The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.13.11.84     
Accepted name: crocetin dialdehyde synthase
Reaction: zeaxanthin + 2 O2 = crocetin dialdehyde + 2 3β-hydroxy-β-cyclocitral (overall reaction)
(1a) zeaxanthin + O2 = 3β-hydroxy-8′-apo-β-carotenal + 3β-hydroxy-β-cyclocitral
(1b) 3β-hydroxy-8′-apo-β-carotenal + O2 = crocetin dialdehyde + 3β-hydroxy-β-cyclocitral
Glossary: crocetin dialdehyde = 8,8′-diapocarotene-8,8′-dial
zeaxanthin = (3R,3′R)-β,β-carotene-3,3′-diol
3β-hydroxy-β-cyclocitral = (4R)-4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-en-1-carboxaldehyde
Other name(s): CCD2; zeaxanthin 7,8-dioxygenase
Systematic name: zeaxanthin:oxygen 7′,8′-oxidoreductase (bond-cleaving)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Crocus sativus (saffron), acts twice, cleaving 3β-hydroxy-β-cyclocitral off each 3-hydroxy end group. It is part of the zeaxanthin degradation pathway in that plant, leading to the different compounds that impart the color, flavor and aroma of the saffron spice. The enzyme can similarly cleave the 7-8 double bond of other carotenoids with a 3-hydroxy-β-carotenoid end group.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Frusciante, S., Diretto, G., Bruno, M., Ferrante, P., Pietrella, M., Prado-Cabrero, A., Rubio-Moraga, A., Beyer, P., Gomez-Gomez, L., Al-Babili, S. and Giuliano, G. Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111 (2014) 12246–12251. [DOI] [PMID: 25097262]
2.  Ahrazem, O., Rubio-Moraga, A., Berman, J., Capell, T., Christou, P., Zhu, C. and Gomez-Gomez, L. The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 catalysing the synthesis of crocetin in spring crocuses and saffron is a plastidial enzyme. New Phytol. 209 (2016) 650–663. [DOI] [PMID: 26377696]
3.  Ahrazem, O., Diretto, G., Argandona, J., Rubio-Moraga, A., Julve, J.M., Orzaez, D., Granell, A. and Gomez-Gomez, L. Evolutionarily distinct carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases are responsible for crocetin production in Buddleja davidii. J. Exp. Bot. 68 (2017) 4663–4677. [DOI] [PMID: 28981773]
[EC 1.13.11.84 created 2011 as EC 1.14.99.42, modified 2014, transferred 2017 to EC 1.13.11.84]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.42      
Transferred entry: zeaxanthin 7,8-dioxygenase. Now EC 1.13.11.84, crocetin dialdehyde synthase
[EC 1.14.99.42 created 2011, modified 2014, deleted 2017]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.271     
Accepted name: crocetin glucosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + crocetin = UDP + β-D-glucosyl crocetin
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + β-D-glucosyl crocetin = UDP + bis(β-D-glucosyl) crocetin
(3) UDP-α-D-glucose + β-D-gentiobiosyl crocetin = UDP + β-D-gentiobiosyl β-D-glucosyl crocetin
For diagram of crocin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): crocetin GTase; UGTCs2; UGT75L6; UDP-glucose:crocetin glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:crocetin 8-O-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:crocetin 8-O-D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: In the plants Crocus sativus and Gardenia jasminoides this enzyme esterifies a free carboxyl group of crocetin and some crocetin glycosyl esters. The enzyme from Gardenia can also form glucosyl esters with 4-coumarate, caffeate and ferulate [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Côté, F., Cormier, F., Dufresne, C. and Willemot, C. Properties of a glucosyltransferase involved in crocin synthesis. Plant Sci. 153 (2000) 55–63.
2.  Moraga, A.R., Nohales, P.F., Perez, J.A. and Gomez-Gomez, L. Glucosylation of the saffron apocarotenoid crocetin by a glucosyltransferase isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas. Planta 219 (2004) 955–966. [DOI] [PMID: 15605174]
3.  Nagatoshi, M., Terasaka, K., Owaki, M., Sota, M., Inukai, T., Nagatsu, A. and Mizukami, H. UGT75L6 and UGT94E5 mediate sequential glucosylation of crocetin to crocin in Gardenia jasminoides. FEBS Lett. 586 (2012) 1055–1061. [DOI] [PMID: 22569263]
[EC 2.4.1.271 created 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.330     
Accepted name: β-D-glucosyl crocetin β-1,6-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) UDP-α-D-glucose + β-D-glucosyl crocetin = UDP + β-D-gentiobiosyl crocetin
(2) UDP-α-D-glucose + bis(β-D-glucosyl) crocetin = UDP + β-D-gentiobiosyl β-D-glucosyl crocetin
(3) UDP-α-D-glucose + β-D-gentiobiosyl β-D-glucosyl crocetin = UDP + crocin
For diagram of crocin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: crocin = bis(β-D-gentiobiosyl) crocetin
crocetin = (2E,4E,6E,8E,10E,12E,14E)-2,6,11,15-tetramethylhexadeca-2,4,6,8,10,12,14-heptaenedioate
Other name(s): UGT94E5; UDP-glucose:crocetin glucosyl ester glucosyltransferasee
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:β-D-glucosyl crocetin β-1,6-glucosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the plant Gardenia jasminoides, adds a glucose to several crocetin glycosyl esters, but not to crocetin (cf. EC 2.4.1.271, crocetin glucosyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Nagatoshi, M., Terasaka, K., Owaki, M., Sota, M., Inukai, T., Nagatsu, A. and Mizukami, H. UGT75L6 and UGT94E5 mediate sequential glucosylation of crocetin to crocin in Gardenia jasminoides. FEBS Lett. 586 (2012) 1055–1061. [DOI] [PMID: 22569263]
[EC 2.4.1.330 created 2014]
 
 


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