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 1112282-73-1
References:
1.  Jiang, M., Cao, Y., Guo, Z.F., Chen, M., Chen, X. and Guo, Z. Menaquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: identification of 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate as a novel intermediate and re-evaluation of MenD activity. Biochemistry 46 (2007) 10979–10989. [DOI] [PMID: 17760421]
[EC 2.2.1.9 created 2008 (EC 2.5.1.64 created 2003, part-incorporated 2008)]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.64      
Transferred entry: 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase. The reaction that was attributed to this enzyme is now known to be catalysed by two separate enzymes: EC 2.2.1.9 (2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylic-acid synthase) and EC 4.2.99.20 (2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase)
[EC 2.5.1.64 created 2003, deleted 2008]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.86     
Accepted name: 2-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase
Reaction: (2S)-2-amino-4-deoxychorismate + L-glutamate = chorismate + L-glutamine
For diagram of enediyne antitumour antibiotic biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (2S)-2-amino-4-deoxychorismate = (2S,3S)-3-(1-carboxyvinyloxy)-2,3-dihydroanthranilate
Other name(s): ADIC synthase; 2-amino-2-deoxyisochorismate synthase; SgcD
Systematic name: (2S)-2-amino-4-deoxychorismate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
Comments: Requires Mg2+. The reaction occurs in the reverse direction to that shown above. In contrast to most anthranilate-synthase I (ASI) homologues, this enzyme is not inhibited by tryptophan. In Streptomyces globisporus, the sequential action of this enzyme and EC 1.3.99.24, 2-amino-4-deoxychorismate dehydrogenase, leads to the formation of the benzoxazolinate moiety of the enediyne antitumour antibiotic C-1027 [1,2]. In certain Pseudomonads the enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of phenazine, a precursor for several compounds with antibiotic activity [3,4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Van Lanen, S.G., Lin, S. and Shen, B. Biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 involves a new branching point in chorismate metabolism. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105 (2008) 494–499. [DOI] [PMID: 18182490]
2.  Yu, L., Mah, S., Otani, T. and Dedon, P. The benzoxazolinate of C-1027 confers intercalative DNA binding. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117 (1995) 8877–8878.
3.  McDonald, M., Mavrodi, D.V., Thomashow, L.S. and Floss, H.G. Phenazine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens: branchpoint from the primary shikimate biosynthetic pathway and role of phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123 (2001) 9459–9460. [PMID: 11562236]
4.  Laursen, J.B. and Nielsen, J. Phenazine natural products: biosynthesis, synthetic analogues, and biological activity. Chem. Rev. 104 (2004) 1663–1686. [DOI] [PMID: 15008629]
[EC 2.6.1.86 created 2008]
 
 
EC 3.3.2.1     
Accepted name: isochorismatase
Reaction: isochorismate + H2O = (2S,3S)-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzoate + pyruvate
For diagram of shikimate and chorismate biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: isochorismate = (5S,6S)-5-[(1-carboxyethenyl)oxy]-6-hydroxycyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylate
Other name(s): 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoate synthase; 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzoate synthase; 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzoic synthase
Systematic name: isochorismate pyruvate-hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of several siderophores, such as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylglycine, enterobactin, bacillibactin, and vibriobactin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37288-64-5
References:
1.  Young, I.G. and Gibson, F. Regulation of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid in Aerobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 177 (1969) 401–411. [DOI] [PMID: 4306838]
[EC 3.3.2.1 created 1972]
 
 
EC 4.2.99.21     
Accepted name: isochorismate lyase
Reaction: isochorismate = salicylate + pyruvate
Other name(s): salicylate biosynthesis protein pchB; pyochelin biosynthetic protein PchB; isochorismate pyruvate lyase
Systematic name: isochorismate pyruvate-lyase (salicylate-forming)
Comments: This enzyme is part of the pathway of salicylate formation from chorismate, and forms an integral part of pathways that produce salicylate-derived siderophores, such as pyochelin and yersiniabactin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Serino, L., Reimmann, C., Baur, H., Beyeler, M., Visca, P. and Haas, D. Structural genes for salicylate biosynthesis from chorismate in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mol. Gen. Genet. 249 (1995) 217–228. [PMID: 7500944]
2.  Kerbarh, O., Ciulli, A., Howard, N.I. and Abell, C. Salicylate biosynthesis: overexpression, purification, and characterization of Irp9, a bifunctional salicylate synthase from Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 5061–5066. [DOI] [PMID: 16030197]
[EC 4.2.99.21 created 2010]
 
 
EC 5.4.4.2     
Accepted name: isochorismate synthase
Reaction: chorismate = isochorismate
For diagram of shikimate and chorismate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): MenF
Systematic name: isochorismate hydroxymutase
Comments: Requires Mg2+. The reaction is reversible.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37318-53-9
References:
1.  Young, I.G. and Gibson, F. Regulation of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid in Aerobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 177 (1969) 401–411. [DOI] [PMID: 4306838]
2.  van Tegelen, L.J., Moreno, P.R., Croes, A.F., Verpoorte, R. and Wullems, G.J. Purification and cDNA cloning of isochorismate synthase from elicited cell cultures of Catharanthus roseus. Plant Physiol. 119 (1999) 705–712. [PMID: 9952467]
3.  Dahm, C., Müller, R., Schulte, G., Schmidt, K. and Leistner, E. The role of isochorismate hydroxymutase genes entC and menF in enterobactin and menaquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1425 (1998) 377–386. [DOI] [PMID: 9795253]
4.  Daruwala, R., Kwon, O., Meganathan, R. and Hudspeth, M.E. A new isochorismate synthase specifically involved in menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis encoded by the menF gene. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 140 (1996) 159–163. [PMID: 8764478]
[EC 5.4.4.2 created 1972 as EC 5.4.99.6, transferred 2003 to EC 5.4.4.2]
 
 
EC 5.4.99.6      
Transferred entry: isochorismate synthase. Now EC 5.4.4.2, isochorismate synthase
[EC 5.4.99.6 created 1972, deleted 2003]
 
 


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