The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.3.1.51     
Accepted name: 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase
Reaction: acyl-CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
Other name(s): 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate acyltransferase; 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase; 1-acylglycero-3-phosphate acyltransferase; 1-acylglycerolphosphate acyltransferase; 1-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase; lysophosphatidic acid-acyltransferase
Systematic name: acyl-CoA:1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase
Comments: Acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] can also act as an acyl donor. The animal enzyme is specific for the transfer of unsaturated fatty acyl groups.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 51901-16-7
References:
1.  Frentzen, M., Heinz, E., McKeon, T.A. and Stumpf, P.K. Specificities and selectivities of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and monoacylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from pea and spinach chloroplasts. Eur. J. Biochem. 129 (1983) 629–636. [DOI] [PMID: 6825679]
2.  Hill, E.E. and Lands, W.E.M. Incorporation of long-chain and polyunsaturated acids into phosphatidate and phosphatidylcholine. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 152 (1968) 645–648. [DOI] [PMID: 5661029]
3.  Yamashita, S., Hosaka, K. and Numa, S. Acyl-donor specificities of partially purified 1-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase, 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine acyltransferase from rat-liver microsomes. Eur. J. Biochem. 38 (1973) 25–31. [DOI] [PMID: 4774123]
[EC 2.3.1.51 created 1976, modified 1990]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.52     
Accepted name: 2-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase
Reaction: acyl-CoA + 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
Other name(s): 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase
Systematic name: acyl-CoA:2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate O-acyltransferase
Comments: Saturated acyl-CoA thioesters are the most effective acyl donors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 51901-17-8
References:
1.  Yamashita, S., Hosaka, K. and Numa, S. Acyl-donor specificities of partially purified 1-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase, 2-acylglycerophosphate acyltransferase and 1-acylglycerophosphorylcholine acyltransferase from rat-liver microsomes. Eur. J. Biochem. 38 (1973) 25–31. [DOI] [PMID: 4774123]
[EC 2.3.1.52 created 1976]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.107     
Accepted name: diacylglycerol kinase (ATP)
Reaction: ATP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = ADP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
Glossary: 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = phosphatidate
Other name(s): diglyceride kinase (ambiguous); 1,2-diacylglycerol kinase (phosphorylating) (ambiguous); 1,2-diacylglycerol kinase (ambiguous); sn-1,2-diacylglycerol kinase (ambiguous); DG kinase (ambiguous); DGK (ambiguous); ATP:diacylglycerol phosphotransferase; arachidonoyl-specific diacylglycerol kinase; diacylglycerol:ATP kinase; ATP:1,2-diacylglycerol 3-phosphotransferase; diacylglycerol kinase (ATP dependent)
Systematic name: ATP:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphotransferase
Comments: Involved in synthesis of membrane phospholipids and the neutral lipid triacylglycerol. Activity is stimulated by certain phospholipids [4,7]. In plants and animals the product 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate is an important second messenger. cf. EC 2.7.1.174, diacylglycerol kinase (CTP).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 60382-71-0
References:
1.  Hokin, L.E. and Hokin, M.R. Diglyceride kinase and other pathways for phosphatidic acid synthesis in the erythrocyte membrane. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 67 (1963) 470–484. [PMID: 13961253]
2.  Weissbach, H., Thomas, E. and Kaback, H.R. Studies on the metabolism of ATP by isolated bacterial membranes: formation and metabolism of membrane-bound phosphatidic acid. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 147 (1971) 249–254. [DOI] [PMID: 4940043]
3.  Daleo, G.R., Piras, M.M. and Piras, R. Diglyceride kinase activity of microtubules. Characterization and comparison with the protein kinase and ATPase activities associated with vinblastine-isolated tubulin of chick embryonic muscles. Eur. J. Biochem. 68 (1976) 339–346. [DOI] [PMID: 185051]
4.  Walsh, J.P. and Bell, R.M. sn-1,2-Diacylglycerol kinase of Escherichia coli. Structural and kinetic analysis of the lipid cofactor dependence. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 15062–15069. [PMID: 3021764]
5.  Russ, E., Kaiser, U. and Sandermann, H., Jr. Lipid-dependent membrane enzymes. Purification to homogeneity and further characterization of diacylglycerol kinase from Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 171 (1988) 335–342. [PMID: 2828054]
6.  Walsh, J.P. and Bell, R.M. Diacylglycerol kinase from Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol. 209 (1992) 153–162. [DOI] [PMID: 1323028]
7.  Wissing, J.B. and Wagner, K.G. Diacylglycerol kinase from suspension cultured plant cells : characterization and subcellular localization. Plant Physiol. 98 (1992) 1148–1153. [PMID: 16668739]
[EC 2.7.1.107 created 1984, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.174     
Accepted name: diacylglycerol kinase (CTP)
Reaction: CTP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = CDP + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
Glossary: 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = phosphatidate
Other name(s): DAG kinase; CTP-dependent diacylglycerol kinase; diglyceride kinase (ambiguous); DGK1 (gene name); diacylglycerol kinase (CTP dependent)
Systematic name: CTP:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphotransferase
Comments: Requires Ca2+ or Mg2+ for activity. Involved in synthesis of membrane phospholipids and the neutral lipid triacylglycerol. Unlike the diacylglycerol kinases from bacteria, plants, and animals [cf. EC 2.7.1.107, diacylglycerol kinase (ATP)], the enzyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizes CTP. The enzyme can also use dCTP, but not ATP, GTP or UTP.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Han, G.S., O'Hara, L., Carman, G.M. and Siniossoglou, S. An unconventional diacylglycerol kinase that regulates phospholipid synthesis and nuclear membrane growth. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 20433–20442. [DOI] [PMID: 18458075]
2.  Han, G.S., O'Hara, L., Siniossoglou, S. and Carman, G.M. Characterization of the yeast DGK1-encoded CTP-dependent diacylglycerol kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 20443–20453. [DOI] [PMID: 18458076]
3.  Fakas, S., Konstantinou, C. and Carman, G.M. DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase activity is required for phospholipid synthesis during growth resumption from stationary phase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 1464–1474. [DOI] [PMID: 21071438]
[EC 2.7.1.174 created 2012, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 3.1.1.118     
Accepted name: phospholipid sn-1 acylhydrolase
Reaction: (1) a 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol + H2O = a 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1D-myo-inositol + a fatty acid
(2) a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + H2O = a 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a fatty acid
Glossary: a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = a phosphatidate
Other name(s): phospholipase DDHD1; phosphatidic acid-preferring phospholipase A1; PA-PLA1; DDHD1 (gene name)
Systematic name: phospholipid sn-1 acylhydrolase
Comments: The human enzyme shows broad specificity, and has a preference for phosphatidate over other phospholipids. Unlike EC 3.1.1.32, phospholipase A1, it is also active against phosphatidylinositol. It is not active towards acyl groups linked at the sn-2 position.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yamashita, A., Kumazawa, T., Koga, H., Suzuki, N., Oka, S. and Sugiura, T. Generation of lysophosphatidylinositol by DDHD domain containing 1 (DDHD1): Possible involvement of phospholipase D/phosphatidic acid in the activation of DDHD1. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1801 (2010) 711–720. [DOI] [PMID: 20359546]
2.  Baba, T., Kashiwagi, Y., Arimitsu, N., Kogure, T., Edo, A., Maruyama, T., Nakao, K., Nakanishi, H., Kinoshita, M., Frohman, M.A., Yamamoto, A. and Tani, K. Phosphatidic acid (PA)-preferring phospholipase A1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 11497–11511. [DOI] [PMID: 24599962]
[EC 3.1.1.118 created 2021]
 
