The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.4.1.382     Relevance: 100%
Accepted name: CDP-abequose:α-L-Rha2OAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und α-1,3-abequosyltransferase
Reaction: CDP-α-D-abequose + 2-O-acetyl-α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = CDP + α-D-Abe-(1→3)-2-O-acetyl-α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und
Glossary: α-L-Rha2OAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = 2-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
α-D-Abe-(1→3)-2-O-acetyl-α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-D-abequosyl-(1→3)-2-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): wbaR (gene name); rfbR (gene name)
Systematic name: CDP-α-D-abequose:2-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3IV-α-abequosyltransferase (configuration retaining)
Comments: The enzyme, present in Salmonella strains that belong to group C2, participates in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit of O antigens produced by these strains.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Liu, D., Lindqvist, L. and Reeves, P.R. Transferases of O-antigen biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica: dideoxyhexosyltransferases of groups B and C2 and acetyltransferase of group C2. J. Bacteriol. 177 (1995) 4084–4088. [DOI] [PMID: 7541787]
2.  Zhao, X., Dai, Q., Jia, R., Zhu, D., Liu, M., Wang, M., Chen, S., Sun, K., Yang, Q., Wu, Y. and Cheng, A. two novel Salmonella bivalent vaccines confer dual protection against two Salmonella serovars in mice. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 7:391 (2017). [DOI] [PMID: 28929089]
[EC 2.4.1.382 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.138     Relevance: 99.9%
Accepted name: mannotetraose 2-α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-D-Man = UDP + α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)]-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-D-Man
Other name(s): α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine mannoside α1→2-αcetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:mannotetraose α-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-D-mannose α-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 81032-47-5
References:
1.  Douglas, R.H. and Ballou, C.E. Purification of an α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis and a study of mutants defective in this enzyme activity. Biochemistry 21 (1982) 1561–1570. [PMID: 6211189]
[EC 2.4.1.138 created 1984]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.303     Relevance: 98.3%
Accepted name: α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und 2IV-O-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = CoA + 2-O-acetyl-α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und
Glossary: α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): rfbL (gene name); wbaL (gene name)
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 2IV-O-acetyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, present in Salmonella strains that belong to group C2, participates in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit of O antigens produced by these strains.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Brown, P.K., Romana, L.K. and Reeves, P.R. Molecular analysis of the rfb gene cluster of Salmonella serovar muenchen (strain M67): the genetic basis of the polymorphism between groups C2 and B. Mol. Microbiol. 6 (1992) 1385–1394. [DOI] [PMID: 1379320]
2.  Liu, D., Lindqvist, L. and Reeves, P.R. Transferases of O-antigen biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica: dideoxyhexosyltransferases of groups B and C2 and acetyltransferase of group C2. J. Bacteriol. 177 (1995) 4084–4088. [DOI] [PMID: 7541787]
3.  Zhao, X., Dai, Q., Jia, R., Zhu, D., Liu, M., Wang, M., Chen, S., Sun, K., Yang, Q., Wu, Y. and Cheng, A. two novel Salmonella bivalent vaccines confer dual protection against two Salmonella serovars in mice. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 7:391 (2017). [DOI] [PMID: 28929089]
[EC 2.3.1.303 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.371     Relevance: 96.7%
Accepted name: polymannosyl GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 2,3-α-mannosylpolymerase
Reaction: (1) 2 GDP-α-D-mannose + [α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = 2 GDP + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
(2) 2 GDP-α-D-mannose + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = 2 GDP + [α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n+1-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): WbdA
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 2,3-α-mannosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of polymannose O-polysaccharide in the outer leaflet of the membrane of Escherichia coli serotype O9a. The enzymes consists of two domains that are responsible for the 1→2 and 1→3 linkages, respectively.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Greenfield, L.K., Richards, M.R., Li, J., Wakarchuk, W.W., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. Biosynthesis of the polymannose lipopolysaccharide O-antigens from Escherichia coli serotypes O8 and O9a requires a unique combination of single- and multiple-active site mannosyltransferases. J. Biol. Chem. 287 (2012) 35078–35091. [DOI] [PMID: 22875852]
2.  Greenfield, L.K., Richards, M.R., Vinogradov, E., Wakarchuk, W.W., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. Domain organization of the polymerizing mannosyltransferases involved in synthesis of the Escherichia coli O8 and O9a lipopolysaccharide O-antigens. J. Biol. Chem. 287 (2012) 38135–38149. [PMID: 22989876]
3.  Liston, S.D., Clarke, B.R., Greenfield, L.K., Richards, M.R., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. Domain interactions control complex formation and polymerase specificity in the biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli O9a antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (2015) 1075–1085. [DOI] [PMID: 25422321]
[EC 2.4.1.371 created 2019]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.50     Relevance: 93.4%
Accepted name: α-N-acetylglucosaminidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminides
Other name(s): α-acetylglucosaminidase; N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminidase; N-acetyl-α-glucosaminidase; α-D-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosidase
Systematic name: α-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide N-acetylglucosaminohydrolase
Comments: Hydrolyses UDP-N-acetylglucosamine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37288-40-7
References:
1.  von Figura, K. Human α-N-acetylglucosaminidase. 1. Purification and properties. Eur. J. Biochem. 80 (1977) 523–533. [PMID: 411658]
2.  von Figura, K. Human α-N-acetylglucosaminidase. 2. Activity towards natural substrates and multiple recognition forms. Eur. J. Biochem. 80 (1977) 535–542. [DOI] [PMID: 923593]
3.  Weissmann, B., Rowen, G., Marshall, J. and Friederici, D. Mammalian α-acetylglucosaminidase. Enzymic properties, tissue distribution, and intracellular localization. Biochemistry 6 (1967) 207–214. [PMID: 4291567]
4.  Werries, E., Wollek, E., Gottschalk, A. and Buddecke, E. Separation of N-acetyl-α-glucosaminidase and N-acetyl-α-galactosaminidase from ox spleen. Cleavage of the O-glycosidic linkage between carbohydrate and polypeptide in ovine and bovine submaxillary glycoprotein by N-acetyl-α-galactosaminidase. Eur. J. Biochem. 10 (1969) 445–449. [DOI] [PMID: 5348072]
[EC 3.2.1.50 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.267     Relevance: 89%
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Glc:Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol + dolichyl phosphate
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG6; Dol-P-Glc:Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate:D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl-phosphate:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 3-α-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The successive addition of three glucose residues by EC 2.4.1.267, EC 2.4.1.265 (Dol-P-Glc:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase) and EC 2.4.1.256 (Dol-P-Glc:Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,2-glucosyltransferase) represents the final stage of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide assembly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Reiss, G., te Heesen, S., Zimmerman, J., Robbins, P.W. and Aebi, M. Isolation of the ALG6 locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for glucosylation in the N-linked glycosylation pathway. Glycobiology 6 (1996) 493–498. [DOI] [PMID: 8877369]
2.  Runge, K.W., Huffaker, T.C. and Robbins, P.W. Two yeast mutations in glucosylation steps of the asparagine glycosylation pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 412–417. [PMID: 6423630]
3.  Westphal, V., Xiao, M., Kwok, P.Y. and Freeze, H.H. Identification of a frequent variant in ALG6, the cause of congenital disorder of glycosylation-Ic. Hum. Mutat. 22 (2003) 420–421. [DOI] [PMID: 14517965]
[EC 2.4.1.267 created 2011, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.181     Relevance: 89%
Accepted name: polymannosyl GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol kinase
Reaction: ATP + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = ADP + 3-O-phospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): WbdD; ATP:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-phosphotransferase
Systematic name: ATP:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-phosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the polymannose O-polysaccharide in the outer leaflet of the membrane of Escherichia coli serotype O9a. O-Polysaccharide structures vary extensively because of differences in the number and type of sugars in the repeat unit. The dual kinase/methylase WbdD also catalyses the methylation of 3-phospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol (cf. EC 2.1.1.294, 3-O-phospho-polymannosyl GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-phospho-methyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Clarke, B.R., Cuthbertson, L. and Whitfield, C. Nonreducing terminal modifications determine the chain length of polymannose O antigens of Escherichia coli and couple chain termination to polymer export via an ATP-binding cassette transporter. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 35709–35718. [DOI] [PMID: 15184370]
2.  Clarke, B.R., Greenfield, L.K., Bouwman, C. and Whitfield, C. Coordination of polymerization, chain termination, and export in assembly of the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide O9a antigen in an ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 30662–30672. [DOI] [PMID: 19734145]
3.  Clarke, B.R., Richards, M.R., Greenfield, L.K., Hou, D., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. In vitro reconstruction of the chain termination reaction in biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli O9a O-polysaccharide: the chain-length regulator, WbdD, catalyzes the addition of methyl phosphate to the non-reducing terminus of the growing glycan. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 41391–41401. [DOI] [PMID: 21990359]
