The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.14.19.12     
Accepted name: acyl-lipid ω-(9-4) desaturase
Reaction: (1) linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = pinolenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) α-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = coniferonoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: taxoleate = (5Z,9Z)-octadeca-5,9-dienoate
pinolenoate = (5Z,9Z,12Z)-octadeca-5,9,12-trienoate
coniferonate = (5Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-5,9,12,15-tetraenoate
Other name(s): acyl-lipid ω-13 desaturase; acyl-lipid 7-desaturase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: acyl-[glycerolipid],ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase [ω(9-4),ω(9-5) cis-dehydrogenating]
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a front-end desaturase that introduces a cis double bond in ω9 unsaturated C18 or C20 fatty acids incorporated into lipids, at a position 4 carbon atoms from the existing ω9 bond, towards the carboxy end of the fatty acid (at the ω13 position). When acting on 20:2Δ(11,14) and 20:3Δ(11,14,17) substrates it introduces the new double bond between carbons 7 and 8. The enzyme contains a cytochrome b5 domain that acts as the direct electron donor for the active site of the desaturase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kajikawa, M., Yamato, K.T., Kohzu, Y., Shoji, S., Matsui, K., Tanaka, Y., Sakai, Y. and Fukuzawa, H. A front-end desaturase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii produces pinolenic and coniferonic acids by ω13 desaturation in methylotrophic yeast and tobacco. Plant Cell Physiol. 47 (2006) 64–73. [DOI] [PMID: 16267098]
[EC 1.14.19.12 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.14     
Accepted name: linoleoyl-lipid Δ9 conjugase
Reaction: a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + reduced acceptor + O2 = an (8E,10E,12Z)-octadeca-8,10,12-trienoyl-[glycerolipid] + acceptor + 2 H2O
Glossary: calendate = (8E,10E,12Z)-octadeca-8,10,12-trienoate
Systematic name: linoleoyl-lipid,reduced acceptor:oxygen 8,11-allylic oxidase (8E,10E-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Calendula officinalis, converts a single cis double bond at position 9 of fatty acids incorporated into glycerolipids into two conjugated trans double bonds at positions 8 and 10.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Qiu, X., Reed, D.W., Hong, H., MacKenzie, S.L. and Covello, P.S. Identification and analysis of a gene from Calendula officinalis encoding a fatty acid conjugase. Plant Physiol. 125 (2001) 847–855. [PMID: 11161042]
2.  Cahoon, E.B., Ripp, K.G., Hall, S.E. and Kinney, A.J. Formation of conjugated Δ810-double bonds by Δ12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 2637–2643. [DOI] [PMID: 11067856]
[EC 1.14.19.14 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.16     
Accepted name: linoleoyl-lipid Δ12 conjugase (11E,13Z-forming)
Reaction: a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: punicate = (9Z,11E,13Z)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoate
linoleate = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoate
Other name(s): Fac (gene name)
Systematic name: linoleoyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen 11,14 allylic oxidase (11E,13Z-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plants Punica granatum (pomegranate) and Trichosanthes kirilowii (Mongolian snake-gourd), converts a single cis double bond at position 12 of linoleate incorporated into phosphatidylcholine into conjugated 11-trans and 13-cis double bonds. cf. EC 1.14.19.33, Δ12 acyl-lipid conjugase (11E,13E-forming).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hornung, E., Pernstich, C. and Feussner, I. Formation of conjugated Δ11Δ13-double bonds by Δ12-linoleic acid (1,4)-acyl-lipid-desaturase in pomegranate seeds. Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (2002) 4852–4859. [DOI] [PMID: 12354116]
2.  Iwabuchi, M., Kohno-Murase, J. and Imamura, J. Δ12-oleate desaturase-related enzymes associated with formation of conjugated trans11, cis13 double bonds. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4603–4610. [DOI] [PMID: 12464604]
[EC 1.14.19.16 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.22     
Accepted name: acyl-lipid ω-6 desaturase (cytochrome b5)
Reaction: an oleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Other name(s): oleate desaturase (ambiguous); linoleate synthase (ambiguous); oleoyl-CoA desaturase (incorrect); oleoylphosphatidylcholine desaturase (ambiguous); phosphatidylcholine desaturase (ambiguous); n-6 desaturase (ambiguous); FAD2 (gene name)
