The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.14.16.1     
Accepted name: phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase
Reaction: L-phenylalanine + a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2 = L-tyrosine + a 4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
For diagram of phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis, click here, of biopterin biosynthesis, click here and for mechanism of reaction, click here
Other name(s): phenylalaninase; phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase; phenylalanine hydroxylase
Systematic name: L-phenylalanine,tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating)
Comments: The active centre contains mononuclear iron(II). The reaction involves an arene oxide that rearranges to give the phenolic hydroxy group. This results in the hydrogen at C-4 migrating to C-3 and in part being retained. This process is known as the NIH-shift. The 4a-hydroxytetrahydropteridine formed can dehydrate to 6,7-dihydropteridine, both spontaneously and by the action of EC 4.2.1.96, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase. The 6,7-dihydropteridine must be enzymically reduced back to tetrahydropteridine, by EC 1.5.1.34, 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase, before it slowly rearranges into the more stable but inactive compound 7,8-dihydropteridine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9029-73-6
References:
1.  Guroff, G. and Rhoads, C.A. Phenylalanine hydroxylation by Pseudomonas species (ATCC 11299a). Nature of the cofactor. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 142–146. [PMID: 5773277]
2.  Kaufman, S. Studies on the mechanism of the enzymic conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. J. Biol. Chem. 234 (1959) 2677–2682. [PMID: 14404870]
3.  Mitoma, C. Studies on partially purified phenylalanine hydroxylase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 60 (1956) 476–484. [DOI] [PMID: 13292928]
4.  Udenfriend, S. and Cooper, J.R. The enzymic conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. J. Biol. Chem. 194 (1952) 503–511. [PMID: 14927641]
5.  Carr, R.T., Balasubramanian, S., Hawkins, P.C. and Benkovic, S.J. Mechanism of metal-independent hydroxylation by Chromobacterium violaceum phenylalanine hydroxylase. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 7525–7532. [PMID: 7779797]
6.  Andersen, O.A., Flatmark, T. and Hough, E. High resolution crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in its catalytically active Fe(II) form and binary complex with tetrahydrobiopterin. J. Mol. Biol. 314 (2001) 266–278. [DOI] [PMID: 11718561]
7.  Erlandsen, H., Kim, J.Y., Patch, M.G., Han, A., Volner, A., Abu-Omar, M.M. and Stevens, R.C. Structural comparison of bacterial and human iron-dependent phenylalanine hydroxylases: similar fold, different stability and reaction rates. J. Mol. Biol. 320 (2002) 645–661. [DOI] [PMID: 12096915]
[EC 1.14.16.1 created 1961 as EC 1.99.1.2, transferred 1965 to EC 1.14.3.1, transferred 1972 to EC 1.14.16.1, modified 2002, modified 2003, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 1.14.16.2     
Accepted name: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
Reaction: L-tyrosine + a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2 = L-dopa + a 4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
For diagram of dopa biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of biopterin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: L-dopa = 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
Other name(s): L-tyrosine hydroxylase; tyrosine 3-hydroxylase; tyrosine hydroxylase
Systematic name: L-tyrosine,tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)
Comments: The active centre contains mononuclear iron(II). The enzyme is activated by phosphorylation, catalysed by EC 2.7.11.27, [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] kinase. The 4a-hydroxytetrahydropteridine formed can dehydrate to 6,7-dihydropteridine, both spontaneously and by the action of EC 4.2.1.96, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase. The 6,7-dihydropteridine must be enzymically reduced back to tetrahydropteridine, by EC 1.5.1.34, 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase, before it slowly rearranges into the more stable but inactive compound 7,8-dihydropteridine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9036-22-0
References:
1.  El Mestikawy, S., Glowinski, J. and Hamon, M. Tyrosine hydroxylase activation in depolarized dopaminergic terminals -involvement of Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation. Nature (Lond.) 302 (1983) 830–832. [PMID: 6133218]
2.  Ikeda, M., Levitt, M. and Udenfriend, S. Phenylalanine as substrate and inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 120 (1967) 420–427. [DOI] [PMID: 6033458]
3.  Nagatsu, T., Levitt, M. and Udenfriend, S. Tyrosine hydroxylase. The initial step in norepinephrine biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 2910–2917. [PMID: 14216443]
4.  Pigeon, D., Drissi-Daoudi, R., Gros, F. and Thibault, J. Copurification of tyrosine hydroxylase from rat pheochromocytoma by protein kinase. C. R. Acad. Sci. III 302 (1986) 435–438. [PMID: 2872947]
5.  Goodwill, K.E., Sabatier, C., Marks, C., Raag, R., Fitzpatrick, P.F. and Stevens, R.C. Crystal structure of tyrosine hydroxylase at 2.3 Å and its implications for inherited neurodegenerative diseases. Nat. Struct. Biol. 4 (1997) 578–585. [PMID: 9228951]
