The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.3.8.1     
Accepted name: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: a short-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = a short-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Glossary: a short-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains less than 6 carbon atoms.
Other name(s): butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase; butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase; butyryl dehydrogenase; unsaturated acyl-CoA reductase; ethylene reductase; enoyl-coenzyme A reductase; unsaturated acyl coenzyme A reductase; butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase; short-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase; short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; 3-hydroxyacyl CoA reductase; butanoyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase; ACADS (gene name).
Systematic name: short-chain acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids β-oxidation. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of saturated short-chain acyl-CoA thioesters to give a trans 2,3-unsaturated product by removal of the two pro-R-hydrogen atoms. The enzyme from beef liver accepts substrates with acyl chain lengths of 3 to 8 carbon atoms. The highest activity was reported with either butanoyl-CoA [2] or pentanoyl-CoA [4]. The enzyme from rat has only 10% activity with hexanoyl-CoA (compared to butanoyl-CoA) and no activity with octanoyl-CoA [6]. cf. EC 1.3.8.7, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.8, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 1.3.8.9, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9027-88-7
References:
1.  Mahler, H.R. Studies on the fatty acid oxidizing system of animal tissue. IV. The prosthetic group of butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 206 (1954) 13–26. [PMID: 13130522]
2.  Green, D.E., Mii, S., Mahler, H.R. and Bock, R.M. Studies on the fatty acid oxidizing system of animal tissue. III. Butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 206 (1954) 1–12. [PMID: 13130521]
3.  Beinert, H. Acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 447–466.
4.  Shaw, L. and Engel, P.C. The purification and properties of ox liver short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochem. J. 218 (1984) 511–520. [PMID: 6712627]
5.  Thorpe, C. and Kim, J.J. Structure and mechanism of action of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. FASEB J. 9 (1995) 718–725. [PMID: 7601336]
6.  Ikeda, Y., Ikeda, K.O. and Tanaka, K. Purification and characterization of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation of the holo- and apoenzymes and conversion of the apoenzyme to the holoenzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 1311–1325. [PMID: 3968063]
7.  McMahon, B., Gallagher, M.E. and Mayhew, S.G. The protein coded by the PP2216 gene of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase that oxidises only short-chain aliphatic substrates. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 250 (2005) 121–127. [DOI] [PMID: 16024185]
[EC 1.3.8.1 created 1961 as EC 1.3.2.1, transferred 1964 to EC 1.3.99.2, transferred 2011 to EC 1.3.8.1, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.7     
Accepted name: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: a medium-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = a medium-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Glossary: a medium-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains 6 to 12 carbon atoms.
Other name(s): fatty acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ambiguous); acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ambiguous); acyl dehydrogenase (ambiguous); fatty-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ambiguous); acyl CoA dehydrogenase (ambiguous); general acyl CoA dehydrogenase (ambiguous); medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; acyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase (ambiguous); ACADM (gene name).
Systematic name: medium-chain acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids β-oxidation. The enzyme from pig liver can accept substrates with acyl chain lengths of 4 to 16 carbon atoms, but is most active with C8 to C12 compounds [2]. The enzyme from rat does not accept C16 at all and is most active with C6-C8 compounds [4]. cf. EC 1.3.8.1, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.8, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 1.3.8.9, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Crane, F.L., Hauge, J.G. and Beinert, H. Flavoproteins involved in the first oxidative step of the fatty acid cycle. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 17 (1955) 292–294. [DOI] [PMID: 13239683]
2.  Crane, F.L., Mii, S., Hauge, J.G., Green, D.E. and Beinert, H. On the mechanism of dehydrogenation of fatty acyl derivatives of coenzyme A. I. The general fatty acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 218 (1956) 701–716. [PMID: 13295224]
3.  Beinert, H. Acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 447–466.
4.  Ikeda, Y., Ikeda, K.O. and Tanaka, K. Purification and characterization of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation of the holo- and apoenzymes and conversion of the apoenzyme to the holoenzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 1311–1325. [PMID: 3968063]
5.  Thorpe, C. and Kim, J.J. Structure and mechanism of action of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. FASEB J. 9 (1995) 718–725. [PMID: 7601336]
6.  Kim, J.J., Wang, M. and Paschke, R. Crystal structures of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase from pig liver mitochondria with and without substrate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90 (1993) 7523–7527. [DOI] [PMID: 8356049]
7.  Peterson, K.L., Sergienko, E.E., Wu, Y., Kumar, N.R., Strauss, A.W., Oleson, A.E., Muhonen, W.W., Shabb, J.B. and Srivastava, D.K. Recombinant human liver medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase: purification, characterization, and the mechanism of interactions with functionally diverse C8-CoA molecules. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 14942–14953. [PMID: 7578106]
8.  Toogood, H.S., van Thiel, A., Basran, J., Sutcliffe, M.J., Scrutton, N.S. and Leys, D. Extensive domain motion and electron transfer in the human electron transferring flavoprotein.medium chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase complex. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 32904–32912. [DOI] [PMID: 15159392]
[EC 1.3.8.7 created 1961 as EC 1.3.2.2, transferred 1964 to EC 1.3.99.3, part transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.7]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.8     
Accepted name: long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: a long-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = a long-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Glossary: a long-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains 13 to 22 carbon atoms.
Other name(s): palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase; palmitoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase; long-chain-acyl-CoA:(acceptor) 2,3-oxidoreductase; ACADL (gene name).
Systematic name: long-chain acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids β-oxidation. The enzyme from pig liver can accept substrates with acyl chain lengths of 6 to at least 16 carbon atoms. The highest activity was found with C12, and the rates with C8 and C16 were 80 and 70%, respectively [2]. The enzyme from rat can accept substrates with C8-C22. It is most active with C14 and C16, and has no activity with C4, C6 or C24 [4]. cf. EC 1.3.8.1, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.8, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 1.3.8.9, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 59536-74-2
References:
1.  Crane, F.L., Hauge, J.G. and Beinert, H. Flavoproteins involved in the first oxidative step of the fatty acid cycle. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 17 (1955) 292–294. [DOI] [PMID: 13239683]
2.  Hauge, J.G., Crane, F.L. and Beinert, H. On the mechanism of dehydrogenation of fatty acyl derivatives of coenzyme A. III. Palmityl CoA dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 219 (1956) 727–733. [PMID: 13319294]
3.  Hall, C.L., Heijkenkjold, L., Bartfai, T., Ernster, L. and Kamin, H. Acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenases and electron-transferring flavoprotein from beef heart mitochondria. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 177 (1976) 402–414. [DOI] [PMID: 1015826]
4.  Ikeda, Y., Ikeda, K.O. and Tanaka, K. Purification and characterization of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation of the holo- and apoenzymes and conversion of the apoenzyme to the holoenzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 1311–1325. [PMID: 3968063]
5.  Djordjevic, S., Dong, Y., Paschke, R., Frerman, F.E., Strauss, A.W. and Kim, J.J. Identification of the catalytic base in long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Biochemistry 33 (1994) 4258–4264. [PMID: 8155643]
[EC 1.3.8.8 created 1989 as EC 1.3.99.13, part transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.8]
 
