The Enzyme Database

Your query returned 10 entries.    printer_iconPrintable version



EC 1.1.1.219     
Accepted name: dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Reaction: a (2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin + NADP+ = a (2R,3R)-dihydroflavonol + NADPH + H+
For diagram of flavonoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase; dihydromyricetin reductase; NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase; dihydroquercetin reductase; DFR (gene name); cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase; dihydroflavanol 4-reductase (incorrect)
Systematic name: (2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Comments: This plant enzyme, involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanidins, is known to act on (+)-dihydrokaempferol, (+)-taxifolin, and (+)-dihydromyricetin, although some enzymes may act only on a subset of these compounds. Each dihydroflavonol is reduced to the corresponding cis-flavan-3,4-diol. NAD+ can act instead of NADP+, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 83682-99-9
References:
1.  Heller, W., Forkmann, G., Britsch, L. and Grisebach, H. Enzymatic reduction of (+)-dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-cis- diols with flower extracts from Matthiola incana and its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Planta 165 (1985) 284–287. [PMID: 24241054]
2.  Stafford, H.A. and Lester, H.H. Flavan-3-ol biosynthesis the conversion of (+)-dihydromyricetin to its flavan-3,4-diol (leucodelphinidin) and to (+)-gallocatechin by reductases extracted from tissue-cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga-menziesii. Plant Physiol. 78 (1985) 791–794. [PMID: 16664326]
3.  Fischer, D., Stich, K., Britsch, L. and Grisebach, H. Purification and characterization of (+)dihydroflavonol (3-hydroxyflavanone) 4-reductase from flowers of Dahlia variabilis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 264 (1988) 40–47. [DOI] [PMID: 3293532]
4.  Li, H., Qiu, J., Chen, F., Lv, X., Fu, C., Zhao, D., Hua, X. and Zhao, Q. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene in Saussurea medusa. Mol. Biol. Rep. 39 (2012) 2991–2999. [DOI] [PMID: 21701830]
[EC 1.1.1.219 created 1989, modified 2016]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.77     
Accepted name: anthocyanidin reductase [(2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol-forming]
Reaction: a (2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol + 2 NAD(P)+ = an anthocyanidin with a 3-hydroxy group + 2 NAD(P)H + H+
For diagram of anthocyanin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ANR (gene name) (ambiguous); flavan-3-ol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase; anthocyanidin reductase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: (2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol:NAD(P)+ 3,4-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme participates in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway found in plants. It catalyses the double reduction of anthocyanidins, producing (2R,3R)-flavan-3-ol monomers required for the formation of proanthocyanidins. While the enzyme from the legume Medicago truncatula (MtANR) can use both NADPH and NADH as reductant, that from the crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (AtANR) uses only NADPH. Also, while the substrate preference of MtANR is cyanidin>pelargonidin>delphinidin, the reverse preference is found with AtANR. cf. EC 1.3.1.112, anthocyanidin reductase [(2S)-flavan-3-ol-forming].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 93389-48-1
References:
1.  Xie, D.Y., Sharma, S.B., Paiva, N.L., Ferreira, D. and Dixon, R.A. Role of anthocyanidin reductase, encoded by BANYULS in plant flavonoid biosynthesis. Science 299 (2003) 396–399. [DOI] [PMID: 12532018]
2.  Xie, D.Y., Sharma, S.B. and Dixon, R.A. Anthocyanidin reductases from Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 422 (2004) 91–102. [DOI] [PMID: 14725861]
3.  Pang, Y., Abeysinghe, I.S., He, J., He, X., Huhman, D., Mewan, K.M., Sumner, L.W., Yun, J. and Dixon, R.A. Functional characterization of proanthocyanidin pathway enzymes from tea and their application for metabolic engineering. Plant Physiol. 161 (2013) 1103–1116. [DOI] [PMID: 23288883]
[EC 1.3.1.77 created 2004, modified 2016]
 