Systematic name: 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (12,13 cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: This microsomal enzyme introduces a cis double bond in fatty acids attached to lipid molecules at a location 6 carbons away from the methyl end of the fatty acid. The distance from the carboxylic acid end of the molecule does not affect the location of the new double bond. The most common substrates are oleoyl groups attached to either the sn-1 or sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone in phosphatidylcholine. cf. EC 1.14.19.23, acyl-lipid ω-6 desaturase (ferredoxin).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 72536-70-0
References:
1.  Pugh, E.L. and Kates, M. Characterization of a membrane-bound phospholipid desaturase system of Candida lipolytica. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 380 (1975) 442–453. [DOI] [PMID: 166662]
2.  Slack, C.R., Roughan, P.G. and Browse, J. Evidence for an oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase in microsomal preparations from cotyledons of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed. Biochem. J. 179 (1979) 649–656. [PMID: 475773]
3.  Stymne, S. and Appelqvist, L.-A. The biosynthesis of linoleate from oleoyl-CoA via oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine in microsomes of developing safflower seeds. Eur. J. Biochem. 90 (1978) 223–229. [DOI] [PMID: 710426]
4.  Smith, M.A., Cross, A.R., Jones, O.T., Griffiths, W.T., Stymne, S. and Stobart, K. Electron-transport components of the 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine Δ12-desaturase (Δ12-desaturase) in microsomal preparations from developing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cotyledons. Biochem. J. 272 (1990) 23–29. [PMID: 2264826]
5.  Kearns, E.V., Hugly, S. and Somerville, C.R. The role of cytochrome b5 in Δ12 desaturation of oleic acid by microsomes of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 284 (1991) 431–436. [DOI] [PMID: 1989527]
6.  Miquel, M. and Browse, J. Arabidopsis mutants deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. Biochemical and genetic characterization of a plant oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine desaturase. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 1502–1509. [PMID: 1730697]
[EC 1.14.19.22 created 1984 as EC 1.3.1.35, transferred 2015 to EC 1.14.19.22]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.23     
Accepted name: acyl-lipid (n+3)-(Z)-desaturase (ferredoxin)
Reaction: an oleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + O2 + 2 H+ = a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
Other name(s): acyl-lipid ω6-desaturase (ferredoxin); oleate desaturase (ambiguous); linoleate synthase (ambiguous); oleoyl-CoA desaturase (ambiguous); oleoylphosphatidylcholine desaturase (ambiguous); phosphatidylcholine desaturase (ambiguous); FAD6 (gene name)
Systematic name: oleoyl-[glycerolipid],ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (12,13 cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: This plastidial enzyme is able to insert a cis double bond in monounsaturated fatty acids incorporated into glycerolipids. The enzyme introduces the new bond at a position 3 carbons away from the existing double bond, towards the methyl end of the fatty acid. The native substrates are oleoyl (18:1 Δ9) and (Z)-hexadec-7-enoyl (16:1 Δ7) groups attached to either position of the glycerol backbone in glycerolipids, resulting in the introduction of the second double bond at positions 12 and 10, respectively This prompted the suggestion that this is an ω6 desaturase. However, when acting on palmitoleoyl groups(16:1 Δ9), the enzyme introduces the second double bond at position 12 (ω4), indicating it is an (n+3) desaturase [3]. cf. EC 1.14.19.34, acyl-lipid (9+3)-(E)-desaturase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schmidt, H. and Heinz, E. Desaturation of oleoyl groups in envelope membranes from spinach chloroplasts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87 (1990) 9477–9480. [DOI] [PMID: 11607123]
2.  Schmidt, H. and Heinz, E. Involvement of ferredoxin in desaturation of lipid-bound oleate in chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 94 (1990) 214–220. [PMID: 16667689]
3.  Hitz, W.D., Carlson, T.J., Booth, J.R., Jr., Kinney, A.J., Stecca, K.L. and Yadav, N.S. Cloning of a higher-plant plastid ω-6 fatty acid desaturase cDNA and its expression in a cyanobacterium. Plant Physiol. 105 (1994) 635–641. [PMID: 8066133]
4.  Falcone, D.L., Gibson, S., Lemieux, B. and Somerville, C. Identification of a gene that complements an Arabidopsis mutant deficient in chloroplast ω 6 desaturase activity. Plant Physiol. 106 (1994) 1453–1459. [PMID: 7846158]
5.  Schmidt, H., Dresselhaus, T., Buck, F. and Heinz, E. Purification and PCR-based cDNA cloning of a plastidial n-6 desaturase. Plant Mol. Biol. 26 (1994) 631–642. [PMID: 7948918]
[EC 1.14.19.23 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.25     
Accepted name: acyl-lipid ω-3 desaturase (cytochrome b5)
Reaction: a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = an α-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoyl-[glycerolipid]
α-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid] = (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoyl-[glycerolipid]