4.  Liston, S.D., Clarke, B.R., Greenfield, L.K., Richards, M.R., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. Domain interactions control complex formation and polymerase specificity in the biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli O9a antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (2015) 1075–1085. [DOI] [PMID: 25422321]
[EC 2.7.1.181 created 2014, modified 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.265     Relevance: 88.1%
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Glc:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate + α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol + dolichyl phosphate
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG8; Dol-P-Glc:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate:D-Glc-α-(1→3)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl-phosphate:α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 3-α-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The successive addition of three glucose residues by EC 2.4.1.267 (dolichyl-P-Glc:Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,3-glucosyltransferase), EC 2.4.1.265 and EC 2.4.1.256 (dolichyl-P-Glc:Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,2-glucosyltransferase) represents the final stage of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide assembly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Stagljar, I., te Heesen, S. and Aebi, M. New phenotype of mutations deficient in glucosylation of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide: cloning of the ALG8 locus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 (1994) 5977–5981. [DOI] [PMID: 8016100]
2.  Runge, K.W. and Robbins, P.W. A new yeast mutation in the glucosylation steps of the asparagine-linked glycosylation pathway. Formation of a novel asparagine-linked oligosaccharide containing two glucose residues. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 15582–15590. [PMID: 3536907]
3.  Chantret, I., Dancourt, J., Dupre, T., Delenda, C., Bucher, S., Vuillaumier-Barrot, S., Ogier de Baulny, H., Peletan, C., Danos, O., Seta, N., Durand, G., Oriol, R., Codogno, P. and Moore, S.E. A deficiency in dolichyl-P-glucose:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl α3-glucosyltransferase defines a new subtype of congenital disorders of glycosylation. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 9962–9971. [DOI] [PMID: 12480927]
[EC 2.4.1.265 created 2011, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.3.7     Relevance: 87.9%
Accepted name: α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminide 6-α-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R = CMP + N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→6)]-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R
For diagram of reaction, click here
Other name(s): sialyltransferase; cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-(α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide-α-2,6-sialyltransferase; α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetyl-galactosaminide α-2,6-sialyltransferase; SIAT7; ST6GALNAC; (α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetyl-galactosaminide 6-α-sialyltransferase; CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:(α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-D-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide α-2,6-N-acetylneuraminyl-transferase
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)- N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide galactosamine-6-α-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Comments: Attaches N-acetylneuraminic acid in α-2,6-linkage to N-acetylgalactosamine only when present in the structure of α-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2→3)-β-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-R, where R may be protein or p-nitrophenol. Not identical with EC 2.4.3.3 α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α-2,6-sialyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 129924-24-9
References:
1.  Bergh, M.L.E., Hooghwinkel, G.J.M. and Van den Eijnden, D.H. Biosynthesis of the O-glycosidically linked oligosaccharide chains of fetuin. Indications for an α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α2→6 sialyltransferase with a narrow acceptor specificity in fetal calf liver. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 7430–7436. [PMID: 6190802]
[EC 2.4.3.7 created 1984 as EC 2.4.99.7, modified 1986, modified 2004, transferred 2022 to EC 2.4.3.7]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.49     Relevance: 87.4%
Accepted name: α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase
Reaction: Cleavage of non-reducing α-(1→3)-N-acetylgalactosamine residues from human blood group A and AB mucin glycoproteins, Forssman hapten and blood group A lacto series glycolipids
Other name(s): α-acetylgalactosaminidase; N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminidase; N-acetyl-α-galactosaminidase; α-NAGAL; α-NAGA; α-GalNAcase
Systematic name: α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide N-acetylgalactosaminohydrolase
Comments: The human lysosomal enzyme is involved in the degradation of blood type A epitope.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9075-63-2
References:
1.  Asfaw, B., Schindler, D., Ledvinova, J., Cerny, B., Smid, F. and Conzelmann, E. Degradation of blood group A glycolipid A-6-2 by normal and mutant human skin fibroblasts. J. Lipid Res. 39 (1998) 1768–1780. [PMID: 9741689]
2.  Zhu, A., Monahan, C., Wang, Z.K. and Goldstein, J. Expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Protein Expr. Purif. 8 (1996) 456–462. [DOI] [PMID: 8954893]
3.  Clark, N.E. and Garman, S.C. The 1.9 Å structure of human α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase: The molecular basis of Schindler and Kanzaki diseases. J. Mol. Biol. 393 (2009) 435–447. [DOI] [PMID: 19683538]
4.  Hoskins, L.C., Boulding, E.T. and Larson, G. Purification and characterization of blood group A-degrading isoforms of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Ruminococcus torques strain IX-70. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 7932–7939. [DOI] [PMID: 9065462]
5.  Harun-Or-Rashid, M., Matsuzawa, T., Satoh, Y., Shiraishi, T., Ando, M., Sadik, G. and Uda, Y. Purification and characterization of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidases I and II from the starfish Asterina amurensis. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 74 (2010) 256–261. [DOI] [PMID: 20139603]
6.  Weignerova, L., Filipi, T., Manglova, D. and Kren, V. Induction, purification and characterization of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Aspergillus niger. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 79 (2008) 769–774. [DOI] [PMID: 18443780]
7.  Ashida, H., Tamaki, H., Fujimoto, T., Yamamoto, K. and Kumagai, H. Molecular cloning of cDNA encoding α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Acremonium sp. and its expression in yeast. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 384 (2000) 305–310. [DOI] [PMID: 11368317]
[EC 3.2.1.49 created 1972, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.7      
Transferred entry: α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminide 6-α-sialyltransferase. Now EC 2.4.3.7, α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminide 6-α-sialyltransferase
[EC 2.4.99.7 created 1984, modified 1986, modified 2004, deleted 2022]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.256     Relevance: 86.1%
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Glc:Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,2-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate + α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = dolichyl phosphate + α-D-Glc-(1→2)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG10; Dol-P-Glc:Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,2-glucosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate:D-Glc-α-(1→3)-D-Glc-α-(1→3)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 2-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-glucosyl-phosphate:α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol α-1,2-glucosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: This eukaryotic enzyme performs the final step in the synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide, attaching D-glucose in an α-1,2-linkage to the outermost D-glucose in the long branch. The lipid-linked oligosaccharide is involved in N-linked protein glycosylation of selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains in eukaryotic cells.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Burda, P. and Aebi, M. The ALG10 locus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the α-1,2 glucosyltransferase of the endoplasmic reticulum: the terminal glucose of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide is required for efficient N-linked glycosylation. Glycobiology 8 (1998) 455–462. [DOI] [PMID: 9597543]
[EC 2.4.1.256 created 2011, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.426     Relevance: 85.8%
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine dehydrogenase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine + NAD(P)+ = UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylohex-4-ulose + NAD(P)H + H+
Glossary: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine = UDP-N-acetyl-6-deoxy-α-D-glucosamine
Other name(s): wbpV (gene name); wreQ (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine:NAD(P)+ 4-dehydrogenase
Comments: The enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of N-acetyl-α-D-quinovosamine, a 6-deoxy sugar that is present in the O antigens of many Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotypes O6 and O10, Rhizobium etli, and Brucella abortus.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Belanger, M., Burrows, L.L. and Lam, J.S. Functional analysis of genes responsible for the synthesis of the B-band O antigen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O6 lipopolysaccharide. Microbiology (Reading) 145 (1999) 3505–3521. [DOI] [PMID: 10627048]
2.  Forsberg, L.S., Noel, K.D., Box, J. and Carlson, R.W. Genetic locus and structural characterization of the biochemical defect in the O-antigenic polysaccharide of the symbiotically deficient Rhizobium etli mutant, CE166. Replacement of N-acetylquinovosamine with its hexosyl-4-ulose precursor. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 51347–51359. [DOI] [PMID: 14551189]
3.  Li, T., Simonds, L., Kovrigin, E.L. and Noel, K.D. In vitro biosynthesis and chemical identification of UDP-N-acetyl-D-quinovosamine (UDP-D-QuiNAc). J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 18110–18120. [DOI] [PMID: 24817117]
[EC 1.1.1.426 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.378     Relevance: 85.6%
Accepted name: GDP-mannose:α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und α-1,4-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-mannose + α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = GDP + α-D-Man-(1→4)-α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und
