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List of Symbols and Abbreviations Used in the Enzyme List

AdoHcy S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
AdoMet S-adenosyl-L-methionine
ADP adenosine 5′-diphosphate
Ala L-alanine
AMP adenosine 5′-phosphate
Ara L-arabinose
Arg L-arginine
Asn L-asparagine
Asp L-aspartic acid
ATP adenosine 5′-triphosphate
CDP cytidine 5′-diphosphate
CMP cytidine 5′-phosphate
CoA coenzyme A
CTP cytidine 5′-triphosphate
Cys L-cysteine
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
dTDP thymidine 5′-diphosphate
dTMP thymidine 5′-phosphate
DTT dithiothreitol
dTTP thymidine 5′-triphosphate
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
FAD flavin-adenine dinucleotide
FADH2 reduced flavin-adenine dinucleotide
FMN flavin mononucleotide (riboflavin 5′-phosphate)
FMNH2 reduced flavin mononucleotide (riboflavin 5′-phosphate)
Fru D-fructose
Fuc L-fucose
Gal D-galactose
GDP guanosine 5′-diphosphate
Glc D-glucose
GlcN D-glucosamine
GlcNAc N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
Gln L-glutamine
Glu L-glutamic acid
Gly glycine
GMP guanosine 5′-phosphate
GSH glutathione
GSSG glutathione disulfide
GTP guanosine 5′-triphosphate
His L-histidine
Ido idose
IDP inosine 5′-diphosphate
Ig immunoglobulin
Ile L-isoleucine
IMP inosine 5′-phosphate
ITP inosine 5′-triphosphate
Kdo 3-deoxy-α-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosylonate
Km Michaelis constant
Leu L-leucine
Lys L-lysine
Man D-mannose
Met L-methionine
mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid
Mur muramic acid
NAD(P)+ indicates either NAD+ or NADP+
NAD(P)H indicates either NADH or NADPH
NAD+ β-nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide
NADH reduced β-nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide
NADP+ β-nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NADPH reduced β-nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NDP nucleoside 5′-diphosphate
Neu neuraminate
NeuNAc N-acetylneuraminate
NMN nicotinamide mononucleotide
NMP nucleoside 5′-phosphate
NTP nucleoside 5′-triphosphate
Orn L-ornithine
PEP phosphoenolpyruvate
Phe L-phenylalanine
-P- phosphate (in diagrams only)
Pi phosphate (in diagrams only)
PPi diphosphate (in diagrams only)
PQQ pyrroloquinoline quinone
Pro L-proline
Pyl L-pyrrolysine
Rha L-rhamnose
Rib D-ribose
RNA ribonucleic acid
rRNA ribosomal ribonucleic acid
Sar N-methylglycine (sarcosine)
Sec L-selenocysteine
Ser L-serine
Thr L-threonine
tRNA transfer ribonucleic acid
Trp L-tryptophan
Tyr L-tyrosine
UDP uridine 5′-diphosphate
UMP uridine 5′-phosphate
UTP uridine 5′-triphosphate
Val L-valine
Vmax maximum or limiting velocity
Xaa symbol for an amino acid of unknown constitution in peptide formula
XMP xanthosine 5′-phosphate
Xyl D-xylose