Other name(s): FAD3
Systematic name: (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoyl-[glycerolipid],ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (15,16 cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: This microsomal enzyme introduces a cis double bond three carbons away from the methyl end of a fatty acid incorporated into a glycerolipid. The distance from the carboxylic acid end of the molecule does not have an effect. The plant enzyme acts on carbon 15 of linoleoyl groups incorporated into both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of the glycerol backbone of phosphatidylcholine and other phospholipids, converting them into α-linolenoyl groups. The enzyme from the fungus Mortierella alpina acts on γ-linolenoyl and arachidonoyl groups, converting them into stearidonoyl and icosapentaenoyl groups, respectively [3]. cf. EC 1.14.19.35, sn-2 acyl-lipid ω-3 desaturase (ferredoxin).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Browse, J., McConn, M., James, D., Jr. and Miquel, M. Mutants of Arabidopsis deficient in the synthesis of α-linolenate. Biochemical and genetic characterization of the endoplasmic reticulum linoleoyl desaturase. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 16345–16351. [PMID: 8102138]
2.  Arondel, V., Lemieux, B., Hwang, I., Gibson, S., Goodman, H.M. and Somerville, C.R. Map-based cloning of a gene controlling ω-3 fatty acid desaturation in Arabidopsis. Science 258 (1992) 1353–1355. [DOI] [PMID: 1455229]
3.  Sakuradani, E., Abe, T., Iguchi, K. and Shimizu, S. A novel fungal ω3-desaturase with wide substrate specificity from arachidonic acid-producing Mortierella alpina 1S-4. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 66 (2005) 648–654. [DOI] [PMID: 15538555]
[EC 1.14.19.25 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.33     
Accepted name: Δ12 acyl-lipid conjugase (11E,13E-forming)
Reaction: (1) a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = an α-eleostearoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) a γ-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = an α-parinaroyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: α-eleostearate = (9Z,11E,13E)-octadeca-9,11,13-trienoate
α-parinarate = (9Z,11E,13E,15Z)-octadeca-9,11,13,15-tetraenoate
γ-linolenic acid = (6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadeca-6,9,12-trienoic acid
linoleic acid = (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid
Other name(s): fatty acid Δ12-conjugase (ambiguous); FADX (gene name)
Systematic name: Δ12 acyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen 11,14 allylic oxidase (11E,13E-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plants Impatiens balsamina, Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Vernicia fordii (tung tree), converts a single cis double bond at carbon 12 to two conjugated trans bonds at positions 11 and 13. The enzyme from Vernicia fordii can also act as a 12(E) desaturase when acting on the monounsaturated fatty acids oleate and palmitoleate. cf. EC 1.14.19.16, linoleoyl-lipid Δ12 conjugase (11E,13Z-forming).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Cahoon, E.B., Carlson, T.J., Ripp, K.G., Schweiger, B.J., Cook, G.A., Hall, S.E. and Kinney, A.J. Biosynthetic origin of conjugated double bonds: production of fatty acid components of high-value drying oils in transgenic soybean embryos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 12935–12940. [DOI] [PMID: 10536026]
2.  Dyer, J.M., Chapital, D.C., Kuan, J.C., Mullen, R.T., Turner, C., McKeon, T.A. and Pepperman, A.B. Molecular analysis of a bifunctional fatty acid conjugase/desaturase from tung. Implications for the evolution of plant fatty acid diversity. Plant Physiol. 130 (2002) 2027–2038. [DOI] [PMID: 12481086]
[EC 1.14.19.33 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.35     
Accepted name: sn-2 acyl-lipid ω-3 desaturase (ferredoxin)
Reaction: (1) a (7Z,10Z)-hexadeca-7,10-dienoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + O2 + 2 H+ = a (7Z,10Z,13Z)-hexadeca-7,10,13-trienoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
(2) a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + O2 + 2 H+ = an α-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
Glossary: (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoyl-[glycerolipid] = linoleoyl-[glycerolipid]
(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoyl-[glycerolipid] = α-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid]
Other name(s): FAD7; FAD8
