The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase
Reaction: D-ribulose 5-phosphate = formate + L-3,4-dihydroxybutan-2-one 4-phosphate
For diagram of riboflavin biosynthesis (late stages), click here
Other name(s): DHBP synthase; L-3,4-dihydroxybutan-2-one-4-phosphate synthase
Systematic name: D-ribulose 5-phosphate formate-lyase (L-3,4-dihydroxybutan-2-one 4-phosphate-forming)
Comments: Requires a divalent cation, preferably Mg2+, for activity [1]. The reaction involves an intramolecular skeletal rearrangement, with the bonds in D-ribulose 5-phosphate that connect C-3 and C-5 to C-4 being broken, C-4 being removed as formate and reconnection of C-3 and C-5 [1]. The phosphorylated four-carbon product (L-3,4-dihydroxybutan-2-one 4-phosphate) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of riboflavin [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
1.  Volk, R. and Bacher, A. Studies on the 4-carbon precursor in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. Purification and properties of L-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 19479–19485. [PMID: 2246238]
2.  Liao, D.I., Calabrese, J.C., Wawrzak, Z., Viitanen, P.V. and Jordan, D.B. Crystal structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of riboflavin biosynthesis. Structure 9 (2001) 11–18. [DOI] [PMID: 11342130]
3.  Kelly, M.J., Ball, L.J., Krieger, C., Yu, Y., Fischer, M., Schiffmann, S., Schmieder, P., Kühne, R., Bermel, W., Bacher, A., Richter, G. and Oschkinat, H. The NMR structure of the 47-kDa dimeric enzyme 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase and ligand binding studies reveal the location of the active site. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (2001) 13025–13030. [DOI] [PMID: 11687623]
4.  Liao, D.I., Zheng, Y.J., Viitanen, P.V. and Jordan, D.B. Structural definition of the active site and catalytic mechanism of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 1795–1806. [DOI] [PMID: 11827524]
5.  Fischer, M., Römisch, W., Schiffmann, S., Kelly, M., Oschkinat, H., Steinbacher, S., Huber, R., Eisenreich, W., Richter, G. and Bacher, A. Biosynthesis of riboflavin in archaea studies on the mechanism of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase of Methanococcus jannaschii. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 41410–41416. [DOI] [PMID: 12200440]
6.  Steinbacher, S., Schiffmann, S., Richter, G., Huber, R., Bacher, A. and Fischer, M. Structure of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase from Methanococcus jannaschii in complex with divalent metal ions and the substrate ribulose 5-phosphate: implications for the catalytic mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 42256–42265. [DOI] [PMID: 12904291]
7.  Steinbacher, S., Schiffmann, S., Bacher, A. and Fischer, M. Metal sites in 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase from Methanococcus jannaschii in complex with the substrate ribulose 5-phosphate. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 60 (2004) 1338–1340. [DOI] [PMID: 15213409]
8.  Echt, S., Bauer, S., Steinbacher, S., Huber, R., Bacher, A. and Fischer, M. Potential anti-infective targets in pathogenic yeasts: structure and properties of 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase of Candida albicans. J. Mol. Biol. 341 (2004) 1085–1096. [DOI] [PMID: 15328619]
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