 
EC 3.1.3.81     
Accepted name: diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase
Reaction: 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-diphosphate + H2O = 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + phosphate
Other name(s): DGPP phosphatase; DGPP phosphohydrolase; DPP1; DPPL1; DPPL2; PAP2; pyrophosphate phosphatase
Systematic name: 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate phosphohydrolase
Comments: The bifunctional enzyme catalyses the dephosphorylation of diacylglycerol diphosphate to phosphatidate and the subsequent dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol (cf. phosphatidate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.4)). It regulates intracellular levels of diacylglycerol diphosphate and phosphatidate, phospholipid molecules believed to play a signalling role in stress response [6]. The phosphatase activity of the bifunctional enzyme is Mg2+-independent and N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive and is distinct from the Mg2+-dependent and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive enzyme EC 3.1.3.4 (phosphatidate phosphatase) [5].The diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is induced by zinc depletion, by inositol supplementation, and when cells enter the stationary phase [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Dillon, D.A., Wu, W.I., Riedel, B., Wissing, J.B., Dowhan, W. and Carman, G.M. The Escherichia coli pgpB gene encodes for a diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 30548–30553. [DOI] [PMID: 8940025]
2.  Dillon, D.A., Chen, X., Zeimetz, G.M., Wu, W.I., Waggoner, D.W., Dewald, J., Brindley, D.N. and Carman, G.M. Mammalian Mg2+-independent phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP2) displays diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 10361–10366. [DOI] [PMID: 9099673]
3.  Wu, W.I., Liu, Y., Riedel, B., Wissing, J.B., Fischl, A.S. and Carman, G.M. Purification and characterization of diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 1868–1876. [DOI] [PMID: 8567632]
4.  Oshiro, J., Han, G.S. and Carman, G.M. Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1635 (2003) 1–9. [DOI] [PMID: 14642771]
5.  Carman, G.M. Phosphatidate phosphatases and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1348 (1997) 45–55. [DOI] [PMID: 9370315]
6.  Han, G.S., Johnston, C.N., Chen, X., Athenstaedt, K., Daum, G. and Carman, G.M. Regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DPP1-encoded diacylglycerol pyrophosphate phosphatase by zinc. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 10126–10133. [DOI] [PMID: 11139591]
[EC 3.1.3.81 created 2010]
 
 


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