Systematic name: (7Z,10Z)-hexadeca-7,10-dienoyl-[glycerolipid],ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (13,14 cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: This plastidial enzyme desaturates 16:2 fatty acids attached to the sn-2 position of glycerolipids to 16:3 fatty acids, and converts18:2 to 18:3 in both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions. It acts on all 16:2- or 18:2-containing chloroplast membrane lipids, including phosphatidylglycerol, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiaclyglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol. The enzyme introduces a cis double bond at a location 3 carbons away from the methyl end of the fatty acid. The distance from the carboxylic acid end of the molecule does not affect the location of the new double bond. cf. EC 1.14.19.25, acyl-lipid ω-3 desaturase (cytochrome b5) and EC 1.14.19.36, sn-1 acyl-lipid ω-3 desaturase (ferredoxin).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Iba, K., Gibson, S., Nishiuchi, T., Fuse, T., Nishimura, M., Arondel, V., Hugly, S. and Somerville, C. A gene encoding a chloroplast ω-3 fatty acid desaturase complements alterations in fatty acid desaturation and chloroplast copy number of the fad7 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 24099–24105. [PMID: 8226956]
2.  McConn, M., Hugly, S., Browse, J. and Somerville, C. A mutation at the fad8 locus of Arabidopsis identifies a second chloroplast ω-3 desaturase. Plant Physiol. 106 (1994) 1609–1614. [PMID: 12232435]
3.  Venegas-Caleron, M., Muro-Pastor, A.M., Garces, R. and Martinez-Force, E. Functional characterization of a plastidial ω-3 desaturase from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in cyanobacteria. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 44 (2006) 517–525. [DOI] [PMID: 17064923]
[EC 1.14.19.35 created 2015]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.39     
Accepted name: acyl-lipid Δ12-acetylenase
Reaction: linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = crepenynyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: crepenynate = (9Z)-octadec-9-en-12-ynoate
Systematic name: Δ12 acyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome-b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (12,13-dehydrogenating)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Crepis alpina, converts the double bond at position 12 of linoleate into a triple bond. The product is the main fatty acid found in triacylglycerols in the seed oil of Crepis alpina.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Banas, A., Bafor, M., Wiberg, E., Lenman, M., Staahl, U. and Stymne, S. Biosynthesis of an acetylenic fatty acid in microsomal preparations from developing seeds Crepis alpina. Physiol. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Plant. [Proc. Int. Symp. Plant Lipids] 12th (1997) 57–59.
2.  Lee, M., Lenman, M., Banas, A., Bafor, M., Singh, S., Schweizer, M., Nilsson, R., Liljenberg, C., Dahlqvist, A., Gummeson, P.O., Sjodahl, S., Green, A. and Stymne, S. Identification of non-heme di-iron proteins that catalyze triple bond and epoxy group formation. Science 280 (1998) 915–918. [DOI] [PMID: 9572738]
3.  Nam, J.W. and Kappock, T.J. Cloning and transcriptional analysis of Crepis alpina fatty acid desaturases affecting the biosynthesis of crepenynic acid. J. Exp. Bot. 58 (2007) 1421–1432. [DOI] [PMID: 17329262]
[EC 1.14.19.39 created 2000 as EC 1.14.99.33, transferred 2015 to EC 1.14.19.39]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.47     
Accepted name: acyl-lipid (9-3)-desaturase
Reaction: (1) an α-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a stearidonoyl-[glycerolipid] + ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
(2) a linoleoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a γ-linolenoyl-[glycerolipid] + ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Glossary: stearidonic acid = (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-6,9,12,15-tetraenoic acid
Other name(s): DES6 (gene name); acyl-lipid 6-desaturase; acyl-lipid Δ6-desaturase; Δ6-desaturase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: Δ9 acyl-[glycerolipid],ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (6,7-cis-dehydrogenating)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the moss Physcomitrella patens and the plant Borago officinalis (borage), introduces a cis double bond at carbon 6 of several acyl-lipids that contain an existing Δ9 cis double bond. The enzyme contains a cytochrome b5 domain that acts as the electron donor for the active site of the desaturase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sayanova, O., Smith, M.A., Lapinskas, P., Stobart, A.K., Dobson, G., Christie, W.W., Shewry, P.R. and Napier, J.A. Expression of a borage desaturase cDNA containing an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain results in the accumulation of high levels of Δ6-desaturated fatty acids in transgenic tobacco. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94 (1997) 4211–4216. [DOI] [PMID: 9108131]
2.  Girke, T., Schmidt, H., Zähringer, U., Reski, R. and Heinz, E. Identification of a novel Δ6-acyl-group desaturase by targeted gene disruption in Physcomitrella patens. Plant J. 15 (1998) 39–48. [DOI] [PMID: 9744093]
[EC 1.14.19.47 created 2015]
 
 


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