 
EC 1.17.1.3     
Accepted name: leucoanthocyanidin reductase
Reaction: (2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O = 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
For diagram of flavonoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): leucocyanidin reductase
Systematic name: (2R,3S)-catechin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the synthesis of catechin, catechin-4β-ol (leucocyanidin) and the related flavan-3-ols afzelechin and gallocatechin, which are initiating monomers in the synthesis of plant polymeric proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins. While 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin is the preferred flavan-3,4-diol substrate, 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin and 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin can also act as substrates, but more slowly. NADH can replace NADPH but is oxidized more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 776323-46-7
References:
1.  Tanner, G.J. and Kristiansen, K.N. Synthesis of 3,4-cis-[3H]leucocyanidin and enzymatic reduction to catechin. Anal. Biochem. 209 (1993) 274–277. [DOI] [PMID: 8470799]
2.  Tanner, G.J., Francki, K.T., Abrahams, S., Watson, J.M., Larkin, P.J. and Ashton, A.R. Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants: Purification of legume leucoanthocyanidin reductase and molecular cloning of its cDNA. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 31647–31656. [DOI] [PMID: 12788945]
[EC 1.17.1.3 created 2003]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.171     
Accepted name: anthocyanin 6′′-O-malonyltransferase
Reaction: malonyl-CoA + an anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside = CoA + an anthocyanidin 3-O-(6-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside)
For diagram of anthocyanidin acylglucoside biosynthesis, click here
Systematic name: malonyl-CoA:anthocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside 6′′-O-malonyltransferase
Comments: Acts on pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside in dahlia (Dahlia variabilis), delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and on cyanidin 3-O-glucoside in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 111070-07-6
References:
1.  Suzuki, H., Nakayama, T., Yonekura-Sakakibara, K., Fukui, Y., Nakamura, N., Yamaguchi, M.A., Tanaka, Y., Kusumi, T. and Nishino, T. cDNA cloning, heterologous expressions, and functional characterization of malonyl-coenzyme A:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside-6′′-O-malonyltransferase from dahlia flowers. Plant Physiol. 130 (2002) 2142–2151. [DOI] [PMID: 12481098]
[EC 2.3.1.171 created 2004]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.172     
Accepted name: anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside 6′′′-O-malonyltransferase
Reaction: malonyl-CoA + pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside) 5-O-β-D-glucoside = CoA + 4′′′-demalonylsalvianin
For diagram of salvianin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: salvianin = pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside) 5-O-(4,6-di-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside)
4′′′-demalonylsalvianin = pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside) 5-O-(6-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside)
pelargonidin = 3,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavylium
Systematic name: malonyl-CoA:pelargonidin-3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside)-5-O-β-D-glucoside 6′′′-O-malonyltransferase
Comments: Specific for the penultimate step in salvianin biosynthesis. The enzyme also catalyses the malonylation of shisonin to malonylshisonin [cyanidin 3-O-(6′′-O-p-coumaryl-β-D-glucoside)-5-(6′′′-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside)]. The compounds 4′′′-demalonylsalvianin, salvianin, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside cannot act as substrates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 380229-66-3
References:
1.  Suzuki, H., Nakayama, T., Yonekura-Sakakibara, K., Fukui, Y., Nakamura, N., Nakao, M., Tanaka, Y., Yamaguchi, M.A., Kusumi, T. and Nishino, T. Malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-6′′′-O-malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 49013–49019. [DOI] [PMID: 11598135]
[EC 2.3.1.172 created 2004]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.214     
Accepted name: pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoylglucoside) 5-O-(6-O-malonylglucoside) 4′′′-malonyltransferase
Reaction: malonyl-CoA + 4′′′-demalonylsalvianin = CoA + salvianin
For diagram of salvianin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: salvianin = pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside) 5-O-(4,6-di-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside)
4′′′-demalonylsalvianin = pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside) 5-O-(6-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside)
Other name(s): malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-glucoside 4′′′-O-malonyltransferase; Ss5MaT2
Systematic name: malonyl-CoA:4′′′-demalonylsalvianin 4′′′-O-malonyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plant Salvia splendens (scarlet sage).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Suzuki, H., Sawada, S., Watanabe, K., Nagae, S., Yamaguchi, M.A., Nakayama, T. and Nishino, T. Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases. Plant J. 38 (2004) 994–1003. [DOI] [PMID: 15165190]
[EC 2.3.1.214 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.115     
Accepted name: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-D-glucose + an anthocyanidin = UDP + an anthocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside
For diagram of anthocyanin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): uridine diphosphoglucose-anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin/flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:cyanidin-3-O-glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-D-glucosyltransferase; 3-GT
Systematic name: UDP-D-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The anthocyanidin compounds cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin and to a lesser extent pelargonidin can act as substrates. The enzyme does not catalyse glucosylation of the 5-position of cyanidin and does not act on flavanols such as quercetin and kaempferol (cf. EC 2.4.1.91 flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase). In conjunction with EC 1.14.20.4, anthocyanidin oxygenase, it is involved in the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin into anthocyanidin 3-glucoside. It may act on the pseudobase precursor of the anthocyanidin rather than on the anthocyanidin itself [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 65607-32-1
References:
1.  Kamsteeg, J., van Brederode, J. and van Nigtevecht, G. Identification and properties of UDP-glucose: cyanidin-3-O-glucosyltransferase isolated from petals of the red campion (Silene dioica). Biochem. Genet. 16 (1978) 1045–1058. [PMID: 751640]
2.  Ford, C.M., Boss, P.K. and Høj, P.B. Cloning and characterization of Vitis vinifera UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase, a homologue of the enzyme encoded by the maize Bronze-1 locus that may primarily serve to glucosylate anthocyanidins in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 9224–9233. [DOI] [PMID: 9535914]
3.  Nakajima, J., Tanaka, Y., Yamazaki, M. and Saito, K. Reaction mechanism from leucoanthocyanidin to anthocyanidin 3-glucoside, a key reaction for coloring in anthocyanin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 25797–25803. [DOI] [PMID: 11316805]
[EC 2.4.1.115 created 1984 (EC 2.4.1.233 created 2004, incorporated 2005), modified 2005]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.116     
Accepted name: cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside = UDP + cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside 5-O-β-D-glucoside
For diagram of anthocyanidin rutoside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside = cyanidin-3-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucoside
cyanidin = 3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavylium
Other name(s): uridine diphosphoglucose-cyanidin 3-rhamnosylglucoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase; cyanidin-3-rhamnosylglucoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:cyanidin-3-O-D-rhamnosyl-1,6-D-glucoside 5-O-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:cyanidin-3-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucoside 5-O-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plants Silene dioica (red campion) [1], Iris ensata (Japanese iris) [2] and Iris hollandica (Dutch iris) [3]. Also acts on the 3-O-rutinosides of pelargonidin, delphinidin and malvidin, but not the corresponding glucosides or 6-acylglucosides. The enzyme does not catalyse the glucosylation of the 5-hydroxy group of cyanidin 3-glucoside.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 70248-66-7
References:
1.  Kamsteeg, J., van Brederode, J. and van Nigtevecht, G. Identification, properties, and genetic control of UDP-glucose: cyanidin-3-rhamnosyl-(1→6)-glucoside-5-O-glucosyltransferase isolated from petals of the red campion (Silene dioica). Biochem. Genet. 16 (1978) 1059–1071. [PMID: 751641]
2.  Yabuya, T., Yamaguchi, M., Imayama, T., Katoh, K. and Ino I. Anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase in flowers of Iris ensata. Plant Sci. 162 (2002) 779–784.
3.  Imayama, T., Yoshihara, Y., Fukuchi-Mizutani, M., Tanaka, Y., Ino, I. and Yabuya, T. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone of UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase in Iris hollandica. Plant Sci. 167 (2004) 1243–1248.
[EC 2.4.1.116 created 1984 (EC 2.4.1.235 created 2004, incorporated 2006), modified 2006, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.235      
Deleted entry: cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase. Enzyme is identical to EC 2.4.1.116, cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase
[EC 2.4.1.235 created 2004, deleted 2006]
 
