The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.11.2.3     
Accepted name: plant seed peroxygenase
Reaction: R1H + R2OOH = R1OH + R2OH
Other name(s): plant peroxygenase; soybean peroxygenase
Systematic name: substrate:hydroperoxide oxidoreductase (RH-hydroxylating or epoxidising)
Comments: A heme protein with calcium binding motif (caleosin-type). Enzymes of this type include membrane-bound proteins found in seeds of different plants. They catalyse the direct transfer of one oxygen atom from an organic hydroperoxide, which is reduced into its corresponding alcohol to a substrate which will be oxidized. Reactions catalysed include hydroxylation, epoxidation and sulfoxidation. Preferred substrate and co-substrate are unsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid hydroperoxides, respectively. Plant seed peroxygenase is involved in the synthesis of cutin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ishimaru, A. Purification and characterization of solubilized peroxygenase from microsomes of pea seeds. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 8427–8433. [PMID: 468835]
2.  Blee, E., Wilcox, A.L., Marnett, L.J. and Schuber, F. Mechanism of reaction of fatty acid hydroperoxides with soybean peroxygenase. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 1708–1715. [PMID: 8420948]
3.  Hamberg, M. and Hamberg, G. Peroxygenase-catalyzed fatty acid epoxidation in cereal seeds (sequential oxidation of linoleic acid into 9(S),12(S),13(S)-trihydroxy-10(E)-octadecenoic acid). Plant Physiol. 110 (1996) 807–815. [PMID: 12226220]
4.  Lequeu, J., Fauconnier, M.L., Chammai, A., Bronner, R. and Blee, E. Formation of plant cuticle: evidence for the occurrence of the peroxygenase pathway. Plant J. 36 (2003) 155–164. [DOI] [PMID: 14535881]
5.  Hanano, A., Burcklen, M., Flenet, M., Ivancich, A., Louwagie, M., Garin, J. and Blee, E. Plant seed peroxygenase is an original heme-oxygenase with an EF-hand calcium binding motif. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 33140–33151. [DOI] [PMID: 16956885]
[EC 1.11.2.3 created 2011]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.33     
Accepted name: arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase
Reaction: arachidonate + O2 = (5Z,8Z,11Z,13E)-(15S)-15-hydroperoxyicosa-5,8,11,13-tetraenoate
Other name(s): 15-lipoxygenase; linoleic acid ω6-lipoxygenase; ω6 lipoxygenase
Systematic name: arachidonate:oxygen 15-oxidoreductase
Comments: The product is rapidly reduced to the corresponding 15S-hydroxy compound.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 82249-77-2
References:
1.  Bryant, R.W., Bailey, J.M., Schewqe, T. and Rapoport, S.M. Positional specificity of a reticulocyte lipoxygenase. Conversion of arachidonic acid to 15-S-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 6050–6055. [PMID: 6804460]
2.  Narumiya, S. and Salmon, J.A. Arachidonic acid-15-lipoxygenase from rabbit peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Methods Enzymol. 86 (1982) 45–48. [PMID: 6813644]
3.  Oliw, E.H. and Sprecher, H. Metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids by an (n-6)-lipoxygenase associated with human ejaculates. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1002 (1989) 283–291. [DOI] [PMID: 2496760]
4.  Shibata, D., Steczko, J., Dixon, F.E., Hermodson, M., Yasdanparast, R. and Axelrod, B. Primary structure of soybean lipoxygenase-1. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 10080–10085. [PMID: 3112136]
[EC 1.13.11.33 created 1984]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.44      
Deleted entry: linoleate diol synthase. Activity is covered by EC 1.13.11.60, linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase and EC 5.4.4.6, 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8S-isomerase.