Glossary: α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
α-D-Man-(1→4)-α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): wbaU (gene name); rfbU (gene name)
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 4II-α-rhamnosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme from Salmonella participates in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit of O antigens produced by strains that belong to the A, B, and D1 groups.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Liu, D., Haase, A.M., Lindqvist, L., Lindberg, A.A. and Reeves, P.R. Glycosyl transferases of O-antigen biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica: identification and characterization of transferase genes of groups B, C2, and E1. J. Bacteriol. 175 (1993) 3408–3413. [DOI] [PMID: 7684736]
[EC 2.4.1.378 created 2021]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.24     Relevance: 85.6%
Accepted name: α-mannosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing α-D-mannose residues in α-D-mannosides
Other name(s): α-D-mannosidase; p-nitrophenyl-α-mannosidase; α-D-mannopyranosidase; 1,2-α-mannosidase; 1,2-α-D-mannosidase; exo-α-mannosidase
Systematic name: α-D-mannoside mannohydrolase
Comments: Also hydrolyses α-D-lyxosides and heptopyranosides with the same configuration at C-2, C-3 and C-4 as mannose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9025-42-7
References:
1.  Li, Y.-T. Presence of α-D-mannosidic linkage in glycoproteins. Liberation of D-mannose from various glycoproteins by α-mannosidase isolated from jack bean meal. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 1010–1012. [PMID: 5905120]
2.  Winchester, B. Role of α-D-mannosidases in the biosynthesis and catabolism of glycoproteins. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 12 (1984) 522–524. [PMID: 6428944]
[EC 3.2.1.24 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.292     Relevance: 84.8%
Accepted name: GalNAc-α-(1→4)-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-PP-undecaprenol α-1,4-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: 3 UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + GalNAc-α-(1→4)-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-PP-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol = 3 UDP + [GalNAc-α-(1→4)]4-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-PP-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol
For diagram of undecaprenyldiphosphoheptasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: diNAcBac = N,N′-diacetyl-D-bacillosamine = 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): PglH
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:GalNAc-α-(1→4)-GalNAc-α-(1→3)-diNAcBac-PP-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol 4-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Campylobacter jejuni. Part of a bacterial N-linked glycosylation pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Glover, K.J., Weerapana, E. and Imperiali, B. In vitro assembly of the undecaprenylpyrophosphate-linked heptasaccharide for prokaryotic N-linked glycosylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 14255–14259. [DOI] [PMID: 16186480]
2.  Troutman, J.M. and Imperiali, B. Campylobacter jejuni PglH is a single active site processive polymerase that utilizes product inhibition to limit sequential glycosyl transfer reactions. Biochemistry 48 (2009) 2807–2816. [DOI] [PMID: 19159314]
3.  Borud, B., Viburiene, R., Hartley, M.D., Paulsen, B.S., Egge-Jacobsen, W., Imperiali, B. and Koomey, M. Genetic and molecular analyses reveal an evolutionary trajectory for glycan synthesis in a bacterial protein glycosylation system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108 (2011) 9643–9648. [DOI] [PMID: 21606362]
[EC 2.4.1.292 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.294     Relevance: 84.5%
Accepted name: 3-O-phospho-polymannosyl GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-phospho-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3-O-phospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 3-O-methylphospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): WbdD; S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3-O-phospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-α-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-phospho-methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3-O-phospho-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-phospho-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the polymannose O-polysaccharide in the outer leaflet of the membrane of Escherichia coli serotype O9a. O-Polysaccharide structures vary extensively because of differences in the number and type of sugars in the repeat unit. The dual kinase/methylase WbdD also catalyses the preceding phosphorylation of α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)]n-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol (cf. EC 2.7.1.181, polymannosyl GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol kinase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Clarke, B.R., Cuthbertson, L. and Whitfield, C. Nonreducing terminal modifications determine the chain length of polymannose O antigens of Escherichia coli and couple chain termination to polymer export via an ATP-binding cassette transporter. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 35709–35718. [DOI] [PMID: 15184370]
2.  Clarke, B.R., Greenfield, L.K., Bouwman, C. and Whitfield, C. Coordination of polymerization, chain termination, and export in assembly of the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide O9a antigen in an ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 30662–30672. [DOI] [PMID: 19734145]
3.  Clarke, B.R., Richards, M.R., Greenfield, L.K., Hou, D., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. In vitro reconstruction of the chain termination reaction in biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli O9a O-polysaccharide: the chain-length regulator, WbdD, catalyzes the addition of methyl phosphate to the non-reducing terminus of the growing glycan. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 41391–41401. [DOI] [PMID: 21990359]
4.  Liston, S.D., Clarke, B.R., Greenfield, L.K., Richards, M.R., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. Domain interactions control complex formation and polymerase specificity in the biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli O9a antigen. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (2015) 1075–1085. [DOI] [PMID: 25422321]
[EC 2.1.1.294 created 2014, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.3.3     Relevance: 84.3%
Accepted name: α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α-2,6-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + glycano-(1→3)-(N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl)-glycoprotein = CMP + glycano-[(2→6)-α-N-acetylneuraminyl]-(N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl)-glycoprotein
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:glycano-1,3-(N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl)-glycoprotein α-2,6-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Comments: N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine linked to threonine or serine is also an acceptor, when substituted at the 3-position.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 71124-50-0
References:
1.  Sadler, J.E., Rearick, J.I. and Hill, R.L. Purification to homogeneity and enzymatic characterization of an α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α2→6 sialyltransferase from porcine submaxillary glands. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 5934–5941. [PMID: 447688]
[EC 2.4.3.3 created 1984 as EC 2.4.99.3, modified 1986, transferred 2022 to EC 2.4.3.3]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.349     Relevance: 84.2%
Accepted name: mannosyl-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-α-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: 2 GDP-α-D-mannose + α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = 2 GDP + α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): WbdB
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-α-mannosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the linker region of the polymannose O-polysaccharide in the outer leaflet of the membrane of Escherichia coli serotypes O8, O9 and O9a. It has no activity with N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol (cf. EC 2.4.1.348, N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-α-mannosyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Greenfield, L.K., Richards, M.R., Li, J., Wakarchuk, W.W., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. Biosynthesis of the polymannose lipopolysaccharide O-antigens from Escherichia coli serotypes O8 and O9a requires a unique combination of single- and multiple-active site mannosyltransferases. J. Biol. Chem. 287 (2012) 35078–35091. [DOI] [PMID: 22875852]
[EC 2.4.1.349 created 2017]
 
 
EC 5.4.99.15     Relevance: 84.1%
Accepted name: (1→4)-α-D-glucan 1-α-D-glucosylmutase
Reaction: 4-[(1→4)-α-D-glucosyl]n-1-D-glucose = 1-α-D-[(1→4)-α-D-glucosyl]n-1-α-D-glucopyranoside
Other name(s): malto-oligosyltrehalose synthase; maltodextrin α-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: (1→4)-α-D-glucan 1-α-D-glucosylmutase
Comments: The enzyme from Arthrobacter sp., Sulfolobus acidocaldarius acts on (1→4)-α-D-glucans containing three or more (1→4)-α-linked D-glucose units. Not active towards maltose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 170780-49-1
References:
1.  Maruta, K., Nakada, T., Kubota, M., Chaen, H., Sugimoto, T., Kurimoto, M., Tsujisaka, Y. Formation of trehalose from maltooligosaccharides by a novel enzymatic system. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 59 (1995) 1829–1834. [DOI] [PMID: 8534970]
2.  Nakada, T., Maruta, K., Tsusaki, K., Kubota, M., Chaen, H., Sugimoto, T., Kurimoto, M., Tsujisaka, Y. Purification and properties of a novel enzyme, maltooligosyl trehalose synthase, from Arthrobacter sp. Q36. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 59 (1995) 2210–2214. [PMID: 8611744]
3.  Nakada, T., Ikegami, S., Chaen, H., Kubota, M., Fukuda, S., Sugimoto, T., Kurimoto, M., Tsujisaka, Y. Purification and characterization of thermostable maltooligosyl trehalose synthase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 60 (1996) 263–266. [DOI] [PMID: 9063973]
[EC 5.4.99.15 created 1999]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.108     Relevance: 83.9%
Accepted name: α-tubulin N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + [α-tubulin]-L-lysine = CoA + [α-tubulin]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine
Other name(s): ATAT1 (gene name); MEC17 (gene name); α-tubulin acetylase; TAT; α-tubulin acetyltransferase; tubulin N-acetyltransferase (ambiguous); acetyl-CoA:α-tubulin-L-lysine N-acetyltransferase; acetyl-CoA:[α-tubulin]-L-lysine 6-N-acetyltransferase
