The Enzyme Database

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Accepted name: GMP synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing)
Reaction: ATP + XMP + L-glutamine + H2O = AMP + diphosphate + GMP + L-glutamate (overall reaction)
(1a) L-glutamine + H2O = L-glutamate + NH3
(1b) ATP + XMP + NH3 = AMP + diphosphate + GMP
For diagram of AMP and GMP biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: XMP = xanthosine 5′-phosphate
Other name(s): GMP synthetase (glutamine-hydrolysing); guanylate synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing); guanosine monophosphate synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing); xanthosine 5′-phosphate amidotransferase; guanosine 5′-monophosphate synthetase
Systematic name: xanthosine-5′-phosphate:L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming)
Comments: Involved in the de novo biosynthesis of guanosine nucleotides. An N-terminal glutaminase domain binds L-glutamine and generates ammonia, which is transferred by a substrate-protective tunnel to the ATP-pyrophosphatase domain. The enzyme can catalyse the second reaction alone in the presence of ammonia.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37318-71-1
1.  Lagerkvist, U. Biosynthesis of guanosine 5′-phosphate. II. Amination of xanthosine 5′-phosphate by purified enzyme from pigeon liver. J. Biol. Chem. 233 (1958) 143–149. [PMID: 13563458]
2.  Abrams, R. and Bentley, M. Biosynthesis of nucleic acid purines. III. Guanosine 5′-phosphate formation from xanthosine 5′-phosphate and L-glutamine. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 79 (1959) 91–110.
3.  Zalkin, H., Argos, P., Narayana, S.V., Tiedeman, A.A. and Smith, J.M. Identification of a trpG-related glutamine amide transfer domain in Escherichia coli GMP synthetase. J. Biol. Chem. 260 (1985) 3350–3354. [PMID: 2982857]
4.  Abbott, J.L., Newell, J.M., Lightcap, C.M., Olanich, M.E., Loughlin, D.T., Weller, M.A., Lam, G., Pollack, S. and Patton, W.A. The effects of removing the GAT domain from E. coli GMP synthetase. Protein J. 25 (2006) 483–491. [DOI] [PMID: 17103135]
[EC created 1961, modified 2013]

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