The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.4.1.315     
Accepted name: diglucosyl diacylglycerol synthase (1,6-linking)
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol = 1,2-diacyl-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-sn-glycerol + UDP
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + 1,2-diacyl-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-sn-glycerol = 1,2-diacyl-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-sn-glycerol + UDP
Other name(s): monoglucosyl diacylglycerol (1→6) glucosyltransferase; MGlcDAG (1→6) glucosyltransferase; DGlcDAG synthase (ambiguous); UGT106B1; ypfP (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:1,2-diacyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol 6-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is found in several bacterial species. The enzyme from Bacillus subtilis is specific for glucose [1]. The enzyme from Mycoplasma genitalium can incoporate galactose with similar efficiency, but forms mainly 1,2-diacyl-diglucopyranosyl-sn-glycerol in vivo [3]. The enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus can also form glucosyl-glycero-3-phospho-(1′-sn-glycerol) [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Jorasch, P., Wolter, F.P., Zahringer, U. and Heinz, E. A UDP glucosyltransferase from Bacillus subtilis successively transfers up to four glucose residues to 1,2-diacylglycerol: expression of ypfP in Escherichia coli and structural analysis of its reaction products. Mol. Microbiol. 29 (1998) 419–430. [DOI] [PMID: 9720862]
2.  Jorasch, P., Warnecke, D.C., Lindner, B., Zahringer, U. and Heinz, E. Novel processive and nonprocessive glycosyltransferases from Staphylococcus aureus and Arabidopsis thaliana synthesize glycoglycerolipids, glycophospholipids, glycosphingolipids and glycosylsterols. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 3770–3783. [DOI] [PMID: 10848996]
3.  Andres, E., Martinez, N. and Planas, A. Expression and characterization of a Mycoplasma genitalium glycosyltransferase in membrane glycolipid biosynthesis: potential target against mycoplasma infections. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 35367–35379. [DOI] [PMID: 21835921]
[EC 2.4.1.315 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.336     
Accepted name: monoglucosyldiacylglycerol synthase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = UDP + a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol
Glossary: a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol = a β-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol = a GlcDG
Other name(s): mgdA (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-β-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzymes from cyanobacteria are involved in the biosynthesis of galactolipids found in their photosynthetic membranes. The enzyme belongs to the GT2 family of configuration-inverting glycosyltranferases [2]. cf. EC 2.4.1.337, 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-α-glucosyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sato, N. and Murata, N. Lipid biosynthesis in the blue-green-alga (cyanobacterium), Anabaena variabilis. 3. UDP-glucose-diacylglycerol glucosyltransferase activity in vitro. Plant Cell Physiol. 23 (1982) 1115–1120.
2.  Awai, K., Kakimoto, T., Awai, C., Kaneko, T., Nakamura, Y., Takamiya, K., Wada, H. and Ohta, H. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a gene for monoglucosyldiacylglycerol synthase, an enzyme for photosynthetic membrane lipid synthesis in cyanobacteria. Plant Physiol. 141 (2006) 1120–1127. [DOI] [PMID: 16714404]
3.  Yuzawa, Y., Shimojima, M., Sato, R., Mizusawa, N., Ikeda, K., Suzuki, M., Iwai, M., Hori, K., Wada, H., Masuda, S. and Ohta, H. Cyanobacterial monogalactosyldiacylglycerol-synthesis pathway is involved in normal unsaturation of galactolipids and low-temperature adaptation of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1841 (2014) 475–483. [DOI] [PMID: 24370445]
[EC 2.4.1.336 created 2015]
 
 
EC 5.1.3.34     
Accepted name: monoglucosyldiacylglycerol epimerase
Reaction: a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol = a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol
Glossary: a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol = β-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol = GlcDG
a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol = β-monogalactosyldiacylglycerol = MGDG
Other name(s): glucolipid epimerase; mgdE (gene name)
Systematic name: 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol 4-epimerase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from cyanobacteria, is involves in the biosynthesis of galactolipids found in their photosynthetic membranes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sato, N. and Murata, N. Lipid biosynthesis in the blue-green alga, Anabaena variabilis II. Fatty acids and lipid molecular species. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 710 (1982) 279–289.
2.  Awai, K., Ohta, H. and Sato, N. Oxygenic photosynthesis without galactolipids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111 (2014) 13571–13575. [DOI] [PMID: 25197079]
[EC 5.1.3.34 created 2015]
 
 


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