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:[α-tubulin]-L-lysine N6-acetyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is conserved from protists to mammals and is present in flowering plants. In most organisms it acetylates L-lysine at position 40 of α-tubulin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 99889-90-4
References:
1.  Greer, K., Maruta, H., L'Hernault, S.W. and Rosenbaum, J.L. α-Tubulin acetylase activity in isolated Chlamydomonas flagella. J. Cell Biol. 101 (1985) 2081–2084. [PMID: 4066751]
2.  Akella, J.S., Wloga, D., Kim, J., Starostina, N.G., Lyons-Abbott, S., Morrissette, N.S., Dougan, S.T., Kipreos, E.T. and Gaertig, J. MEC-17 is an α-tubulin acetyltransferase. Nature 467 (2010) 218–222. [DOI] [PMID: 20829795]
3.  Shida, T., Cueva, J.G., Xu, Z., Goodman, M.B. and Nachury, M.V. The major α-tubulin K40 acetyltransferase αTAT1 promotes rapid ciliogenesis and efficient mechanosensation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 (2010) 21517–21522. [DOI] [PMID: 21068373]
4.  Taschner, M., Vetter, M. and Lorentzen, E. Atomic resolution structure of human α-tubulin acetyltransferase bound to acetyl-CoA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109 (2012) 19649–19654. [DOI] [PMID: 23071318]
5.  Friedmann, D.R., Aguilar, A., Fan, J., Nachury, M.V. and Marmorstein, R. Structure of the α-tubulin acetyltransferase, αTAT1, and implications for tubulin-specific acetylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109 (2012) 19655–19660. [DOI] [PMID: 23071314]
6.  Kalebic, N., Sorrentino, S., Perlas, E., Bolasco, G., Martinez, C. and Heppenstall, P.A. αTAT1 is the major α-tubulin acetyltransferase in mice. Nat. Commun. 4:1962 (2013). [DOI] [PMID: 23748901]
[EC 2.3.1.108 created 1989, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.22      
Transferred entry: N-acetylglucosaminide α-(2,6)-sialyltransferase. Now EC 2.4.3.10, N-acetylglucosaminide α-(2,6)-sialyltransferase
[EC 2.4.99.22 created 2020, deleted 2022]
 
 
EC 2.4.3.10     Relevance: 83.8%
Accepted name: N-acetylglucosaminide α-(2,6)-sialyltransferase
Reaction: CMP-N-acetyl-β-neuraminate + N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R = CMP + N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→6)]-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R
Other name(s): α-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-β-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminide 6-α-sialyltransferase; N-acetylglucosaminide (α 2→6)-sialyltransferase; ST6GlcNAc
Systematic name: CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:N-acetyl-α-neuraminyl-(2→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine-6-α-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Attaches N-acetylneuraminic acid in α-2,6-linkage to N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine. The enzyme from rat liver also acts on β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl residues, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Paulson, J.C., Weinstein, J. and de Souza-e-Silva, U. Biosynthesis of a disialylated sequence in N-linked oligosaccharides: identification of an N-acetylglucosaminide (α 2→6)-sialyltransferase in Golgi apparatus from rat liver. Eur. J. Biochem. 140 (1984) 523–530. [PMID: 6547092]
[EC 2.4.3.10 created 2020 as EC 2.4.99.22, transferred 2022 to EC 2.4.3.10]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.291     Relevance: 83.8%
Accepted name: N-acetylgalactosamine-N,N′-diacetylbacillosaminyl-diphospho-undecaprenol 4-α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-α-(1→3)-N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol = UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-α-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-α-(1→3)-N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol
For diagram of undecaprenyldiphosphoheptasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N,N′-diacetyl-D-bacillosamine = 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): PglJ
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:N-acetylgalactosaminyl-α-(1→3)-N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol 3-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Campylobacter jejuni. Part of a bacterial N-linked glycosylation pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Glover, K.J., Weerapana, E. and Imperiali, B. In vitro assembly of the undecaprenylpyrophosphate-linked heptasaccharide for prokaryotic N-linked glycosylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 14255–14259. [DOI] [PMID: 16186480]
2.  Chen, M.M., Weerapana, E., Ciepichal, E., Stupak, J., Reid, C.W., Swiezewska, E. and Imperiali, B. Polyisoprenol specificity in the Campylobacter jejuni N-linked glycosylation pathway. Biochemistry 46 (2007) 14342–14348. [DOI] [PMID: 18034500]
[EC 2.4.1.291 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.380     Relevance: 83.2%
Accepted name: GDP-Man:α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal diphosphoundecaprenol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-mannose + α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = GDP + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und
Glossary: α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): wbaW (gene name); rfbW (gene name)
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 2II-α-mannosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme, present in Salmonella strains that belong to group C2, participates in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit of O antigens produced by these strains.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Brown, P.K., Romana, L.K. and Reeves, P.R. Cloning of the rfb gene cluster of a group C2 Salmonella strain: comparison with the rfb regions of groups B and D. Mol. Microbiol. 5 (1991) 1873–1881. [DOI] [PMID: 1722557]
2.  Brown, P.K., Romana, L.K. and Reeves, P.R. Molecular analysis of the rfb gene cluster of Salmonella serovar muenchen (strain M67): the genetic basis of the polymorphism between groups C2 and B. Mol. Microbiol. 6 (1992) 1385–1394. [DOI] [PMID: 1379320]
3.  Liu, D., Haase, A.M., Lindqvist, L., Lindberg, A.A. and Reeves, P.R. Glycosyl transferases of O-antigen biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica: identification and characterization of transferase genes of groups B, C2, and E1. J. Bacteriol. 175 (1993) 3408–3413. [DOI] [PMID: 7684736]
4.  Zhao, X., Dai, Q., Jia, R., Zhu, D., Liu, M., Wang, M., Chen, S., Sun, K., Yang, Q., Wu, Y. and Cheng, A. two novel Salmonella bivalent vaccines confer dual protection against two Salmonella serovars in mice. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 7:391 (2017). [DOI] [PMID: 28929089]
[EC 2.4.1.380 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.99.3      
Transferred entry: α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α-2,6-sialyltransferase. Now EC 2.4.3.3, α-N-acetylgalactosaminide α-2,6-sialyltransferase
[EC 2.4.99.3 created 1984, modified 1986, deleted 2022]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.32     Relevance: 82.8%
Accepted name: 3-O-α-D-mannopyranosyl-α-D-mannopyranose xylosylphosphotransferase
Reaction: UDP-xylose + 3-O-α-D-mannopyranosyl-α-D-mannopyranose = UMP + 3-O-(6-O-α-D-xylosylphospho-α-D-mannopyranosyl)-α-D-mannopyranose
Glossary: O-α-D-xylosylphospho-α-D-mannopyranosyl)-α-D-mannopyranose = O-α-D-xylosylphosphono-α-D-mannopyranosyl)-α-D-mannopyranose
Other name(s): XPT1
Systematic name: UDP-D-xylose:3-O-α-D-mannopyranosyl-α-D-mannopyranose xylosylphosphotransferase
Comments: Mn2+ required for activity. The enzyme is specific for mannose as an acceptor but is flexible as to the structural context of the mannosyl disaccharide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Reilly, M.C., Levery, S.B., Castle, S.A., Klutts, J.S. and Doering, T.L. A novel xylosylphosphotransferase activity discovered in Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 36118–36127. [DOI] [PMID: 19864415]
[EC 2.7.8.32 created 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.306     Relevance: 82.8%
Accepted name: UDP-GalNAc:α-D-GalNAc-diphosphoundecaprenol α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = UDP + α-D-GalNAc-(1→3)-α-D-GalNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): WbnH
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol α-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the the biosynthesis of the O-polysaccharide repeating unit of Escherichia coli serotype O86.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yi, W., Yao, Q., Zhang, Y., Motari, E., Lin, S. and Wang, P.G. The wbnH gene of Escherichia coli O86:H2 encodes an α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase involved in the O-repeating unit biosynthesis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 344 (2006) 631–639. [DOI] [PMID: 16630548]
[EC 2.4.1.306 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.381     Relevance: 82.5%
Accepted name: dTDP-Rha:α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal diphosphoundecaprenol α-1,2-rhamnosyltransferase
Reaction: dTDP-β-L-rhamnose + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = dTDP + α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und
Glossary: α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
α-L-Rha-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): wbaQ (gene name); rfbQ (gene name)
Systematic name: dTDP-β-L-rhamnose:α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 2III-α-rhamnosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme, present in Salmonella strains that belong to group C2, participates in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit of O antigens produced by these strains.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Brown, P.K., Romana, L.K. and Reeves, P.R. Cloning of the rfb gene cluster of a group C2 Salmonella strain: comparison with the rfb regions of groups B and D. Mol. Microbiol. 5 (1991) 1873–1881. [DOI] [PMID: 1722557]
2.  Brown, P.K., Romana, L.K. and Reeves, P.R. Molecular analysis of the rfb gene cluster of Salmonella serovar muenchen (strain M67): the genetic basis of the polymorphism between groups C2 and B. Mol. Microbiol. 6 (1992) 1385–1394. [DOI] [PMID: 1379320]
3.  Liu, D., Haase, A.M., Lindqvist, L., Lindberg, A.A. and Reeves, P.R. Glycosyl transferases of O-antigen biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica: identification and characterization of transferase genes of groups B, C2, and E1. J. Bacteriol. 175 (1993) 3408–3413. [DOI] [PMID: 7684736]
4.  Zhao, X., Dai, Q., Jia, R., Zhu, D., Liu, M., Wang, M., Chen, S., Sun, K., Yang, Q., Wu, Y. and Cheng, A. two novel Salmonella bivalent vaccines confer dual protection against two Salmonella serovars in mice. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 7:391 (2017). [DOI] [PMID: 28929089]
[EC 2.4.1.381 created 2021]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.198     Relevance: 82.5%
Accepted name: α-mannan endo-1,2-α-mannanase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of the terminal α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannose disaccharide from α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl side chains in fungal cell wall α-mannans.
