The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: 4,4′-diapophytoene desaturase (4,4′-diapolycopene-forming)
Reaction: 15-cis-4,4′-diapophytoene + 4 FAD = all-trans-4,4′-diapolycopene + 4 FADH2 (overall reaction)
(1a) 15-cis-4,4′-diapophytoene + FAD = all-trans-4,4′-diapophytofluene + FADH2
(1b) all-trans-4,4′-diapophytofluene + FAD = all-trans-4,4′-diapo-ζ-carotene + FADH2
(1c) all-trans-4,4′-diapo-ζ-carotene + FAD = all-trans-4,4′-diaponeurosporene + FADH2
(1d) all-trans-4,4′-diaponeurosporene + FAD = all-trans-4,4′-diapolycopene + FADH2
For diagram of C30 carotenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): dehydrosqualene desaturase (ambiguous); CrtN (ambiguous); 4,4′-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase (ambiguous); 15-cis-4,4′-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase; 4,4′-diapophytoene desaturase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: 15-cis-4,4′-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase (4,4′-diapolycopene-forming)
Comments: The enzyme catalyses four successive dehydrogenations, resulting in production of 4,4′-diapolycopene. While the enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus was only shown to produce 4,4′-diaponeurosporene in vivo [4], it is able to catalyse the last reaction in vitro [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Wieland, B., Feil, C., Gloria-Maercker, E., Thumm, G., Lechner, M., Bravo, J.M., Poralla, K. and Gotz, F. Genetic and biochemical analyses of the biosynthesis of the yellow carotenoid 4,4′-diaponeurosporene of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 7719–7726. [DOI] [PMID: 8002598]
2.  Raisig, A. and Sandmann, G. 4,4′-diapophytoene desaturase: catalytic properties of an enzyme from the C30 carotenoid pathway of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 181 (1999) 6184–6187. [PMID: 10498735]
3.  Raisig, A. and Sandmann, G. Functional properties of diapophytoene and related desaturases of C30 to C40 carotenoid biosynthetic pathways. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1533 (2001) 164–170. [DOI] [PMID: 11566453]
4.  Tao, L., Schenzle, A., Odom, J.M. and Cheng, Q. Novel carotenoid oxidase involved in biosynthesis of 4,4′-diapolycopene dialdehyde. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 3294–3301. [DOI] [PMID: 15933032]
5.  Yoshida, K., Ueda, S. and Maeda, I. Carotenoid production in Bacillus subtilis achieved by metabolic engineering. Biotechnol. Lett. 31 (2009) 1789–1793. [DOI] [PMID: 19618272]
[EC created 2011, modified 2011]

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