The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: isoleucine N-monooxygenase
Reaction: L-isoleucine + 2 [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 O2 = (1E,2S)-2-methylbutanal oxime + 2 [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + CO2 + 3 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) L-isoleucine + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = N-hydroxy-L-isoleucine + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(1b) N-hydroxy-L-isoleucine + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = N,N-dihydroxy-L-isoleucine + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(1c) N,N-dihydroxy-L-isoleucine = (1E,2S)-2-methylbutanal oxime + CO2 + H2O (spontaneous)
Other name(s): CYP79D3 (gene name); CYP79D4 (gene name)
Systematic name: L-isoleucine,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-hydroxylating)
Comments: This cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) enzyme, found in plants, catalyses two successive N-hydroxylations of L-isoleucine, the committed step in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside lotaustralin. The product of the two hydroxylations, N,N-dihydroxy-L-isoleucine, is labile and undergoes dehydration followed by decarboxylation, producing the oxime. It is still not known whether the decarboxylation is spontaneous or catalysed by the enzyme. The enzyme can also accept L-valine, but with a lower activity. cf. EC, valine N-monooxygenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Andersen, M.D., Busk, P.K., Svendsen, I. and Møller, B.L. Cytochromes P-450 from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) catalyzing the first steps in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. Cloning, functional expression in Pichia pastoris, and substrate specificity of the isolated recombinant enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 1966–1975. [DOI] [PMID: 10636899]
2.  Forslund, K., Morant, M., Jørgensen, B., Olsen, C.E., Asamizu, E., Sato, S., Tabata, S. and Bak, S. Biosynthesis of the nitrile glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and D and the cyanogenic glucosides lotaustralin and linamarin in Lotus japonicus. Plant Physiol. 135 (2004) 71–84. [DOI] [PMID: 15122013]
[EC created 2010 as EC, transferred 2017 to EC]

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