Systematic name: α-mannan 1,2-[α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannose] hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the gut bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Bacteroides xylanisolvens, can also catalyse the reaction of EC 3.2.1.130, glycoprotein endo-α-1,2-mannosidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hakki, Z., Thompson, A.J., Bellmaine, S., Speciale, G., Davies, G.J. and Williams, S.J. Structural and kinetic dissection of the endo-α-1,2-mannanase activity of bacterial GH99 glycoside hydrolases from Bacteroides spp. Chemistry 21 (2015) 1966–1977. [DOI] [PMID: 25487964]
2.  Cuskin, F., Lowe, E.C., Temple, M.J., Zhu, Y., Cameron, E.A., Pudlo, N.A., Porter, N.T., Urs, K., Thompson, A.J., Cartmell, A., Rogowski, A., Hamilton, B.S., Chen, R., Tolbert, T.J., Piens, K., Bracke, D., Vervecken, W., Hakki, Z., Speciale, G., Munoz-Munoz, J.L., Day, A., Pena, M.J., McLean, R., Suits, M.D., Boraston, A.B., Atherly, T., Ziemer, C.J., Williams, S.J., Davies, G.J., Abbott, D.W., Martens, E.C. and Gilbert, H.J. Human gut Bacteroidetes can utilize yeast mannan through a selfish mechanism. Nature 517 (2015) 165–169. [DOI] [PMID: 25567280]
[EC 3.2.1.198 created 2016]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.24     Relevance: 82%
Accepted name: 1,4-α-glucan 6-α-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: Transfers an α-D-glucosyl residue in a (1→4)-α-D-glucan to the primary hydroxy group of glucose, free or combined in a (1→4)-α-D-glucan
Other name(s): oligoglucan-branching glycosyltransferase; 1,4-α-D-glucan 6-α-D-glucosyltransferase; T-enzyme; D-glucosyltransferase; 1,4-α-D-glucan:1,4-α-D-glucan(D-glucose) 6-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: (1→4)-α-D-glucan:(1→4)-α-D-glucan(D-glucose) 6-α-D-glucosyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9030-12-0
References:
1.  Abdullah, M. and Whelan, W.J. Synthesis of α-1:6-glucosidic linkages by a transglycosylase from potato. Biochem. J. 75 (1960) 12P.
2.  Barker, S.A. and Carrington, T.R. Studies of Aspergillus niger. Part II. Transglycosidation by Aspergillus niger. J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) (1953) 3588–3593.
3.  Saroja, K., Venkataraman, R. and Giri, K.V. Transglucosidation in Penicillium chrysogenum Q-176. Isolation and identification of the oligosaccharide. Biochem. J. 60 (1955) 399–403. [PMID: 13239572]
[EC 2.4.1.24 created 1965]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.207     Relevance: 81.4%
Accepted name: mannosyl-oligosaccharide α-1,3-glucosidase
Reaction: (1) Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-[protein] + H2O = GlcMan9GlcNAc2-[protein] + β-D-glucopyranose
(2) GlcMan9GlcNAc2-[protein] + H2O = Man9GlcNAc2-[protein] + β-D-glucopyranose
Glossary: Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-[protein] = {α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc}-N-Asn-[protein]
GlcMan9GlcNAc2-[protein] = {α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc}-N-Asn-[protein]
Man9GlcNAc2-[protein] = {α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc}-N-Asn-[protein]
Other name(s): ER glucosidase II; α-glucosidase II; trimming glucosidase II; ROT2 (gene name); GTB1 (gene name); GANAB (gene name); PRKCSH (gene name)
Systematic name: Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-[protein] 3-α-glucohydrolase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: This eukaryotic enzyme cleaves off sequentially the two α-1,3-linked glucose residues from the Glc2Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide precursor of immature N-glycosylated proteins.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Trombetta, E.S., Simons, J.F. and Helenius, A. Endoplasmic reticulum glucosidase II is composed of a catalytic subunit, conserved from yeast to mammals, and a tightly bound noncatalytic HDEL-containing subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 27509–27516. [DOI] [PMID: 8910335]
2.  Ziak, M., Meier, M., Etter, K.S. and Roth, J. Two isoforms of trimming glucosidase II exist in mammalian tissues and cell lines but not in yeast and insect cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 280 (2001) 363–367. [DOI] [PMID: 11162524]
3.  Wilkinson, B.M., Purswani, J. and Stirling, C.J. Yeast GTB1 encodes a subunit of glucosidase II required for glycoprotein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 6325–6333. [DOI] [PMID: 16373354]
4.  Mora-Montes, H.M., Bates, S., Netea, M.G., Diaz-Jimenez, D.F., Lopez-Romero, E., Zinker, S., Ponce-Noyola, P., Kullberg, B.J., Brown, A.J., Odds, F.C., Flores-Carreon, A. and Gow, N.A. Endoplasmic reticulum α-glycosidases of Candida albicans are required for N glycosylation, cell wall integrity, and normal host-fungus interaction. Eukaryot Cell 6 (2007) 2184–2193. [DOI] [PMID: 17933909]
[EC 3.2.1.207 created 2018]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.28     Relevance: 81.4%
Accepted name: α,α-trehalase
Reaction: α,α-trehalose + H2O = β-D-glucose + α-D-glucose
Other name(s): trehalase
Systematic name: α,α-trehalose glucohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is an anomer-inverting glucosidase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the α-glucosidic O-linkage of α,α-trehalose, releasing initially equimolar amounts of α- and β-D-glucose. It is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9025-52-9
References:
1.  Myrbäck, K. and Örtenblad, B. Trehalose und Hefe. II. Trehalasewirkung von Hefepräparaten. Biochem. Z. 291 (1937) 61–69.
2.  Kalf, G.F. and Rieder, S.V. The preparation and properties of trehalase. J. Biol. Chem. 230 (1958) 691–698. [PMID: 13525386]
3.  Hehre, E.J., Sawai, T., Brewer, C.F., Nakano, M. and Kanda, T. Trehalase: stereocomplementary hydrolytic and glucosyl transfer reactions with α- and β-D-glucosyl fluoride. Biochemistry 21 (1982) 3090–3097. [PMID: 7104311]
4.  Mori, H., Lee, J.H., Okuyama, M., Nishimoto, M., Ohguchi, M., Kim, D., Kimura, A. and Chiba, S. Catalytic reaction mechanism based on α-secondary deuterium isotope effects in hydrolysis of trehalose by European honeybee trehalase. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 73 (2009) 2466–2473. [DOI] [PMID: 19897915]
[EC 3.2.1.28 created 1961, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 2.3.1.122     Relevance: 80.7%
Accepted name: trehalose O-mycolyltransferase
Reaction: 2 α,α-trehalose 6-mycolate = α,α-trehalose + α,α-trehalose 6,6′-bismycolate
Other name(s): α,α’-trehalose 6-monomycolate:α,α’-trehalose mycolyltransferase; α,α’-trehalose-6-mycolate:α,α’-trehalose-6-mycolate 6′-mycolyltransferase
Systematic name: α,α-trehalose-6-mycolate:α,α-trehalose-6-mycolate 6′-mycolyltransferase
Comments: Catalyses the exchange of mycolic acid between trehalose, trehalose mycolate and trehalose bismycolate. Trehalose 6-palmitate can also act as donor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 111694-11-2
References:
1.  Sathyamoorthy, N. and Takayama, K. Purification and characterization of a novel mycolic acid exchange enzyme from Mycobacterium smegmatis. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 13417–13423. [PMID: 3654621]
[EC 2.3.1.122 created 1990]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.348     Relevance: 80.1%
Accepted name: N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-α-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-mannose + N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = GDP + α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): WbdC
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-α-mannosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the linker region of the polymannose O-polysaccharide in the outer leaflet of the membrane of Escherichia coli serotypes O8, O9 and O9a.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Greenfield, L.K., Richards, M.R., Li, J., Wakarchuk, W.W., Lowary, T.L. and Whitfield, C. Biosynthesis of the polymannose lipopolysaccharide O-antigens from Escherichia coli serotypes O8 and O9a requires a unique combination of single- and multiple-active site mannosyltransferases. J. Biol. Chem. 287 (2012) 35078–35091. [DOI] [PMID: 22875852]
[EC 2.4.1.348 created 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.60     Relevance: 79.7%
Accepted name: CDP-abequose:α-D-Man-(1→4)-α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und α-1,3-abequosyltransferase
Reaction: CDP-α-D-abequose + α-D-Man-(1→4)-α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = CDP + α-D-Abe-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→4)-α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und
Glossary: D-abequose = 3,6-deoxy-D-xylo-hexose = 3,6-deoxy-D-galactose = 3-deoxy-D-fucose
α-D-Man-(1→4)-α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
α-D-Abe-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→4)-α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-D-abequopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): wbaV (gene name); rfbV (gene name); trihexose diphospholipid abequosyltransferase; abequosyltransferase (ambiguous); CDP-α-D-abequose:Man(α1→4)Rha(α1→3)Gal(β-1)-diphospholipid D-abequosyltransferase
Systematic name: CDP-α-D-abequose:α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3III-α-abequosyltransferase (configuration retaining)
Comments: The enzyme from Salmonella participates in the biosynthesis of the repeat unit of O antigens produced by strains that belong to the A, B and D1-D3 groups. The enzyme is able to transfer abequose, paratose, or tyvelose, depending on the availability of the specific dideoxyhexose in a particular strain.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37277-67-1
References:
1.  Osborn, M.J. and Weiner, I.M. Biosynthesis of a bacterial lipopolysaccharide. VI. Mechanism of incorporation of abequose into the O-antigen of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 2631–2639. [PMID: 4297268]
2.  Liu, D., Lindqvist, L. and Reeves, P.R. Transferases of O-antigen biosynthesis in Salmonella enterica: dideoxyhexosyltransferases of groups B and C2 and acetyltransferase of group C2. J. Bacteriol. 177 (1995) 4084–4088. [DOI] [PMID: 7541787]
[EC 2.4.1.60 created 1972, modified 2012, modified 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.101     Relevance: 79.3%
