Accepted name: methionine synthase
Reaction: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate + L-homocysteine = tetrahydrofolate + L-methionine
Other name(s): 5-methyltetrahydrofolate—homocysteine S-methyltransferase; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate—homocysteine transmethylase; N-methyltetrahydrofolate:L-homocysteine methyltransferase; N5-methyltetrahydrofolate methyltransferase; N5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine cobalamin methyltransferase; N5-methyltetrahydrofolic—homocysteine vitamin B12 transmethylase; B12 N5-methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase; methyltetrahydrofolate—homocysteine vitamin B12 methyltransferase; tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase; tetrahydropteroylglutamate methyltransferase; tetrahydropteroylglutamic methyltransferase; vitamin B12 methyltransferase; cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase; methionine synthase (cobalamin-dependent); MetH
Systematic name: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate:L-homocysteine S-methyltransferase
Comments: Contains zinc and cobamide. The enzyme becomes inactivated occasionally during its cycle by oxidation of Co(I) to Co(II). Reactivation by reductive methylation is catalysed by the enzyme itself, with S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor and a reducing system. For the mammalian enzyme, the reducing system involves NADPH and EC, [methionine synthase] reductase. In bacteria, the reducing agent is flavodoxin, and no further catalyst is needed (the flavodoxin is kept in the reduced state by NADPH and EC, ferredoxin—NADP+ reductase). Acts on the monoglutamate as well as the triglutamate folate, in contrast with EC, 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate—homocysteine S-methyltransferase, which acts only on the triglutamate.
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6.  Jarrett, J.T., Huang, S. and Matthews, R.G. Methionine synthase exists in two distinct conformations that differ in reactivity toward methyltetrahydrofolate, adenosylmethionine, and flavodoxin. Biochemistry 37 (1998) 5372–5382. [PMID: 9548919]
7.  Peariso, K., Goulding, C.W., Huang, S., Matthews, R.G. and Penner-Hahn, J.E. Characterization of the zinc binding site in methionine synthase enzymes of Escherichia coli: The role of zinc in the methylation of homocysteine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120 (1998) 8410–8416.
8.  Hall, D.A., Jordan-Starck, T.C., Loo, R.O., Ludwig, M.L. and Matthews, R.G. Interaction of flavodoxin with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase. Biochemistry 39 (2000) 10711–10719. [PMID: 10978155]
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[EC created 1972, modified 2003]