[EC 1.14.16.2 created 1972, modified 2003, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 1.14.16.4     
Accepted name: tryptophan 5-monooxygenase
Reaction: L-tryptophan + a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2 = 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan + a 4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
For diagram of biopterin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): L-tryptophan hydroxylase; indoleacetic acid-5-hydroxylase; tryptophan 5-hydroxylase; tryptophan hydroxylase
Systematic name: L-tryptophan,tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (5-hydroxylating)
Comments: The active centre contains mononuclear iron(II). The enzyme is activated by phosphorylation, catalysed by a Ca2+-activated protein kinase. The 4a-hydroxytetrahydropteridine formed can dehydrate to 6,7-dihydropteridine, both spontaneously and by the action of EC 4.2.1.96, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase. The 6,7-dihydropteridine must be enzymically reduced back to tetrahydropteridine, by EC 1.5.1.34, 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase, before it slowly rearranges into the more stable but inactive compound 7,8-dihydropteridine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9037-21-2
References:
1.  Friedman, P.A., Kappelman, A.H. and Kaufman, S. Partial purification and characterization of tryptophan hydroxylase from rabbit hindbrain. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 4165–4173. [PMID: 4402511]
2.  Hamon, M., Bourgoin, S., Artaud, F. and Glowinski, J. The role of intraneuronal 5-HT and of tryptophan hydroxylase activation in the control of 5-HT synthesis in rat brain slices incubated in K+-enriched medium. J. Neurochem. 33 (1979) 1031–1042. [DOI] [PMID: 315449]
3.  Ichiyama, A., Nakamura, S., Nishizuka, Y. and Hayaishi, O. Enzymic studies on the biosynthesis of serotonin in mammalian brain. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 1699–1709. [PMID: 5309585]
4.  Jequier, E., Robinson, B.S., Lovenberg, W. and Sjoerdsma, A. Further studies on tryptophan hydroxylase in rat brainstem and beef pineal. Biochem. Pharmacol. 18 (1969) 1071–1081. [DOI] [PMID: 5789774]
5.  Wang, L., Erlandsen, H., Haavik, J., Knappskog, P.M. and Stevens, R.C. Three-dimensional structure of human tryptophan hydroxylase and its implications for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 12569–12574. [DOI] [PMID: 12379098]
[EC 1.14.16.4 created 1972, modified 2003, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 1.14.16.5     
Accepted name: alkylglycerol monooxygenase
Reaction: 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerol + a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2 = 1-O-(1-hydroxyalkyl)-sn-glycerol + a 4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
Other name(s): glyceryl-ether monooxygenase; glyceryl-ether cleaving enzyme; glyceryl ether oxygenase; glyceryl etherase; O-alkylglycerol monooxygenase
Systematic name: 1-alkyl-sn-glycerol,tetrahydrobiopteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme cleaves alkylglycerols, but does not cleave alkenylglycerols (plasmalogens). Requires non-heme iron [7], reduced glutathione and phospholipids for full activity. The product spontaneously breaks down to form a fatty aldehyde and glycerol. The co-product, 4a-hydroxytetrahydropteridine, is rapidly dehydrated to 6,7-dihydropteridine, either spontaneously or by EC 4.2.1.96, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37256-82-9
References:
1.  Ishibashi, T. and Imai, Y. Solubilization and partial characterization of alkylglycerol monooxygenase from rat liver microsomes. Eur. J. Biochem. 132 (1983) 23–27. [DOI] [PMID: 6840084]
2.  Pfleger, E.C., Piantadosi, C. and Snyder, F. The biocleavage of isomeric glyceryl ethers by soluble liver enzymes in a variety of species. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 144 (1967) 633–648. [DOI] [PMID: 4383918]
3.  Snyder, F., Malone, B. and Piantadosi, C. Tetrahydropteridine-dependent cleavage enzyme for O-alkyl lipids: substrate specificity. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 316 (1973) 259–265. [DOI] [PMID: 4355017]
4.  Soodsma, J.F., Piantadosi, C. and Snyder, F. Partial characterization of the alkylglycerol cleavage enzyme system of rat liver. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 3923–3929. [PMID: 4402391]
5.  Tietz, A., Lindberg, M. and Kennedy, E.P. A new pteridine-requiring enzyme system for the oxidation of glyceryl ethers. J. Biol. Chem. 239 (1964) 4081–4090. [PMID: 14247652]
6.  Taguchi, H. and Armarego, W.L. Glyceryl-ether monooxygenase [EC 1.14.16.5]. A microsomal enzyme of ether lipid metabolism. Med. Res. Rev. 18 (1998) 43–89. [DOI] [PMID: 9436181]
7.  Watschinger, K., Keller, M.A., Hermetter, A., Golderer, G., Werner-Felmayer, G. and Werner, E.R. Glyceryl ether monooxygenase resembles aromatic amino acid hydroxylases in metal ion and tetrahydrobiopterin dependence. Biol. Chem. 390 (2009) 3–10. [DOI] [PMID: 19007315]
8.  Werner, E.R., Hermetter, A., Prast, H., Golderer, G. and Werner-Felmayer, G. Widespread occurrence of glyceryl ether monooxygenase activity in rat tissues detected by a novel assay. J. Lipid Res. 48 (2007) 1422–1427. [DOI] [PMID: 17303893]
[EC 1.14.16.5 created 1972 as EC 1.14.99.17, transferred 1976 to EC 1.14.16.5, modified 2010, modified 2020]
 
 
EC 1.14.16.6     
Accepted name: mandelate 4-monooxygenase