Accepted name: α-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + Man5GlcNAc2-[protein] = UDP + Man5GlcNAc3-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, click here
Glossary: Man5GlcNAc2-[protein] = α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
Man5GlcNAc3-[protein]= β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
Other name(s): MGAT1 (gene name); N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; N-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-α-1,3-mannosylglycoprotein β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl:α-1,3-D-mannoside-β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl:α-3-D-mannoside β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; α-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTI; GlcNAc-T I; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:3-(α-D-mannosyl)-β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme, found in plants and animals, participates in the processing of N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. Its action is required before the other N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases involved in the process (GlcNAcT-II through VI) can act. While the natural substrate (produced by EC 3.2.1.113, mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,2-α-mannosidase) is described here, the minimal substrate recognized by the enzyme is α-D-Man-(1→3)-β-D-Man-R.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 102576-81-8
References:
1.  Harpaz, N. and Schachter, H. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. Bovine colostrum UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-D-mannoside β2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I. Separation from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-D-mannoside β2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II, partial purification, and substrate specificity. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 4885–4893. [PMID: 6445358]
2.  Mendicino, J., Chandrasekaran, E.V., Anumula, K.R. and Davila, M. Isolation and properties of α-D-mannose:β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase from trachea mucosa. Biochemistry 20 (1981) 967–976. [PMID: 6452163]
3.  Oppenheimer, C.L. and Hill, R.L. Purification and characterization of a rabbit liver α1→3 mannoside β1→2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 799–804. [PMID: 6450208]
4.  Oppenheimer, C.L., Eckhardt, A.E. and Hill, R.L. The nonidentity of porcine N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases I and II. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 11477–11482. [PMID: 6457827]
5.  Miyagi, T. and Tsuiki, S. Studies on UDP-N-acetylglucosamine : α-mannoside β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase of rat liver and hepatomas. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 661 (1981) 148–157. [DOI] [PMID: 6170335]
6.  Schachter, H., Narasimhan, S., Gleeson, P. and Vella, G. Glycosyltransferases involved in elongation of N-glycosidically linked oligosaccharides of the complex or N-acetyllactosamine type. Methods Enzymol. 98 (1983) 98–134. [PMID: 6366476]
7.  Vella, G.J., Paulsen, H. and Schachter, H. Control of glycoprotein synthesis. IX. A terminal Man alphal-3Man β1- sequence in the substrate is the minimum requirement for UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine: α-D-mannoside (GlcNAc to Man α1-3) β2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I. Can. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 62 (1984) 409–417. [PMID: 6235906]
8.  Unligil, U.M., Zhou, S., Yuwaraj, S., Sarkar, M., Schachter, H. and Rini, J.M. X-ray crystal structure of rabbit N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I: catalytic mechanism and a new protein superfamily. EMBO J. 19 (2000) 5269–5280. [DOI] [PMID: 11032794]
[EC 2.4.1.101 created 1983, modified 2001 (EC 2.4.1.51 created 1972, part incorporated 1984), modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.99     Relevance: 79.3%
Accepted name: N-acetyl-α-D-muramate 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Reaction: UDP + N-acetyl-α-D-muramate 1-phosphate = UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-muramate + phosphate
Glossary: N-acetyl-α-D-muramate = 3-O-[(1R)-1-carboxyethyl]-2-acetoxy-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): murU (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP:N-acetyl-α-D-muramate 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from Pseudomonas species, participates in a peptidoglycan salvage pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gisin, J., Schneider, A., Nagele, B., Borisova, M. and Mayer, C. A cell wall recycling shortcut that bypasses peptidoglycan de novo biosynthesis. Nat. Chem. Biol. 9 (2013) 491–493. [DOI] [PMID: 23831760]
2.  Renner-Schneck, M., Hinderberger, I., Gisin, J., Exner, T., Mayer, C. and Stehle, T. Crystal structure of the N-acetylmuramic acid α-1-phosphate (MurNAc-α1-P) uridylyltransferase MurU, a minimal sugar nucleotidyltransferase and potential drug target enzyme in Gram-negative pathogens. J. Biol. Chem. 290 (2015) 10804–10813. [DOI] [PMID: 25767118]
[EC 2.7.7.99 created 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.387     Relevance: 78.9%
Accepted name: isomaltosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) 2 α-isomaltosyl-(1→4)-maltotriose = α-isomaltosyl-(1→3)-α-isomaltosyl-(1→4)-maltotriose + maltotriose
(2) α-isomaltosyl-(1→3)-α-isomaltosyl-(1→4)-maltotriose = cyclobis-(1→6)-α-nigerosyl + maltotriose
Systematic name: α-isomaltosyl-(1→3)-1,4-α-D-glucan:1,4-α-D-glucan 3-α-isomaltosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, found in bacteria that produce cyclobis-(1→6)-α-nigerosyl, acts on the products of EC 2.4.1.24, 1,4-α-glucan 6-α;-glucosyltransferase. It catalyses the α-(1→3) transfer of the isomaltosyl moiety of one substrate to another, resulting in α-isomaltosyl-(1→3)-α-isomaltosyl-α-(1→4)-glucan formation. In addition, the enzyme catalyses the intramolecular cyclization of the product, eventually generating cyclobis-(1→6)-α-nigerosyl.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Aga, H., Maruta, K., Yamamoto, T., Kubota, M., Fukuda, S., Kurimoto, M. and Tsujisaka, Y. Cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding cyclic tetrasaccharide-synthesizing enzymes from Bacillus globisporus C11. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (2002) 1057–1068. [DOI] [PMID: 12092816]
2.  Nishimoto, T., Aga, H., Mukai, K., Hashimoto, T., Watanabe, H., Kubota, M., Fukuda, S., Kurimoto, M. and Tsujisaka, Y. Purification and characterization of glucosyltransferase and glucanotransferase involved in the production of cyclic tetrasaccharide in Bacillus globisporus C11. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (2002) 1806–1818. [DOI] [PMID: 12400677]
3.  Kim, Y.K., Kitaoka, M., Hayashi, K., Kim, C.H. and Cote, G.L. A synergistic reaction mechanism of a cycloalternan-forming enzyme and a D-glucosyltransferase for the production of cycloalternan in Bacillus sp. NRRL B-21195. Carbohydr. Res. 338 (2003) 2213–2220. [DOI] [PMID: 14553982]
[EC 2.4.1.387 created 2022]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.130     Relevance: 78.8%
Accepted name: glycoprotein endo-α-1,2-mannosidase
Reaction: GlcMan9GlcNAc2-[protein] + H2O = Man8GlcNAc2-[protein] (isomer 8A1,2,3B1,2) + α-D-glucosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannopyranose
Glossary: GlcMan9GlcNAc2-[protein] = {α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc}-N-Asn-[protein]
Man8GlcNAc2-[protein] (isomer 8A1,2,3B1,2) = {α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc}-N-Asn-[protein]
Other name(s): glucosylmannosidase; endo-α-D-mannosidase; endo-α-mannosidase; endomannosidase; glucosyl mannosidase; MANEA (gene name); glycoprotein glucosylmannohydrolase
Systematic name: glycoprotein glucosylmannohydrolase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the hydrolysis of the terminal α-D-glucosyl-(1→3)-D-mannosyl unit from the GlcMan9(GlcNAc)2 oligosaccharide component of N-glucosylated proteins during their processing in the Golgi apparatus. The name for the isomer is based on a nomenclature proposed by Prien et al [7].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 108022-16-8
References:
1.  Lubas, W.A. and Spiro, R.G. Golgi endo-α-D-mannosidase from rat liver, a novel N-linked carbohydrate unit processing enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 3775–3781. [PMID: 3818665]
2.  Tulsiani, D.R.P., Coleman, V.P. and Touster, O. Asparagine-linked glycoprotein biosynthesis in rat brain: identification of glucosidase I, glucosidase II, and endomannosidase (glucosyl mannosidase). Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 277 (1990) 114–121. [DOI] [PMID: 2407194]
3.  Hiraizumi, S., Spohr, U. and Spiro, R.G. Ligand affinity chromatographic purification of rat liver Golgi endomannosidase. J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 4697–4700. [PMID: 8106437]
4.  Spiro, M.J., Bhoyroo, V.D. and Spiro, R.G. Molecular cloning and expression of rat liver endo-α-mannosidase, an N-linked oligosaccharide processing enzyme. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 29356–29363. [DOI] [PMID: 9361017]
5.  Hamilton, S.R., Li, H., Wischnewski, H., Prasad, A., Kerley-Hamilton, J.S., Mitchell, T., Walling, A.J., Davidson, R.C., Wildt, S. and Gerngross, T.U. Intact α-1,2-endomannosidase is a typical type II membrane protein. Glycobiology 15 (2005) 615–624. [DOI] [PMID: 15677381]
6.  Hardt, B., Volker, C., Mundt, S., Salska-Navarro, M., Hauptmann, M. and Bause, E. Human endo-α1,2-mannosidase is a Golgi-resident type II membrane protein. Biochimie 87 (2005) 169–179. [DOI] [PMID: 15760709]
7.  Prien, J.M., Ashline, D.J., Lapadula, A.J., Zhang, H. and Reinhold, V.N. The high mannose glycans from bovine ribonuclease B isomer characterization by ion trap MS. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 20 (2009) 539–556. [DOI] [PMID: 19181540]
[EC 3.2.1.130 created 1990, modified 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.287     Relevance: 78.6%
Accepted name: rhamnopyranosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-diphospho-decaprenol β-1,4/1,5-galactofuranosyltransferase