[EC 1.13.11.44 created 2000, deleted 2011]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.60     
Accepted name: linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase
Reaction: linoleate + O2 = (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate
Glossary: linoleate = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoate
Other name(s): linoleic acid 8R-dioxygenase; 5,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme); 7,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme); 5,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme); 7,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme); PpoA
Systematic name: linoleate:oxygen (8R)-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme contains heme [1,4]. The bifunctional enzyme from Aspergillus nidulans uses different heme domains to catalyse two separate reactions. Linoleic acid is oxidized within the N-terminal heme peroxidase domain to (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate, which is subsequently isomerized by the C-terminal P-450 heme thiolate domain to (5S,8R,9Z,12Z)-5,8-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate (cf. EC 5.4.4.5, 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8R-isomerase) [1]. The bifunctional enzyme from Gaeumannomyces graminis also catalyses the oxidation of linoleic acid to (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate, but its second domain isomerizes it to (7S,8S,9Z,12Z)-5,8-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate (cf. EC 5.4.4.6, 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8S-isomerase) [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Brodhun, F., Gobel, C., Hornung, E. and Feussner, I. Identification of PpoA from Aspergillus nidulans as a fusion protein of a fatty acid heme dioxygenase/peroxidase and a cytochrome P450. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11792–11805. [DOI] [PMID: 19286665]
2.  Hamberg, M., Zhang, L.-Y., Brodowsky, I.D. and Oliw, E.H. Sequential oxygenation of linoleic acid in the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis: stereochemistry of dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase reactions. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 309 (1994) 77–80. [DOI] [PMID: 8117115]
3.  Garscha, U. and Oliw, E. Pichia expression and mutagenesis of 7,8-linoleate diol synthase change the dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 373 (2008) 579–583. [DOI] [PMID: 18586008]
4.  Su, C. and Oliw, E.H. Purification and characterization of linoleate 8-dioxygenase from the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis as a novel hemoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 14112–14118. [DOI] [PMID: 8662736]
[EC 1.13.11.60 created 2011]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.62     
Accepted name: linoleate 10R-lipoxygenase
Reaction: linoleate + O2 = (8E,10R,12Z)-10-hydroperoxy-8,12-octadecadienoate
Glossary: linoleate = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoate
Other name(s): 10R-DOX; (10R)-dioxygenase; 10R-dioxygenase
Systematic name: linoleate:oxygen (10R)-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of oxylipins, which affect sporulation, development, and pathogenicity of Aspergillus spp.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Garscha, U. and Oliw, E.H. Leucine/valine residues direct oxygenation of linoleic acid by (10R)- and (8R)-dioxygenases: expression and site-directed mutagenesis of (10R)-dioxygenase with epoxyalcohol synthase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 13755–13765. [DOI] [PMID: 19289462]
2.  Jerneren, F., Garscha, U., Hoffmann, I., Hamberg, M. and Oliw, E.H. Reaction mechanism of 5,8-linoleate diol synthase, 10R-dioxygenase, and 8,11-hydroperoxide isomerase of Aspergillus clavatus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1801 (2010) 503–507. [DOI] [PMID: 20045744]
[EC 1.13.11.62 created 2011]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.3     
Accepted name: acyl-CoA 6-desaturase
Reaction: (1) linoleoyl-CoA + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = γ-linolenoyl-CoA + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) α-linolenoyl-CoA + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = stearidonoyl-CoA + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Other name(s): Δ6-desaturase; Δ6-fatty acyl-CoA desaturase; Δ6-acyl CoA desaturase; fatty acid Δ6-desaturase; fatty acid 6-desaturase; linoleate desaturase; linoleic desaturase; linoleic acid desaturase; linoleoyl CoA desaturase; linoleoyl-coenzyme A desaturase; long-chain fatty acid Δ6-desaturase; linoleoyl-CoA,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase; linoleoyl-CoA desaturase; FADS2 (gene name)
Systematic name: acyl-CoA,ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (6,7 cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: An iron protein. The enzyme introduces a cis double bond at carbon 6 of acyl-CoAs. It is a front-end desaturase, introducing the new double bond between a pre-existing double bond and the carboxyl-end of the fatty acid. The human enzyme has a broad substrate range. It also acts on palmitoyl-CoA, generating sapienoyl-CoA [4], and on (9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z,21Z)-tetracosa-9,12,15,18,21-pentaenoyl-CoA, converting it to (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z,21Z)-tetracosa-6,9,12,15,18,21-hexaenoyl-CoA as part of a pathway that produces docosahexaenoate [3]. The enzyme contains a cytochrome b5 domain that is assumed to act in vivo as the electron donor to the active site of the desaturase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9082-66-0