 
EC 1.3.8.9     
Accepted name: very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: a very-long-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein = a very-long-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein
Glossary: a very-long-chain acyl-CoA = an acyl-CoA thioester where the acyl chain contains 23 or more carbon atoms.
Other name(s): ACADVL (gene name).
Systematic name: very-long-chain acyl-CoA:electron-transfer flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids β-oxidation. The enzyme is most active toward long-chain acyl-CoAs such as C14, C16 and C18, but is also active with very-long-chain acyl-CoAs up to 24 carbons. It shows no activity for substrates of less than 12 carbons. Its specific activity towards palmitoyl-CoA is more than 10-fold that of the long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [1]. cf. EC 1.3.8.1, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.7, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 1.3.8.8, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Izai, K., Uchida, Y., Orii, T., Yamamoto, S. and Hashimoto, T. Novel fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes in rat liver mitochondria. I. Purification and properties of very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 1027–1033. [PMID: 1730632]
2.  Aoyama, T., Souri, M., Ushikubo, S., Kamijo, T., Yamaguchi, S., Kelley, R.I., Rhead, W.J., Uetake, K., Tanaka, K. and Hashimoto, T. Purification of human very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and characterization of its deficiency in seven patients. J. Clin. Invest. 95 (1995) 2465–2473. [DOI] [PMID: 7769092]
3.  McAndrew, R.P., Wang, Y., Mohsen, A.W., He, M., Vockley, J. and Kim, J.J. Structural basis for substrate fatty acyl chain specificity: crystal structure of human very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 9435–9443. [DOI] [PMID: 18227065]
[EC 1.3.8.9 created 1961 as EC 1.3.2.2, transferred 1964 to EC 1.3.99.3, part transferred 2012 to EC 1.3.8.9]
 
 
EC 1.3.99.3      
Transferred entry: acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, now EC 1.3.8.7, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 1.3.8.8, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and EC 1.3.8.9, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
[EC 1.3.99.3 created 1961 as EC 1.3.2.2, transferred 1964 to EC 1.3.99.3, deleted 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.99.12     
Accepted name: 2-methylacyl-CoA dehydrogenase
Reaction: 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA + acceptor = 2-methylbut-2-enoyl-CoA + reduced acceptor
Other name(s): branched-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase; 2-methyl branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase; 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA:(acceptor) oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: Also oxidizes 2-methylpropanoyl-CoA. Not identical with EC 1.3.8.1 (butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase), EC 1.3.8.7 (medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase), EC 1.3.8.8 (long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase), EC 1.3.8.9 (very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) or EC 1.3.99.10 (isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 85130-32-1
References:
1.  Ikeda, Y., Dabrowski, C. and Tanaka, K. Separation and properties of five distinct acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Identification of a new 2-methyl branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 1066–1076. [PMID: 6401712]
[EC 1.3.99.12 created 1986]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.295     
Accepted name: mycoketide-CoA synthase
Reaction: a medium-chain acyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 5 (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA + 22 NADPH + 22 H+ = a mycoketide-CoA + 10 CO2 + 10 CoA + 22 NADP+ + 11 H2O
Glossary: a mycoketide-CoA = a 4,8,12,16,20-pentamethyl-(long-chain fatty acyl)-CoA
Other name(s): pks12 (gene name)
Systematic name: malonyl-CoA/(S)-methylmalonyl-CoA:heptanoyl-CoA malonyltransferase (mycoketide-CoA-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, found in mycobacteria, is involved in the synthesis of β-D-mannosyl phosphomycoketides. It is a very large polyketide synthase that contains two complete sets of FAS-like fatty acid synthase modules. It binds an acyl-CoA with 5-9 carbons as a starter unit, and extends it by five rounds of alternative additions of malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA extender units. Depending on the starter unit, the enzyme forms mycoketide-CoAs of different lengths.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Matsunaga, I., Bhatt, A., Young, D.C., Cheng, T.Y., Eyles, S.J., Besra, G.S., Briken, V., Porcelli, S.A., Costello, C.E., Jacobs, W.R., Jr. and Moody, D.B. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pks12 produces a novel polyketide presented by CD1c to T cells. J. Exp. Med. 200 (2004) 1559–1569. [PMID: 15611286]
[EC 2.3.1.295 created 2019]
 