Reaction: 2 UDP-α-D-galactofuranose + α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans,octacis-decaprenol = 2 UDP + β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→5)-β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans,octacis-decaprenol (overall reaction)
(1a) UDP-α-D-galactofuranose + α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans-octacis-decaprenol = UDP + β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans-octacis-decaprenol
(1b) UDP-α-D-galactofuranose + β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans-octacis-decaprenol = UDP + β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→5)-β-D-galactofuranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans-octacis-decaprenol
For diagram of galactofuranan biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): arabinogalactan galactofuranosyl transferase 1; GlfT1
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactofuranose:α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans,octacis-decaprenol 4-β/4-β-galactofuranosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Isolated from the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. smegmatis, the enzyme has dual β-(1→4) and β-(1→5) transferase action. Involved in the formation of the cell wall in mycobacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Mikusová, K., Belánová, M., Korduláková, J., Honda, K., McNeil, M.R., Mahapatra, S., Crick, D.C. and Brennan, P.J. Identification of a novel galactosyl transferase involved in biosynthesis of the mycobacterial cell wall. J. Bacteriol. 188 (2006) 6592–6598. [DOI] [PMID: 16952951]
2.  Belánová, M., Dianisková, P., Brennan, P.J., Completo, G.C., Rose, N.L., Lowary, T.L. and Mikusová, K. Galactosyl transferases in mycobacterial cell wall synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 1141–1145. [DOI] [PMID: 18055597]
[EC 2.4.1.287 created 2012, modified 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.343     Relevance: 78.5%
Accepted name: UDP-Gal:α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphoundecaprenol α-1,3-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = UDP + α-D-Gal-(1→3)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): wclR (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 3-α-galactosyltransferase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the the biosynthesis of the O-antigen repeating unit of Escherichia coli O3. Requires a divalent metal ion (Mn2+, Mg2+ or Fe2+). cf. EC 2.4.1.303, UDP-Gal:α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphoundecaprenol β-1,3-galactosyltransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Chen, C., Liu, B., Xu, Y., Utkina, N., Zhou, D., Danilov, L., Torgov, V., Veselovsky, V. and Feng, L. Biochemical characterization of the novel α-1, 3-galactosyltransferase WclR from Escherichia coli O3. Carbohydr. Res. 430 (2016) 36–43. [DOI] [PMID: 27196310]
[EC 2.4.1.343 created 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.290     Relevance: 78.1%
Accepted name: N,N′-diacetylbacillosaminyl-diphospho-undecaprenol α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine + N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol = UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-α-(1→3)-N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol
For diagram of undecaprenyldiphosphoheptasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N,N′-diacetyl-D-bacillosamine = 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): PglA
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:N,N′-diacetyl-α-D-bacillosaminyl-diphospho-tritrans,heptacis-undecaprenol 3-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Campylobacter jejuni. Part of a bacterial N-linked glycosylation pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Glover, K.J., Weerapana, E. and Imperiali, B. In vitro assembly of the undecaprenylpyrophosphate-linked heptasaccharide for prokaryotic N-linked glycosylation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 14255–14259. [DOI] [PMID: 16186480]
[EC 2.4.1.290 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.261     Relevance: 77.8%
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Man:Man8GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol + dolichyl phosphate
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG9; ALG9 α1,2 mannosyltransferase; dolichylphosphomannose-dependent ALG9 mannosyltransferase; ALG9 mannosyltransferase; Dol-P-Man:Man8GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,2-mannosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate:D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 2-α-D-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl-phosphate:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 2-α-D-mannosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The formation of N-glycosidic linkages of glycoproteins involves the ordered assembly of the common Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 core-oligosaccharide on the lipid carrier dolichyl diphosphate. Early mannosylation steps occur on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum with GDP-Man as donor, the final reactions from Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol to Man9Glc-NAc2-PP-Dol on the lumenal side use dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate. ALG9 mannosyltransferase catalyses the addition of two different α-1,2-mannose residues: the addition of α-1,2-mannose to Man6GlcNAc2-PP-Dol (EC 2.4.1.259) and the addition of α-1,2-mannose to Man8GlcNAc2-PP-Dol (EC 2.4.1.261).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Vleugels, W., Keldermans, L., Jaeken, J., Butters, T.D., Michalski, J.C., Matthijs, G. and Foulquier, F. Quality control of glycoproteins bearing truncated glycans in an ALG9-defective (CDG-IL) patient. Glycobiology 19 (2009) 910–917. [DOI] [PMID: 19451548]
2.  Frank, C.G. and Aebi, M. ALG9 mannosyltransferase is involved in two different steps of lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis. Glycobiology 15 (2005) 1156–1163. [DOI] [PMID: 15987956]
[EC 2.4.1.261 created 1976 as EC 2.4.1.130, part transferred 2011 to EC 2.4.1.261, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.106     Relevance: 77.6%
Accepted name: mannosyl-oligosaccharide glucosidase
Reaction: Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-[protein] + H2O = Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-[protein] + β-D-glucopyranose
Glossary: Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 = [α-D-Glc-(1→2)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-{α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)}-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc]-N-Asn-[protein]
Glc2Man9GlcNAc2-[protein] = [α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Glc-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-{α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)}-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc]-N-Asn-[protein]
Other name(s): Glc3Man9NAc2 oligosaccharide glucosidase; trimming glucosidase I; CWH41 (gene name); MOGS (gene name); mannosyl-oligosaccharide glucohydrolase
Systematic name: Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-[protein] glucohydrolase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: This enzyme catalyses the first step in the processing of the N-glycan tetradecasaccharide precursor Glc3Man9GlcNAc2, which takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum, by removing the distal α-1,2-linked glucose residue. This and subsequent processing steps are required before complex N-glycans can be synthesized.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 78413-07-7
References:
1.  Elting, J.J., Chen, W.W. and Lennarz, J. Characterization of a glucosidase involved in an initial step in the processing of oligosaccharide chains. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 2325–2331. [PMID: 7358674]
2.  Grinna, L.S. and Robbins, P.W. Glycoprotein biosynthesis. Rat liver microsomal glucosidases which process oligosaccharides. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 8814–8818. [PMID: 479161]
3.  Kilker, R.D., Saunier, B., Tkacz, J.S. and Herscovics, A. Partial purification from Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a soluble glucosidase which removes the terminal glucose from the oligosaccharide Glc3Man9GlcNAc2. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 5299–5603. [PMID: 7014569]
4.  Grinna, L.S. and Robbins, P.W. Substrate specificities of rat liver microsomal glucosidases which process glycoproteins. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 2255–2258. [PMID: 7358666]
5.  Mark, M.J. and Kornfeld, S. Partial purification and characterization of the glucosidases involved in the processing of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 199 (1980) 249–258. [DOI] [PMID: 7356331]
[EC 3.2.1.106 created 1984, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.383     Relevance: 77.6%
Accepted name: GDP-Man:α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und β-1,4-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-mannose + α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = GDP + β-D-Man-(1→4)-α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und
Glossary: α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
β-D-Man-(1→4)-α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D-Gal-PP-Und = β-D-mannopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): wbaO (gene name); rfbO (gene name)
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 4II-β-mannosyltransferase (configuration inverting)
Comments: The enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of the O antigens produced by group E and D2 strains of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Xiang, S.H., Hobbs, M. and Reeves, P.R. Molecular analysis of the rfb gene cluster of a group D2 Salmonella enterica strain: evidence for its origin from an insertion sequence-mediated recombination event between group E and D1 strains. J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 4357–4365. [DOI] [PMID: 8021222]
2.  Zhao, Y., Biggins, J. B. and Thorson, J. S. Acceptor specificity of Salmonella GDP-Man:α-L-Rha-(1→3)-α-D- Gal- PP-Und β(1→4)-mannosyltransferase: A simplified assay based on unnatural acceptors. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120 (1998) 12986–12987. [DOI]