References:
1.  Okayasu, T., Nagao, M., Ishibashi, T. and Imai, Y. Purification and partial characterization of linoleoyl-CoA desaturase from rat liver microsomes. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 206 (1981) 21–28. [DOI] [PMID: 7212717]
2.  Cho, H.P., Nakamura, M.T. and Clarke, S.D. Cloning, expression, and nutritional regulation of the mammalian Δ-6 desaturase. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 471–477. [DOI] [PMID: 9867867]
3.  Sprecher, H. Metabolism of highly unsaturated n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1486 (2000) 219–231. [DOI] [PMID: 10903473]
4.  Ge, L., Gordon, J.S., Hsuan, C., Stenn, K. and Prouty, S.M. Identification of the Δ-6 desaturase of human sebaceous glands: expression and enzyme activity. J. Invest. Dermatol. 120 (2003) 707–714. [DOI] [PMID: 12713571]
5.  Domergue, F., Abbadi, A., Zähringer, U., Moreau, H. and Heinz, E. In vivo characterization of the first acyl-CoA Δ6-desaturase from a member of the plant kingdom, the microalga Ostreococcus tauri. Biochem. J. 389 (2005) 483–490. [DOI] [PMID: 15769252]
[EC 1.14.19.3 created 1986 as EC 1.14.99.25, transferred 2000 to EC 1.14.19.3, modified 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.16     
Accepted name: linoleoyl-lipid Δ12 conjugase (11E,13Z-forming)
Reaction: a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: punicate = (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoate
linoleate = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoate
Other name(s): Fac (gene name)
Systematic name: linoleoyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen 11,14 allylic oxidase (11E,13Z-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plants Punica granatum (pomegranate) and Trichosanthes kirilowii (Mongolian snake-gourd), converts a single cis double bond at position 12 of linoleate incorporated into phosphatidylcholine into conjugated 11-trans and 13-cis double bonds. cf. EC 1.14.19.33, Δ12 acyl-lipid conjugase (11E,13E-forming).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hornung, E., Pernstich, C. and Feussner, I. Formation of conjugated Δ11Δ13-double bonds by Δ12-linoleic acid (1,4)-acyl-lipid-desaturase in pomegranate seeds. Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (2002) 4852–4859. [DOI] [PMID: 12354116]
2.  Iwabuchi, M., Kohno-Murase, J. and Imamura, J. Δ12-oleate desaturase-related enzymes associated with formation of conjugated trans11, cis13 double bonds. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4603–4610. [DOI] [PMID: 12464604]
[EC 1.14.19.16 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.33     
Accepted name: Δ12 acyl-lipid conjugase (11E,13E-forming)
Reaction: (1) a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = an α-eleostearoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) a γ-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = an α-parinaroyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: α-eleostearate = (9Z,11E,13E)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoate
α-parinarate = (9Z,11E,13E,15Z)-octadeca-9,11,13,15-tetraenoate
γ-linolenic acid = (6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadeca-6,9,12-trienoic acid
linoleic acid = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid
Other name(s): fatty acid Δ12-conjugase (ambiguous); FADX (gene name)
Systematic name: Δ12 acyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen 11,14 allylic oxidase (11E,13E-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plants Impatiens balsamina, Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Vernicia fordii (tung tree), converts a single cis double bond at carbon 12 to two conjugated trans bonds at positions 11 and 13. The enzyme from Vernicia fordii can also act as a 12(E) desaturase when acting on the monounsaturated fatty acids oleate and palmitoleate. cf. EC 1.14.19.16, linoleoyl-lipid Δ12 conjugase (11E,13Z-forming).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Cahoon, E.B., Carlson, T.J., Ripp, K.G., Schweiger, B.J., Cook, G.A., Hall, S.E. and Kinney, A.J. Biosynthetic origin of conjugated double bonds: production of fatty acid components of high-value drying oils in transgenic soybean embryos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 12935–12940. [DOI] [PMID: 10536026]
2.  Dyer, J.M., Chapital, D.C., Kuan, J.C., Mullen, R.T., Turner, C., McKeon, T.A. and Pepperman, A.B. Molecular analysis of a bifunctional fatty acid conjugase/desaturase from tung. Implications for the evolution of plant fatty acid diversity. Plant Physiol. 130 (2002) 2027–2038. [DOI] [PMID: 12481086]
[EC 1.14.19.33 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.296     
Accepted name: ω-hydroxyceramide transacylase
Reaction: a linoleate-containing triacyl-sn-glycerol + an ultra-long-chain ω-hydroxyceramide = a diacyl-sn-glycerol + a linoleate-esterified acylceramide
Glossary: an ultra-long-chain fatty acid = ULCFA = a fatty acid with aliphatic chain of 28 or more carbons
an ultra-long-chain ω-hydroxyceramide = a ceramide that contains an ultra-long-chain ω-hydroxyfatty acid moiety (C28-C36)
acylceramide = ω-O-acylceramide = a ceramide that contains an ultra-long-chain ω-hydroxyfatty acid moiety (C28-C36) that is further extended by ω-esterification with linoleic acid.