Reaction: (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate + a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2 = (S)-4-hydroxymandelate + a 4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
Glossary: (S)-4-hydroxymandelate = (S)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetate
Other name(s): L-mandelate 4-hydroxylase; mandelic acid 4-hydroxylase
Systematic name: (S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate,tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating)
Comments: Requires Fe2+. The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. The 4a-hydroxytetrahydropteridine formed can dehydrate to 6,7-dihydropteridine, both spontaneously and by the action of EC 4.2.1.96, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase. The 6,7-dihydropteridine must be enzymically reduced back to tetrahydropteridine, by EC 1.5.1.34, 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase, before it slowly rearranges into the more stable but inactive compound 7,8-dihydropteridine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 39459-82-0
References:
1.  Bhat, S.G. and Vaidyanathan, C.S. Purifications and properties of L-mandelate-4-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas convexa. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 176 (1976) 314–323. [DOI] [PMID: 9909]
[EC 1.14.16.6 created 1984, modified 2020]
 
 
EC 1.14.16.7     
Accepted name: phenylalanine 3-monooxygenase
Reaction: L-phenylalanine + a 5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2 = 3-hydroxy-L-phenylalanine + a 4a-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
Glossary: 3-hydroxy-L-phenylalanine = meta-L-tyrosine = 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
Other name(s): PacX; phenylalanine 3-hydroxylase
Systematic name: L-phenylalanine,tetrahydropteridine:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Streptomyces coeruleorubidus, forms 3-hydroxy-L-phenylalanine (i.e. m-L-tyrosine), which is one of the building blocks in the biosynthesis of the uridyl peptide antibiotics pacidamycins. The 4a-hydroxytetrahydropteridine formed can dehydrate to 6,7-dihydropteridine, both spontaneously and by the action of EC 4.2.1.96, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase. The 6,7-dihydropteridine must be enzymically reduced back to tetrahydropteridine, by EC 1.5.1.34, 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase, before it slowly rearranges into the more stable but inactive compound 7,8-dihydropteridine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Zhang, W., Ames, B.D. and Walsh, C.T. Identification of phenylalanine 3-hydroxylase for meta-tyrosine biosynthesis. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 5401–5403. [DOI] [PMID: 21615132]
[EC 1.14.16.7 created 2014, modified 2019]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.96     
Accepted name: 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase
Reaction: 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin = 6,7-dihydrobiopterin + H2O
For diagram of biopterin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin = 6-[(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxypropyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-4a-hydroxypterin
6,7-dihydrobiopterin = 6-[(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxypropyl]-6,7-dihydropterin
Other name(s): 4α-hydroxy-tetrahydropterin dehydratase; 4a-carbinolamine dehydratase; pterin-4α-carbinolamine dehydratase; 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin hydro-lyase
Systematic name: 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin hydro-lyase (6,7-dihydrobiopterin-forming)
Comments: In concert with EC 1.5.1.34, 6,7-dihydropteridine reductase, the enzyme recycles 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin back to tetrahydrobiopterin, a cosubstrate for several enzymes, including aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. The enzyme is bifunctional, and also acts as a dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 87683-70-3
References:
1.  Citron, B.A., Davis, M.D., Milstien, S., Gutierrez, J., Mendel, D.B., Crabtree, G.R. and Kaufman, S. Identity of 4a-carbinolamine dehydratase, a component of the phenylalanine hydroxylation system, and DCoH, a transregulator of homeodomain proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89 (1992) 11891–11894. [PMID: 1465414]
2.  Hauer, C.R., Rebrin, I., Thöny, B., Neuheiser, F., Curtius, H.C., Hunziker, P., Blau, N., Ghisla, S., Heizmann, C.W. Phenylalanine hydroxylase-stimulating protein: pterin-4α-carbinolamine dehydratase from rat and human liver. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 4828–4831. [PMID: 8444860]
3.  Thony, B., Neuheiser, F., Blau, N. and Heizmann, C.W. Characterization of the human PCBD gene encoding the bifunctional protein pterin-4 α-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor for the transcription factor HNF-1 α. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210 (1995) 966–973. [PMID: 7763270]
4.  Endrizzi, J.A., Cronk, J.D., Wang, W., Crabtree, G.R. and Alber, T. Crystal structure of DCoH, a bifunctional, protein-binding transcriptional coactivator. Science 268 (1995) 556–559. [PMID: 7725101]
5.  Cronk, J.D., Endrizzi, J.A. and Alber, T. High-resolution structures of the bifunctional enzyme and transcriptional coactivator DCoH and its complex with a product analogue. Protein Sci. 5 (1996) 1963–1972. [PMID: 8897596]
[EC 4.2.1.96 created 1999, modified 2020]
 
 


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