EC 1.14.11.78     
Accepted name: (R)-3-[(carboxymethyl)amino]fatty acid dioxygenase/decarboxylase
Reaction: a (3R)-3-[(carboxylmethyl)amino]fatty acid + 2 2-oxoglutarate + 2 O2 = a (3R)-3-isocyanyl-fatty acid + 2 succinate + 3 CO2 + 2 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) a (3R)-3-[(carboxylmethyl)amino]fatty acid + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = a (3R)-3-{[carboxy(hydroxy)methyl]amino}fatty acid + succinate + CO2
(1b) a (3R)-3-{[carboxy(hydroxy)methyl]amino}fatty acid + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = a (3R)-3-isocyanyl-fatty acid + succinate + 2 CO2 + 2 H2O
Other name(s): scoE (gene name); mmaE (gene name); Rv0097 (locus name)
Systematic name: (3R)-3-[(carboxylmethyl)amino]fatty acid,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (isonitrile-forming)
Comments: Requires Fe(II). The enzyme, found in actinobacterial species, participates in the biosynthesis of isonitrile-containing lipopeptides. The reaction comprises two catalytic cycles, each consuming an oxygen molecule and a 2-oxoglutarate molecule. In the first cycle the substrate is hydroxylated, while in the second cycle the enzyme catalyses a decarboxylation/oxidation reaction that produces an isonitrile group.
References:
1.  Harris, N.C., Sato, M., Herman, N.A., Twigg, F., Cai, W., Liu, J., Zhu, X., Downey, J., Khalaf, R., Martin, J., Koshino, H. and Zhang, W. Biosynthesis of isonitrile lipopeptides by conserved nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene clusters in Actinobacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114 (2017) 7025–7030. [PMID: 28634299]
2.  Harris, N.C., Born, D.A., Cai, W., Huang, Y., Martin, J., Khalaf, R., Drennan, C.L. and Zhang, W. Isonitrile formation by a non-heme iron(II)-dependent oxidase/decarboxylase. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 57 (2018) 9707–9710. [PMID: 29906336]
3.  Jonnalagadda, R., Del Rio Flores, A., Cai, W., Mehmood, R., Narayanamoorthy, M., Ren, C., Zaragoza, J.PT., Kulik, H.J., Zhang, W. and Drennan, C.L. Biochemical and crystallographic investigations into isonitrile formation by a nonheme iron-dependent oxidase/decarboxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 296:100231 (2021). [PMID: 33361191]
[EC 1.14.11.78 created 2022]