The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.5.1.23     
Accepted name: sym-norspermidine synthase
Reaction: S-adenosyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)propylamine + propane-1,3-diamine = S-methyl-5′-thioadenosine + bis(3-aminopropyl)amine
Glossary: S-adenosyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)propylamine = (3-aminopropyl){[(2S,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxytetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methyl}methylsulfonium
Other name(s): S-adenosylmethioninamine:propane-1,3-diamine 3-aminopropyltransferase; S-adenosyl 3-(methylthio)propylamine:propane-1,3-diamine 3-aminopropyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)propylamine:propane-1,3-diamine 3-aminopropyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme has been originally characterized from the protist Euglena gracilis [1,2]. The enzyme from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus can transfer the propylamine moiety from S-adenosyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)propylamine to putrescine, sym-norspermidine and spermidine with lower efficiency [3]. cf. EC 2.5.1.16 (spermidine synthase) and EC 2.5.1.22 (spermine synthase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Aleksijevic, A., Grove, J. and Schuber, F. Studies on polyamine biosynthesis in Euglena gracilis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 565 (1979) 199–207. [DOI] [PMID: 116684]
2.  Villanueva, V.R., Adlakha, R.C. and Calbayrac, R. Biosynthesis of polyamines in Euglena gracilis. Phytochemistry 19 (1980) 787–790.
3.  Cacciapuoti, G., Porcelli, M., Carteni-Farina, M., Gambacorta, A. and Zappia, V. Purification and characterization of propylamine transferase from Sulfolobus solfataricus, an extreme thermophilic archaebacterium. Eur. J. Biochem. 161 (1986) 263–271. [DOI] [PMID: 3096734]
[EC 2.5.1.23 created 1983, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.126     
Accepted name: norspermine synthase
Reaction: S-adenosyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)propylamine + norspermidine = S-methyl-5′-thioadenosine + norspermine
Glossary: norspermidine = bis(3-aminopropyl)amine
norspermine = N,N′-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,3-propanediamine
spermidine = N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-butanediamine
thermospermine = N-{3-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]propyl}-1,4-butanediamine
Other name(s): long-chain polyamine synthase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: S-adenosyl 3-(methylsulfanyl)propylamine:norspermidine 3-aminopropyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the thermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum, can also synthesize norspermidine from propane-1,3-diamine and thermospermine from spermidine (with lower activity). The long-chain polyamines stabilize double-stranded DNA at high temperatures. In contrast to EC 2.5.1.127, caldopentamine synthase, this enzyme does not accept norspermine as a substrate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Knott, J.M. Biosynthesis of long-chain polyamines by crenarchaeal polyamine synthases from Hyperthermus butylicus and Pyrobaculum aerophilum. FEBS Lett. 583 (2009) 3519–3524. [DOI] [PMID: 19822146]
[EC 2.5.1.126 created 2014]
 
 
EC 4.1.1.96     
Accepted name: carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase
Reaction: (1) carboxynorspermidine = bis(3-aminopropyl)amine + CO2
(2) carboxyspermidine = spermidine + CO2
Glossary: bis(3-aminopropyl)amine = norspermidine
Other name(s): carboxyspermidine decarboxylase; CANSDC; VC1623 (gene name)
Systematic name: carboxynorspermidine carboxy-lyase (bis(3-aminopropyl)amine-forming)
Comments: A pyridoxal 5′-phosphate enzyme. Part of a bacterial polyamine biosynthesis pathway. The enzyme is essential for biofilm formation in the bacterium Vibrio cholerae [1]. The enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni only produces spermidine in vivo even though it shows activity with carboxynorspermidine in vitro [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lee, J., Sperandio, V., Frantz, D.E., Longgood, J., Camilli, A., Phillips, M.A. and Michael, A.J. An alternative polyamine biosynthetic pathway is widespread in bacteria and essential for biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 9899–9907. [DOI] [PMID: 19196710]
2.  Deng, X., Lee, J., Michael, A.J., Tomchick, D.R., Goldsmith, E.J. and Phillips, M.A. Evolution of substrate specificity within a diverse family of β/α-barrel-fold basic amino acid decarboxylases: X-ray structure determination of enzymes with specificity for L-arginine and carboxynorspermidine. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 25708–25719. [DOI] [PMID: 20534592]
3.  Hanfrey, C.C., Pearson, B.M., Hazeldine, S., Lee, J., Gaskin, D.J., Woster, P.M., Phillips, M.A. and Michael, A.J. Alternative spermidine biosynthetic route is critical for growth of Campylobacter jejuni and is the dominant polyamine pathway in human gut microbiota. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 43301–43312. [DOI] [PMID: 22025614]
[EC 4.1.1.96 created 2012]
 
 


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