 
EC 2.4.2.51     
Accepted name: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside 2′′′-O-xylosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-xylose + an anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucoside = UDP + an anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-sambubioside
For diagram of anthocyanidin sambubioside biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: anthocyanidin 3-O-β-D-sambubioside = anthocyanidin 3-O-(β-D-xylosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucoside)
Other name(s): uridine 5′-diphosphate-xylose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucose-xylosyltransferase; UGT79B1
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-xylose:anthocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside 2′′′-O-xylosyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from the plants Matthiola incana (stock) [1] and Arabidopsis thaliana (mouse-eared cress) [2]. The enzyme has similar activity with the 3-glucosides of pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, quercetin and kaempferol as well as with cyanidin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1→6)-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-(6-acylglucoside). There is no activity with other UDP-sugars or with cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Teusch, M. Uridine 5′-diphosphate-xylose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucose-xylosyltransferase from petals of Matthiola incana R.Br. Planta 169 (1986) 559–563. [PMID: 24232765]
2.  Yonekura-Sakakibara, K., Fukushima, A., Nakabayashi, R., Hanada, K., Matsuda, F., Sugawara, S., Inoue, E., Kuromori, T., Ito, T., Shinozaki, K., Wangwattana, B., Yamazaki, M. and Saito, K. Two glycosyltransferases involved in anthocyanin modification delineated by transcriptome independent component analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 69 (2012) 154–167. [DOI] [PMID: 21899608]
[EC 2.4.2.51 created 2013]
 
 


Data © 2001–2020 IUBMB
Web site © 2005–2020 Andrew McDonald