The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: aspartate dehydrogenase
Reaction: L-aspartate + H2O + NAD(P)+ = oxaloacetate + NH3 + NAD(P)H + H+ (overall reaction)
(1a) L-aspartate + NAD(P)+ = 2-iminosuccinate + NAD(P)H + H+
(1b) 2-iminosuccinate + H2O = oxaloacetate + NH3 (spontaneous)
Other name(s): AspDH; NAD-dependent aspartate dehydrogenase; NADH2-dependent aspartate dehydrogenase; NADP+-dependent aspartate dehydrogenase; nadX (gene name); L-aspartate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase (deaminating)
Systematic name: L-aspartate:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase (2-iminosuccinate-forming)
Comments: The enzyme is strictly specific for L-aspartate as substrate. It produces the unstable compound 2-iminosuccinate, which, in the presence of water, hydrolyses spontaneously to form oxaloacetate. The enzyme from some archaea and thermophilic bacteria is likely to transfer 2-iminosuccinate directly to EC, quinolinate synthase, preventing its hydrolysis and enabling the de novo biosynthesis of NAD+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37278-97-0
1.  Kretovich, W.L., Kariakina, T.I., Weinova, M.K., Sidelnikova, L.I. and Kazakova, O.W. The synthesis of aspartic acid in Rhizobium lupini bacteroids. Plant Soil 61 (1981) 145–156.
2.  Okamura, T., Noda, H., Fukuda, S. and Ohsugi, M. Aspartate dehydrogenase in vitamin B12-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae IFO 13541. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 44 (1998) 483–490. [PMID: 9819709]
3.  Yang, Z., Savchenko, A., Yakunin, A., Zhang, R., Edwards, A., Arrowsmith, C. and Tong, L. Aspartate dehydrogenase, a novel enzyme identified from structural and functional studies of TM1643. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 8804–8808. [DOI] [PMID: 12496312]
4.  Yoneda, K., Kawakami, R., Tagashira, Y., Sakuraba, H., Goda, S. and Ohshima, T. The first archaeal L-aspartate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophile Archaeoglobus fulgidus: gene cloning and enzymological characterization. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1764 (2006) 1087–1093. [DOI] [PMID: 16731057]
5.  Yoneda, K., Sakuraba, H., Tsuge, H., Katunuma, N. and Ohshima, T. Crystal structure of archaeal highly thermostable L-aspartate dehydrogenase/NAD/citrate ternary complex. FEBS J. 274 (2007) 4315–4325. [DOI] [PMID: 17651440]
6.  Li, Y., Kawakami, N., Ogola, H.J., Ashida, H., Ishikawa, T., Shibata, H. and Sawa, Y. A novel L-aspartate dehydrogenase from the mesophilic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: molecular characterization and application for L-aspartate production. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 90 (2011) 1953–1962. [DOI] [PMID: 21468714]
7.  Li, Y., Ishida, M., Ashida, H., Ishikawa, T., Shibata, H. and Sawa, Y. A non-NadB type L-aspartate dehydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha strain JMP134: molecular characterization and physiological functions. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 75 (2011) 1524–1532. [DOI] [PMID: 21821928]
8.  Li, Y., Ogola, H.J. and Sawa, Y. L-aspartate dehydrogenase: features and applications. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 93 (2012) 503–516. [DOI] [PMID: 22120624]
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