3.  Zhao, Y. and Thorson, J.S. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of the Salmonella group E1 core trisaccharide using a recombinant β-(1-→4)-mannosyltransferase. Carbohydr. Res. 319 (1999) 184–191. [DOI] [PMID: 10520265]
[EC 2.4.1.383 created 2021]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.260     Relevance: 77.5%
Accepted name: dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol α-1,6-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate + α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-β-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol = α-D-Man-α-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol + dolichyl phosphate
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ALG12; ALG12 mannosyltransferase; ALG12 α1,6mannosyltransferase; dolichyl-P-mannose:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl mannosyltransferase; dolichyl-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl α6-mannosyltransferase; EBS4; Dol-P-Man:Man7GlcNAc2-PP-Dol α-1,6-mannosyltransferase; dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate:D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-[D-Man-α-(1→2)-D-Man-α-(1→3)-D-Man-α-(1→6)]-D-Man-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-β-(1→4)-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol α-1,6-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl-phosphate:α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[α-D-Man-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→3)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-β-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-α-D-GlcNAc-diphosphodolichol 6-α-D-mannosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The formation of N-glycosidic linkages of glycoproteins involves the ordered assembly of the common Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 core-oligosaccharide on the lipid carrier dolichyl diphosphate. Early mannosylation steps occur on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum with GDP-Man as donor, the final reactions from Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol to Man9Glc-NAc2-PP-Dol on the lumenal side use dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Frank, C.G. and Aebi, M. ALG9 mannosyltransferase is involved in two different steps of lipid-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis. Glycobiology 15 (2005) 1156–1163. [DOI] [PMID: 15987956]
2.  Hong, Z., Jin, H., Fitchette, A.C., Xia, Y., Monk, A.M., Faye, L. and Li, J. Mutations of an α1,6 mannosyltransferase inhibit endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of defective brassinosteroid receptors in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 21 (2009) 3792–3802. [DOI] [PMID: 20023196]
3.  Cipollo, J.F. and Trimble, R.B. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae alg12δ mutant reveals a role for the middle-arm α1,2Man- and upper-arm α1,2Manα1,6Man- residues of Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol in regulating glycoprotein glycan processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Glycobiology 12 (2002) 749–762. [PMID: 12460943]
4.  Grubenmann, C.E., Frank, C.G., Kjaergaard, S., Berger, E.G., Aebi, M. and Hennet, T. ALG12 mannosyltransferase defect in congenital disorder of glycosylation type lg. Hum. Mol. Genet. 11 (2002) 2331–2339. [DOI] [PMID: 12217961]
[EC 2.4.1.260 created 1976 as EC 2.4.1.130, part transferred 2011 to EC 2.4.1.160, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.309     Relevance: 77.3%
Accepted name: UDP-Gal:α-L-Fuc-1,2-β-Gal-1,3-α-GalNAc-1,3-α-GalNAc-diphosphoundecaprenol α-1,3-galactosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + α-L-Fuc-(1→2)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-α-D-GalNAc-(1→3)-α-D-GalNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = UDP + α-D-Gal-(1→3)-(α-L-Fuc-(1→2))-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-α-D-GalNAc-(1→3)-α-D-GalNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Other name(s): WbnI
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:α-L-Fuc-(1→2)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-α-D-GalNAc-(1→3)-α-D-GalNAc-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol α-1,3-galactosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the the biosynthesis of the O-polysaccharide repeating unit of the bacterium Escherichia coli serotype O86.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yi, W., Shao, J., Zhu, L., Li, M., Singh, M., Lu, Y., Lin, S., Li, H., Ryu, K., Shen, J., Guo, H., Yao, Q., Bush, C.A. and Wang, P.G. Escherichia coli O86 O-antigen biosynthetic gene cluster and stepwise enzymatic synthesis of human blood group B antigen tetrasaccharide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127 (2005) 2040–2041. [DOI] [PMID: 15713070]
2.  Yi, W., Zhu, L., Guo, H., Li, M., Li, J. and Wang, P.G. Formation of a new O-polysaccharide in Escherichia coli O86 via disruption of a glycosyltransferase gene involved in O-unit assembly. Carbohydr. Res. 341 (2006) 2254–2260. [DOI] [PMID: 16839526]
3.  Woodward, R., Yi, W., Li, L., Zhao, G., Eguchi, H., Sridhar, P.R., Guo, H., Song, J.K., Motari, E., Cai, L., Kelleher, P., Liu, X., Han, W., Zhang, W., Ding, Y., Li, M. and Wang, P.G. In vitro bacterial polysaccharide biosynthesis: defining the functions of Wzy and Wzz. Nat. Chem. Biol. 6 (2010) 418–423. [DOI] [PMID: 20418877]
[EC 2.4.1.309 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.155     Relevance: 77.2%
Accepted name: α-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein] = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)]-α-D-Man-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→2)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-α-D-Man-(1→6)]-β-D-Man-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-N-Asn-[protein]
For diagram of mannosyl-glycoprotein n-acetylglucosaminyltransferases, click here
Other name(s): MGAT5 (gene name); N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V; α-mannoside β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-α-mannoside β1→6-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-mannoside-β1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; α-1,3(6)-mannosylglycoprotein β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; GnTV; GlcNAc-T V; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:6-[2-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl)-α-D-mannosyl]-glycoprotein 6-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→6)-β-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 6-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Requires Mg2+. The enzyme, found in vertebrates, participates in the processing of N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. It catalyses the addition of N-acetylglucosamine in β 1-6 linkage to the α-linked mannose of biantennary N-linked oligosaccharides, and thus enables the synthesis of tri- and tetra-antennary complexes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 83588-90-3
References:
1.  Cummings, R.D., Trowbridge, I.S. and Kornfeld, S. A mouse lymphoma cell line resistant to the leukoagglutinating lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris is deficient in UDP-GlcNAc: α-D-mannoside β1,6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 13421–13427. [PMID: 6216250]
2.  Hindsgaul, O., Tahir, S.H., Srivastava, O.P. and Pierce, M. The trisaccharide β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→2)-α-D-Manp-(1→6)-β-D-Manp, as its 8-methoxycarbonyloctyl glycoside, is an acceptor selective for N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V. Carbohydr. Res. 173 (1988) 263–272. [DOI] [PMID: 2834054]
3.  Shoreibah, M.G., Hindsgaul, O. and Pierce, M. Purification and characterization of rat kidney UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α-6-D-mannoside β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 267 (1992) 2920–2927. [PMID: 1531335]
4.  Gu, J., Nishikawa, A., Tsuruoka, N., Ohno, M., Yamaguchi, N., Kangawa, K. and Taniguchi, N. Purification and characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: α-6-D-mannoside β 1-6N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V) from a human lung cancer cell line. J. Biochem. 113 (1993) 614–619. [PMID: 8393437]
5.  Park, C., Jin, U.H., Lee, Y.C., Cho, T.J. and Kim, C.H. Characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:α-6-D-mannoside β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V from a human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 367 (1999) 281–288. [PMID: 10395745]
6.  Saito, T., Miyoshi, E., Sasai, K., Nakano, N., Eguchi, H., Honke, K. and Taniguchi, N. A secreted type of β 1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V) induces tumor angiogenesis without mediation of glycosylation: a novel function of GnT-V distinct from the original glycosyltransferase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 17002–17008. [PMID: 11872751]
[EC 2.4.1.155 created 1986, modified 2001, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.141     Relevance: 77.1%
Accepted name: N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphodolichol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol = UDP + N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol
For diagram of dolichyltetradecasaccharide biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol = N,N′-diacetylchitobiosyl-diphosphodolichol
Other name(s): UDP-GlcNAc:dolichyl-pyrophosphoryl-GlcNAc GlcNAc transferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-dolichylacetylglucosamine pyrophosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase; N,N′-diacetylchitobiosylpyrophosphoryldolichol synthase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphosphodolichol 4-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 75536-54-8
References:
1.  Sharma, C.B., Lehle, L. and Tanner, W. Solubilization and characterization of the initial enzymes of the dolichol pathway from yeast. Eur. J. Biochem. 126 (1982) 319–325. [DOI] [PMID: 6215245]
2.  Turco, S.J. and Heath, E.C. Glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl pyrophosphoryldolichol. Formation in SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts and biosynthesis in rat lung microsomal preparations. J. Biol. Chem. 252 (1977) 2918–2928. [PMID: 192724]
[EC 2.4.1.141 created 1984]
 
 


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