The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.3.5.6     
Accepted name: 9,9′-dicis-ζ-carotene desaturase
Reaction: 9,9′-dicis-ζ-carotene + 2 quinone = 7,9,7′,9′-tetracis-lycopene + 2 quinol (overall reaction)
(1a) 9,9′-dicis-ζ-carotene + a quinone = 7,9,9′-tricis-neurosporene + a quinol
(1b) 7,9,9′-tricis-neurosporene + a quinone = 7,9,7′,9′-tetracis-lycopene + a quinol
For diagram of plant and cyanobacteria carotenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: prolycopene = 7,9,7′,9′-tetracis-lycopene
Other name(s): ζ-carotene desaturase; ZDS
Systematic name: 9,9′-dicis-ζ-corotene:quinone oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Albrecht, M., Linden, H. and Sandmann, G. Biochemical characterization of purified ζ-carotene desaturase from Anabaena PCC 7120 after expression in E. coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 236 (1996) 115–120. [DOI] [PMID: 8617254]
2.  Josse, E.M., Simkin, A.J., Gaffe, J., Laboure, A.M., Kuntz, M. and Carol, P. A plastid terminal oxidase associated with carotenoid desaturation during chromoplast differentiation. Plant Physiol. 123 (2000) 1427–1436. [PMID: 10938359]
3.  Breitenbach, J., Kuntz, M., Takaichi, S. and Sandmann, G. Catalytic properties of an expressed and purified higher plant type ζ-carotene desaturase from Capsicum annuum. Eur. J. Biochem. 265 (1999) 376–383. [DOI] [PMID: 10491195]
4.  Breitenbach, J. and Sandmann, G. ζ-Carotene cis isomers as products and substrates in the plant poly-cis carotenoid biosynthetic pathway to lycopene. Planta 220 (2005) 785–793. [DOI] [PMID: 15503129]
[EC 1.3.5.6 created 1999 as EC 1.14.99.30, transferred 2011 to EC 1.3.5.6]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.30      
Transferred entry: carotene 7,8-desaturase. Now EC 1.3.5.6, 9,9′-dicis-ζ-carotene desaturase.
[EC 1.14.99.30 created 1999, deleted 2011]
 
 
EC 5.2.1.13     
Accepted name: prolycopene isomerase
Reaction: 7,9,7′,9′-tetracis-lycopene = all-trans-lycopene
For diagram of plant and cyanobacteria carotenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: prolycopene = 7,9,7′,9′-tetracis-lycopene
Other name(s): CRTISO; carotene cis-trans isomerase; ZEBRA2 (gene name); carotene isomerase; carotenoid isomerase
Systematic name: 7,9,7′,9′-tetracis-lycopene cis-trans-isomerase
Comments: Requires FADH2 [1]. The enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yu, Q., Ghisla, S., Hirschberg, J., Mann, V. and Beyer, P. Plant carotene cis-trans isomerase CRTISO: a new member of the FADred-dependent flavoproteins catalyzing non-redox reactions. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 8666–8676. [DOI] [PMID: 21209101]
2.  Li, Q., Farre, G., Naqvi, S., Breitenbach, J., Sanahuja, G., Bai, C., Sandmann, G., Capell, T., Christou, P. and Zhu, C. Cloning and functional characterization of the maize carotenoid isomerase and β-carotene hydroxylase genes and their regulation during endosperm maturation. Transgenic Res. 19 (2010) 1053–1068. [DOI] [PMID: 20221689]
3.  Isaacson, T., Ronen, G., Zamir, D. and Hirschberg, J. Cloning of tangerine from tomato reveals a carotenoid isomerase essential for the production of β-carotene and xanthophylls in plants. Plant Cell 14 (2002) 333–342. [DOI] [PMID: 11884678]
4.  Chai, C., Fang, J., Liu, Y., Tong, H., Gong, Y., Wang, Y., Liu, M., Wang, Y., Qian, Q., Cheng, Z. and Chu, C. ZEBRA2, encoding a carotenoid isomerase, is involved in photoprotection in rice. Plant Mol. Biol. 75 (2011) 211–221. [DOI] [PMID: 21161331]
[EC 5.2.1.13 created 2011]
 
 


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