Accepted name: caffeine synthase
Reaction: (1) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
(2) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 1,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
(3) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 7-methylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine
Glossary: theobromine = 3,7-dimethylxanthine
paraxanthine = 1,7-dimethylxanthine
caffeine = 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
Other name(s): dimethylxanthine methyltransferase; 3N-methyltransferase; DXMT; CCS1; S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine 1-N-methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine N1-methyltransferase
Comments: Paraxanthine is the best substrate for this enzyme but the paraxanthine pathway is considered to be a minor pathway for caffeine biosynthesis [2,3].
1.  Kato, M., Mizuno, K., Fujimura, T., Iwama, M., Irie, M., Crozier, A. and Ashihara, H. Purification and characterization of caffeine synthase from tea leaves. Plant Physiol. 120 (1999) 579–586. [PMID: 10364410]
2.  Mizuno, K., Okuda, A., Kato, M., Yoneyama, N., Tanaka, H., Ashihara, H. and Fujimura, T. Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee (Coffea arabica L.). FEBS Lett. 534 (2003) 75–81. [PMID: 12527364]
3.  Uefuji, H., Ogita, S., Yamaguchi, Y., Koizumi, N. and Sano, H. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three distinct N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway in coffee plants. Plant Physiol. 132 (2003) 372–380. [PMID: 12746542]
4.  Kato, M., Mizuno, K., Crozier, A., Fujimura, T. and Ashihara, H. Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves. Nature 406 (2000) 956–957. [PMID: 10984041]
[EC created 2007]