The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: acetolactate synthase
Reaction: 2 pyruvate = 2-acetolactate + CO2
For diagram of reaction mechanism, click here
Glossary: thiamine diphosphate = 3-[(4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-5-(2-diphosphoethyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazolium
Other name(s): α-acetohydroxy acid synthetase; α-acetohydroxyacid synthase; α-acetolactate synthase; α-acetolactate synthetase; acetohydroxy acid synthetase; acetohydroxyacid synthase; acetolactate pyruvate-lyase (carboxylating); acetolactic synthetase
Systematic name: pyruvate:pyruvate acetaldehydetransferase (decarboxylating)
Comments: This enzyme requires thiamine diphosphate. The reaction shown is in the pathway of biosynthesis of valine; the enzyme can also transfer the acetaldehyde from pyruvate to 2-oxobutanoate, forming 2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxobutanoate, also known as 2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate, a reaction in the biosynthesis of isoleucine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9027-45-6
1.  Bauerle, R.H., Freundlich, M., Størmer, F.C. and Umbarger, H.E. Control of isoleucine, valine and leucine biosynthesis. II. Endproduct inhibition by valine of acetohydroxy acid synthetase in Salmonella typhimurium. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 92 (1964) 142–149. [PMID: 14243762]
2.  Huseby, N.E., Christensen, T.B., Olsen, B.R. and Størmer, F.C. The pH 6 acetolactate-forming enzyme from Aerobacter aerogenes. Subunit structure. Eur. J. Biochem. 20 (1971) 209–214. [DOI] [PMID: 5560406]
3.  Størmer, F.C., Solberg, Y. and Hovig, T. The pH 6 acetolactate-forming enzyme from Aerobacter aerogenes. Molecular properties. Eur. J. Biochem. 10 (1969) 251–260. [DOI] [PMID: 5823101]
4.  Barak, Z., Chipman, D.M. and Gollop, N. Physiological implications of the specificity of acetohydroxy acid synthase isozymes of enteric bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 169 (1987) 3750–3756. [DOI] [PMID: 3301814]
[EC created 1972 as EC, transferred 2002 to EC]

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