The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.4.1.102     
Accepted name: β-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + O3-[β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl]-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein] = UDP + O3-{β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)]-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl}-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein]
Glossary: core 1 = O3-[β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl]-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein]
core 2 = O3-{β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)]-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl}-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein]
Other name(s): O-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I; β6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-mucin β-(1→6)-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; core 2 acetylglucosaminyltransferase; core 6-β-GlcNAc-transferase A; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:O-glycosyl-glycoprotein (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to N-acetyl-D-galactosamine of β-D-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R) β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; GCNT1; GCNT3; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:O-glycosyl-glycoprotein (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to N-acetyl-D-galactosamine of β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R) 6-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:O3-[β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl]-glycoprotein 6-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the addition of N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine to the core 1 structure of O-glycans forming core 2.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 95978-15-7
References:
1.  Brockhausen, I., Rachaman, E.S., Matta, K.L. and Schachter, H. The separation by liquid chromatography (under elevated pressure) of phenyl, benzyl, and O-nitrophenyl glycosides of oligosaccharides. Analysis of substrates and products for four N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-transferases involved in mucin synthesis. Carbohydr. Res. 120 (1983) 3–16. [DOI] [PMID: 6226356]
2.  Williams, D., Longmore, G., Matta, K.L. and Schachter, H. Mucin synthesis. II. Substrate specificity and product identification studies on canine submaxillary gland UDP-GlcNAc:Gal β1-3GalNAc(GlcNAc→GalNAc) β6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 11253–11261. [PMID: 6449508]
3.  Williams, D. and Schachter, H. Mucin synthesis. I. Detection in canine submaxillary glands of an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase which acts on mucin substrates. J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 11247–11252. [PMID: 6449507]
[EC 2.4.1.102 created 1983, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.146     
Accepted name: β-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + 3-O-{β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)]-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl}-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein] = UDP + 3-O-{N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)]-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl}-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein]
Glossary: core 2 = 3-O-{β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)]-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl}-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein]
Other name(s): O-glycosyl-oligosaccharide-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-mucin β(1→3)-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (elongating); elongation 3β-GalNAc-transferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:O-glycosyl-glycoprotein (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to β-D-galactose of β-D-galactosyl-1,3-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,6)-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R) β-1,3-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)]-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-R 3-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; B3GNT3 (gene name)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:3-O-{β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-[N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→6)]-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl}-L-seryl/threonyl-[protein] 3-β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the addition of N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine to the core 2 structure of O-glycans.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 87927-99-9
References:
1.  Brockhausen, I., Rachaman, E.S., Matta, K.L. and Schachter, H. The separation by liquid chromatography (under elevated pressure) of phenyl, benzyl, and O-nitrophenyl glycosides of oligosaccharides. Analysis of substrates and products for four N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-transferases involved in mucin synthesis. Carbohydr. Res. 120 (1983) 3–16. [DOI] [PMID: 6226356]
2.  Shiraishi, N., Natsume, A., Togayachi, A., Endo, T., Akashima, T., Yamada, Y., Imai, N., Nakagawa, S., Koizumi, S., Sekine, S., Narimatsu, H. and Sasaki, K. Identification and characterization of three novel β 1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases structurally related to the β 1,3-galactosyltransferase family. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 3498–3507. [PMID: 11042166]
[EC 2.4.1.146 created 1984, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.150     
Accepted name: N-acetyllactosaminide β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-R = UDP + β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-[β-D-GlcNAc-(1→6)]-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GlcNAc-R
Glossary: β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-R = type 2 precursor disaccharide