 
EC 3.1.2.18     
Accepted name: ADP-dependent short-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase
Reaction: acyl-CoA + H2O = CoA + a carboxylate
Other name(s): short-chain acyl coenzyme A hydrolase; propionyl coenzyme A hydrolase; propionyl-CoA hydrolase; propionyl-CoA thioesterase; short-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase; short-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase
Systematic name: ADP-dependent-short-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase
Comments: Requires ADP; inhibited by NADH. Maximum activity is shown with propanoyl-CoA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 117698-16-5
References:
1.  Alexson, S.E.H. and Nedergaard, J. A novel type of short- and medium-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases in brown adipose tissue mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (1988) 13564–13571. [PMID: 2901416]
2.  Alexson, S.E.H., Svensson, L.T. and Nedergaard, J. NADH-sensitive propionyl-CoA hydrolase in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria of the rat. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1005 (1989) 13–19. [DOI] [PMID: 2570608]
[EC 3.1.2.18 created 1992]
 
 
EC 3.1.2.19     
Accepted name: ADP-dependent medium-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase
Reaction: acyl-CoA + H2O = CoA + a carboxylate
Other name(s): medium-chain acyl coenzyme A hydrolase; medium-chain acyl-CoA hydrolase; medium-chain acyl-thioester hydrolase; medium-chain hydrolase; myristoyl-CoA thioesterase
Systematic name: ADP-dependent-medium-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase
Comments: Requires ADP; inhibited by NADH. Maximum activity is shown with nonanoyl-CoA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 63363-75-7
References:
1.  Alexson, S.E.H. and Nedergaard, J. A novel type of short- and medium-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases in brown adipose tissue mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 263 (1988) 13564–13571. [PMID: 2901416]
[EC 3.1.2.19 created 1992]
 
 
EC 6.2.1.2     
Accepted name: medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase
Reaction: ATP + a medium-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + a medium-chain acyl-CoA
Other name(s): fadK (gene name); lvaE (gene name); butyryl-CoA synthetase; fatty acid thiokinase (medium chain); acyl-activating enzyme; fatty acid elongase; fatty acid activating enzyme; fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase; butyrate—CoA ligase; butyryl-coenzyme A synthetase; L-(+)-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase; short-chain acyl-CoA synthetase; medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase; butanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
Systematic name: medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
Comments: Acts on fatty acids from C4 to C11 and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids. The enzyme from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida also acts on 4-oxo and 4-hydroxy derivatives.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9080-51-7
References:
1.  Mahler, H.R., Wakil, S.J. and Bock, R.M. Studies on fatty acid oxidation. I. Enzymatic activation of fatty acids. J. Biol. Chem. 204 (1953) 453–468. [PMID: 13084616]
2.  Massaro, E.J. and Lennarz, W.J. The partial purification and characterization of a bacterial fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase. Biochemistry 4 (1965) 85–90. [PMID: 14285249]
3.  Websterlt, J.R., Gerowin, L.D. and Rakita, L. Purification and characteristics of a butyryl coenzyme A synthetase from bovine heart mitochondria. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 29–33. [PMID: 14253428]
4.  Morgan-Kiss, R.M. and Cronan, J.E. The Escherichia coli fadK (ydiD) gene encodes an anerobically regulated short chain acyl-CoA synthetase. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 37324–37333. [PMID: 15213221]
5.  Rand, J.M., Pisithkul, T., Clark, R.L., Thiede, J.M., Mehrer, C.R., Agnew, D.E., Campbell, C.E., Markley, A.L., Price, M.N., Ray, J., Wetmore, K.M., Suh, Y., Arkin, A.P., Deutschbauer, A.M., Amador-Noguez, D. and Pfleger, B.F. A metabolic pathway for catabolizing levulinic acid in bacteria. Nat Microbiol 2 (2017) 1624–1634. [PMID: 28947739]
[EC 6.2.1.2 created 1961, modified 2011, modified 2018]
 
 


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