The Enzyme Database

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EC 3.7.1.17     
Accepted name: 4,5:9,10-diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-diene-4-oate hydrolase
Reaction: (1E,2Z)-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxo-4,5:9,10-disecoandrosta-1(10),2-dien-4-oate + H2O = 3-[(3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]propanoate + (2Z,4Z)-2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienoate
Other name(s): tesD (gene name); hsaD (gene name)
Systematic name: 4,5:9,10-diseco-3-hydroxy-5,9,17-trioxoandrosta-1(10),2-diene-4-oate hydrolase ( (2Z,4Z)-2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienoate-forming)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the bacterial degradation of the steroid ring structure, and is involved in degradation of multiple steroids, such as testosterone [1], cholesterol [2], and sitosterol.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD
References:
1.  Horinouchi, M., Hayashi, T., Koshino, H., Kurita, T. and Kudo, T. Identification of 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid, 4-hydroxy-2-oxohexanoic acid, and 2-hydroxyhexa-2,4-dienoic acid and related enzymes involved in testosterone degradation in Comamonas testosteroni TA441. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 5275–5281. [DOI] [PMID: 16151114]
2.  Van der Geize, R., Yam, K., Heuser, T., Wilbrink, M.H., Hara, H., Anderton, M.C., Sim, E., Dijkhuizen, L., Davies, J.E., Mohn, W.W. and Eltis, L.D. A gene cluster encoding cholesterol catabolism in a soil actinomycete provides insight into Mycobacterium tuberculosis survival in macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (2007) 1947–1952. [DOI] [PMID: 17264217]
3.  Lack, N., Lowe, E.D., Liu, J., Eltis, L.D., Noble, M.E., Sim, E. and Westwood, I.M. Structure of HsaD, a steroid-degrading hydrolase, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 64 (2008) 2–7. [DOI] [PMID: 18097091]
4.  Lack, N.A., Yam, K.C., Lowe, E.D., Horsman, G.P., Owen, R.L., Sim, E. and Eltis, L.D. Characterization of a carbon-carbon hydrolase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis involved in cholesterol metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 434–443. [DOI] [PMID: 19875455]
[EC 3.7.1.17 created 2012]
 
 
EC 6.2.1.41     
Accepted name: 3-[(3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]propanoate—CoA ligase
Reaction: ATP + 3-[(3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]propanoate + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + 3-[(3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]propanoyl-CoA
For diagram of cholesterol catabolism, click here
Glossary: 3-[(3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]propanoate = HIP
Other name(s): fadD3 (gene name); HIP—CoA ligase
Systematic name: 3-[(3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]propanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from actinobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, catalyses a step in the degradation of cholesterol and cholate. The enzyme is very specific for its substrate, and requires that the side chain at C17 is completely removed.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD
References:
1.  Horinouchi, M., Hayashi, T., Koshino, H. and Kudo, T. ORF18-disrupted mutant of Comamonas testosteroni TA441 accumulates significant amounts of 9,17-dioxo-1,2,3,4,10,19-hexanorandrostan-5-oic acid and its derivatives after incubation with steroids. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 101 (2006) 78–84. [DOI] [PMID: 16891113]
2.  Casabon, I., Crowe, A.M., Liu, J. and Eltis, L.D. FadD3 is an acyl-CoA synthetase that initiates catabolism of cholesterol rings C and D in actinobacteria. Mol. Microbiol. 87 (2013) 269–283. [DOI] [PMID: 23146019]
[EC 6.2.1.41 created 2014]
 
 


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