Other name(s): PNPLA1 (gene name)
Systematic name: triacyl-sn-glycerol:ultra-long-chain ω-hydroxyceramide ω-O-linoleoyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme participates in the production of acylceramides in the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis. Acylceramides are crucial components of the skin permeability barrier.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ohno, Y., Kamiyama, N., Nakamichi, S. and Kihara, A. PNPLA1 is a transacylase essential for the generation of the skin barrier lipid ω-O-acylceramide. Nat. Commun. 8:14610 (2017). [PMID: 28248318]
[EC 2.3.1.296 created 2019]
 
 
EC 3.3.2.10     
Accepted name: soluble epoxide hydrolase
Reaction: an epoxide + H2O = a glycol
Other name(s): epoxide hydrase (ambiguous); epoxide hydratase (ambiguous); arene-oxide hydratase (ambiguous); aryl epoxide hydrase (ambiguous); trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase; sEH; cytosolic epoxide hydrolase
Systematic name: epoxide hydrolase
Comments: Catalyses the hydrolysis of trans-substituted epoxides, such as trans-stilbene oxide, as well as various aliphatic epoxides derived from fatty-acid metabolism [7]. It is involved in the metabolism of arachidonic epoxides (epoxyicosatrienoic acids; EETs) and linoleic acid epoxides. The EETs, which are endogenous chemical mediators, act at the vascular, renal and cardiac levels to regulate blood pressure [4,5]. The enzyme from mammals is a bifunctional enzyme: the C-terminal domain exhibits epoxide-hydrolase activity and the N-terminal domain has the activity of EC 3.1.3.76, lipid-phosphate phosphatase [1,2]. Like EC 3.3.2.9, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, it is probable that the reaction involves the formation of an hydroxyalkyl—enzyme intermediate [4,6]. The enzyme can also use leukotriene A4, the substrate of EC 3.3.2.6, leukotriene-A4 hydrolase, but it forms 5,6-dihydroxy-7,9,11,14-icosatetraenoic acid rather than leukotriene B4 as the product [9,10]. In vertebrates, five epoxide-hydrolase enzymes have been identified to date: EC 3.3.2.6 (leukotriene-A4 hydrolase), EC 3.3.2.7 (hepoxilin-epoxide hydrolase), EC 3.3.2.9 (microsomal epoxide hydrolase), EC 3.3.2.10 (soluble epoxide hydrolase) and EC 3.3.2.11 (cholesterol 5,6-oxide hydrolase) [7].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9048-63-9
References:
1.  Newman, J.W., Morisseau, C., Harris, T.R. and Hammock, B.D. The soluble epoxide hydrolase encoded by EPXH2 is a bifunctional enzyme with novel lipid phosphate phosphatase activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003) 1558–1563. [DOI] [PMID: 12574510]
2.  Cronin, A., Mowbray, S., Dürk, H., Homburg, S., Fleming, I., Fisslthaler, B., Oesch, F. and Arand, M. The N-terminal domain of mammalian soluble epoxide hydrolase is a phosphatase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003) 1552–1557. [DOI] [PMID: 12574508]
3.  Oesch, F. Mammalian epoxide hydrases: inducible enzymes catalysing the inactivation of carcinogenic and cytotoxic metabolites derived from aromatic and olefinic compounds. Xenobiotica 3 (1973) 305–340. [DOI] [PMID: 4584115]
4.  Morisseau, C. and Hammock, B.D. Epoxide hydrolases: mechanisms, inhibitor designs, and biological roles. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 45 (2005) 311–333. [DOI] [PMID: 15822179]
5.  Yu, Z., Xu, F., Huse, L.M., Morisseau, C., Draper, A.J., Newman, J.W., Parker, C., Graham, L., Engler, M.M., Hammock, B.D., Zeldin, D.C. and Kroetz, D.L. Soluble epoxide hydrolase regulates hydrolysis of vasoactive epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Circ. Res. 87 (2000) 992–998. [PMID: 11090543]
6.  Lacourciere, G.M. and Armstrong, R.N. The catalytic mechanism of microsomal epoxide hydrolase involves an ester intermediate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (1993) 10466.