Other name(s): GCNT2 (gene name); GCNT3 (gene name); IGnT; I-branching β1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine-acetyllactosaminide β1→6-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; Galβ1→4GlcNAc-R β1→6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide 6-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme acts on poly-N-acetyllactosamine [glycan chains of β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units connected by β(1,3) linkages] attached to proteins or lipids. It transfers a GlcNAc residue by β(1,6)-linkage to galactosyl residues close to non-reducing terminals, introducing a branching pattern known as I branching.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 85638-40-0
References:
1.  Van den Eijnden, D.H., Winterwerp, H., Smeeman, P. and Schiphorst, W.E.C.M. Novikoff ascites tumor cells contain N-acetyllactosaminide β1→3 and β1→6 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 3435–3437. [PMID: 6219989]
2.  Basu, M. and Basu, S. Biosynthesis in vitro of Ii core glycosphingolipids from neolactotetraosylceramide by β 1-3- and β 1-6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases from mouse T-lymphoma. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 12557–12562. [PMID: 6238026]
3.  Piller, F., Cartron, J.P., Maranduba, A., Veyrieres, A., Leroy, Y. and Fournet, B. Biosynthesis of blood group I antigens. Identification of a UDP-GlcNAc:GlcNAc β1-3Gal(-R) β1-6(GlcNAc to Gal) N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase in hog gastric mucosa. J. Biol. Chem. 259 (1984) 13385–13390. [PMID: 6490658]
4.  Bierhuizen, M.F., Maemura, K., Kudo, S. and Fukuda, M. Genomic organization of core 2 and I branching β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases. Implication for evolution of the β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase gene family. Glycobiology 5 (1995) 417–425. [DOI] [PMID: 7579796]
5.  Ujita, M., McAuliffe, J., Suzuki, M., Hindsgaul, O., Clausen, H., Fukuda, M.N. and Fukuda, M. Regulation of I-branched poly-N-acetyllactosamine synthesis. Concerted actions by I-extension enzyme, I-branching enzyme, and β1,4-galactosyltransferase I. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 9296–9304. [DOI] [PMID: 10092606]
6.  Yeh, J.C., Ong, E. and Fukuda, M. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel β-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that forms core 2, core 4, and I branches. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 3215–3221. [DOI] [PMID: 9915862]
[EC 2.4.1.150 created 1984 (EC 2.4.1.164 created 1989, incorporated 2016), modified 2017]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.97     
Accepted name: endo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase
Reaction: β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl-[glycoprotein]-L-serine/L-threonine + H2O = β-D-galactosyl-(1→3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + [glycoprotein]-L-serine/L-threonine
Other name(s): endo-α-acetylgalactosaminidase; endo-α-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminidase; mucinaminylserine mucinaminidase; D-galactosyl-3-(N-acetyl-α-D-galactosaminyl)-L-serine mucinaminohydrolase; endo-α-GalNAc-ase; glycopeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase; D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-galactosaminohydrolase
Systematic name: glycopeptide-D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine D-galactosyl-N-acetyl-galactosaminohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the liberation of Gal-(1→3)-β-GalNAc α-linked to serine or threonine residues of mucin-type glycoproteins. EngBF from the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum specifically acts on core 1-type O-glycan to release the disaccharide Gal-(1→3)-β-GalNAc. The enzymes from the bacteria Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus faecalis, Propionibacterium acnes and Alcaligenes faecalis show broader specificity (e.g. they can also release the core 2 trisaccharide Gal-(1→3)-β-(GlcNAc-(1→6)-β)-GalNAc or the core 3 disaccharide GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-GalNAc) [1,2]. The enzyme may play an important role in the degradation and utilization of mucins having core 1 O-glycan.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 59793-96-3
References:
1.  Ashida, H., Maki, R., Ozawa, H., Tani, Y., Kiyohara, M., Fujita, M., Imamura, A., Ishida, H., Kiso, M. and Yamamoto, K. Characterization of two different endo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidases from probiotic and pathogenic enterobacteria, Bifidobacterium longum and Clostridium perfringens. Glycobiology 18 (2008) 727–734. [DOI] [PMID: 18559962]
2.  Koutsioulis, D., Landry, D. and Guthrie, E.P. Novel endo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidases with broader substrate specificity. Glycobiology 18 (2008) 799–805. [DOI] [PMID: 18635885]
3.  Fujita, K., Oura, F., Nagamine, N., Katayama, T., Hiratake, J., Sakata, K., Kumagai, H. and Yamamoto, K. Identification and molecular cloning of a novel glycoside hydrolase family of core 1 type O-glycan-specific endo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Bifidobacterium longum. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 37415–37422. [DOI] [PMID: 16141207]
4.  Suzuki, R., Katayama, T., Kitaoka, M., Kumagai, H., Wakagi, T., Shoun, H., Ashida, H., Yamamoto, K. and Fushinobu, S. Crystallographic and mutational analyses of substrate recognition of endo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Bifidobacterium longum. J. Biochem. 146 (2009) 389–398. [DOI] [PMID: 19502354]
5.  Gregg, K.J. and Boraston, A.B. Cloning, recombinant production, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a family 101 glycoside hydrolase from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 65 (2009) 133–135. [DOI] [PMID: 19194003]
6.  Ashida, H., Yamamoto, K., Murata, T., Usui, T. and Kumagai, H. Characterization of endo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Bacillus sp. and syntheses of neo-oligosaccharides using its transglycosylation activity. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 373 (2000) 394–400. [DOI] [PMID: 10620364]
7.  Goda, H.M., Ushigusa, K., Ito, H., Okino, N., Narimatsu, H. and Ito, M. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel endo-α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase from Enterococcus faecalis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 375 (2008) 441–446. [DOI] [PMID: 18725192]
[EC 3.2.1.97 created 1978 (EC 3.2.1.110 created 1984, incorporated 2008), modified 2008, modified 2011]
 
 


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