The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: trypanothione synthase
Reaction: (1) glutathione + spermidine + ATP = glutathionylspermidine + ADP + phosphate
(2) glutathione + glutathionylspermidine + ATP = N1,N8-bis(glutathionyl)spermidine + ADP + phosphate
For diagram of trypanothione biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of trypanothione biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N1,N8-bis(glutathionyl)spermidine = trypanothione
Other name(s): glutathionylspermidine:glutathione ligase (ADP-forming)
Systematic name: spermidine/glutathionylspermidine:glutathione ligase (ADP-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from several trypanosomatids (e.g. Trypanosoma cruzi) catalyses two subsequent reactions, leading to production of trypanothione from glutathione and spermidine. Some trypanosomatids (e.g. Crithidia species and some Leishmania species) also contain an enzyme that only carries out the first reaction (cf. EC, glutathionylspermidine synthase). The enzyme is bifunctional, and also catalyses the hydrolysis of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione (cf. EC, glutathionylspermidine amidase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 130246-69-4
1.  Smith, K., Nadeau, K., Bradley, M., Walsh, C.T., Fairlamb, A.H. Purification of glutathionylspermidine and trypanothione synthase from Crithidia fasciculata. Protein Sci. 1 (1992) 874–883. [DOI] [PMID: 1304372]
2.  Oza, S.L., Tetaud, E., Ariyanayagam, M.R., Warnon, S.S. and Fairlamb, A.H. A single enzyme catalyses formation of trypanothione from glutathione and spermidine in Trypanosoma cruzi. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 35853–35861. [DOI] [PMID: 12121990]
3.  Comini, M., Menge, U., Wissing, J. and Flohe, L. Trypanothione synthesis in crithidia revisited. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 6850–6860. [DOI] [PMID: 15537651]
4.  Oza, S.L., Shaw, M.P., Wyllie, S. and Fairlamb, A.H. Trypanothione biosynthesis in Leishmania major. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 139 (2005) 107–116. [DOI] [PMID: 15610825]
5.  Fyfe, P.K., Oza, S.L., Fairlamb, A.H. and Hunter, W.N. Leishmania trypanothione synthetase-amidase structure reveals a basis for regulation of conflicting synthetic and hydrolytic activities. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 17672–17680. [DOI] [PMID: 18420578]
[EC created 1999, modified 2014]

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