7.  Fretland, A.J. and Omiecinski, C.J. Epoxide hydrolases: biochemistry and molecular biology. Chem. Biol. Interact. 129 (2000) 41–59. [DOI] [PMID: 11154734]
8.  Zeldin, D.C., Wei, S., Falck, J.R., Hammock, B.D., Snapper, J.R. and Capdevila, J.H. Metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by cytosolic epoxide hydrolase: substrate structural determinants of asymmetric catalysis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 316 (1995) 443–451. [DOI] [PMID: 7840649]
9.  Haeggström, J., Meijer, J. and Rådmark, O. Leukotriene A4. Enzymatic conversion into 5,6-dihydroxy-7,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid by mouse liver cytosolic epoxide hydrolase. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 6332–6337. [PMID: 3009453]
10.  Newman, J.W., Morisseau, C. and Hammock, B.D. Epoxide hydrolases: their roles and interactions with lipid metabolism. Prog. Lipid Res. 44 (2005) 1–51. [DOI] [PMID: 15748653]
[EC 3.3.2.10 created 2006 (EC 3.3.2.3 created 1978, part incorporated 2006)]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.92     
Accepted name: hydroperoxide dehydratase
Reaction: (9Z,11E,15Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoate = (9Z,15Z)-(13S)-12,13-epoxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoate + H2O
Glossary: 13-hydroperoxylinolenoate = (9Z,11E,15Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoate
Other name(s): hydroperoxide isomerase; linoleate hydroperoxide isomerase; linoleic acid hydroperoxide isomerase; HPI; (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate 12,13-hydro-lyase; (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate 12,13-hydro-lyase [(9Z)-(13S)-12,13-epoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoate-forming]; allene oxide synthase; AOS
Systematic name: (9Z,11E,15Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoate 12,13-hydro-lyase [(9Z,15Z)-(13S)-12,13-epoxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoate-forming]
Comments: Acts on a number of unsaturated fatty-acid hydroperoxides, forming the corresponding allene oxides. The product of the above reaction is unstable and is acted upon by EC 5.3.99.6, allene-oxide cyclase, to form the cyclopentenone derivative (15Z)-12-oxophyto-10,15-dienoate (OPDA), which is the first cyclic and biologically active metabolite in the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway [3]. The enzyme from many plants belongs to the CYP-74 family of P-450 monooxygenases [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Esselman, W.J. and Clagett, C.O. Products of linoleic hydroperoxide-decomposing enzyme of alfalfa seed. J. Lipid Res. 15 (1974) 173–178. [PMID: 4208994]
2.  Hamberg, M. Mechanism of corn hydroperoxide isomerase - detection of 12,13(S)-oxido-9(Z),11-octadecadienoic acid. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 920 (1987) 76–84.
3.  Hamberg, M. Biosynthesis of 12-oxo-10,15(Z)-phytodienoic acid: identification of an allene oxide cyclase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 156 (1988) 543–550. [DOI] [PMID: 3178850]
4.  Laudert, D., Pfannschmidt, U., Lottspeich, F., Holländer-Czytko, H. and Weiler, E.W. Cloning, molecular and functional characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana allene oxide synthase (CYP 74), the first enzyme of the octadecanoid pathway to jasmonates. Plant Mol. Biol. 31 (1996) 323–335. [PMID: 8756596]
[EC 4.2.1.92 created 1992, modified 2008]
 
 
EC 5.2.1.5     
Accepted name: linoleate isomerase
Reaction: 9-cis,12-cis-octadecadienoate = 9-cis,11-trans-octadecadienoate
Other name(s): linoleic acid isomerase
Systematic name: linoleate Δ12-cis11-trans-isomerase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37318-41-5
References:
1.  Kepler, C.R. and Tove, S.B. Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. III. Purification and properties of linoleate Δ12-cis, Δ11-trans-isomerase from Butyrivibrio fibrosolvens. J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 5686–5692. [PMID: 5633396]
[EC 5.2.1.5 created 1972]
 
 
EC 5.4.4.5     
Accepted name: 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8R-isomerase
Reaction: (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate = (5S,8R,9Z,12Z)-5,8-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate
Other name(s): 5,8-LDS (bifunctional enzyme); 5,8-linoleate diol synthase (bifunctional enzyme); 8-hydroperoxide isomerase; (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxy-9,12-octadecadienoate mutase ((5S,8R,9Z,12Z)-5,8-dihydroxy-9,12-octadecadienoate-forming); PpoA
Systematic name: (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate hydroxymutase [(5S,8R,9Z,12Z)-5,8-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate-forming]
Comments: The enzyme contains heme [3]. The bifunctional enzyme from Aspergillus nidulans uses different heme domains to catalyse two separate reactions. Linoleic acid is oxidized within the N-terminal heme peroxidase domain to (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate (cf. EC 1.13.11.60, linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase), which is subsequently isomerized to (5S,8R,9Z,12Z)-5,8-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate within the C-terminal P-450 heme thiolate domain [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hoffmann, I., Jerneren, F., Garscha, U. and Oliw, E.H. Expression of 5,8-LDS of Aspergillus fumigatus and its dioxygenase domain. A comparison with 7,8-LDS, 10-dioxygenase, and cyclooxygenase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 506 (2011) 216–222. [DOI] [PMID: 21130068]
2.  Jerneren, F., Garscha, U., Hoffmann, I., Hamberg, M. and Oliw, E.H. Reaction mechanism of 5,8-linoleate diol synthase, 10R-dioxygenase, and 8,11-hydroperoxide isomerase of Aspergillus clavatus. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1801 (2010) 503–507. [DOI] [PMID: 20045744]
3.  Brodhun, F., Gobel, C., Hornung, E. and Feussner, I. Identification of PpoA from Aspergillus nidulans as a fusion protein of a fatty acid heme dioxygenase/peroxidase and a cytochrome P450. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 11792–11805. [DOI] [PMID: 19286665]
[EC 5.4.4.5 created 2011]
 
 
EC 5.4.4.6     
Accepted name: 9,12-octadecadienoate 8-hydroperoxide 8S-isomerase
Reaction: (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate = (7S,8S,9Z,12Z)-7,8-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate
Other name(s): 8-hydroperoxide isomerase (ambiguous); (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxy-9,12-octadecadienoate mutase ((7S,8S,9Z,12Z)-7,8-dihydroxy-9,12-octadecadienoate-forming)
Systematic name: (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate hydroxymutase [(7S,8S,9Z,12Z)-7,8-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate-forming]
Comments: The enzyme contains heme. The bifunctional enzyme from Gaeumannomyces graminis catalyses the oxidation of linoleic acid to (8R,9Z,12Z)-8-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate (cf. EC 1.13.11.60, linoleate 8R-lipoxygenase), which is then isomerized to (7S,8S,9Z,12Z)-5,8-dihydroxyoctadeca-9,12-dienoate [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hamberg, M., Zhang, L.-Y., Brodowsky, I.D. and Oliw, E.H. Sequential oxygenation of linoleic acid in the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis: stereochemistry of dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase reactions. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 309 (1994) 77–80. [DOI] [PMID: 8117115]
2.  Su, C., Sahlin, M. and Oliw, E.H. A protein radical and ferryl intermediates are generated by linoleate diol synthase, a ferric hemeprotein with dioxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase activities. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 20744–20751. [DOI] [PMID: 9694817]
3.  Su, C. and Oliw, E.H. Purification and characterization of linoleate 8-dioxygenase from the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis as a novel hemoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 14112–14118. [DOI] [PMID: 8662736]
[EC 5.4.4.6 created 2011]
 
 


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