The Enzyme Database

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Transferred entry: dihydromonacolin L hydroxylase. Now EC, dihydromonacolin L hydroxylase
[EC created 2014, deleted 2018]
Accepted name: dihydromonacolin L hydroxylase
Reaction: dihydromonacolin L acid + O2 + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] = monacolin L acid + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) dihydromonacolin L acid + O2 + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] = 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(1b) 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid = monacolin L acid + H2O (spontaneous)
For diagram of lovastatin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dihydromonacolin L acid = (3R,5R)-7-[(1S,2S,4aR,6R,8aS)-2,6-dimethyl-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen1yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
monacolin L acid = (3R,5R)-7-[(1S,2S,6R,8aR)-2,6-dimethyl-1,2,6,7,8,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-1-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L = (3R,5R)-7-[(1R,2R,3S,6R,8aR)-3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-1,2,3,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Other name(s): LovA (ambiguous)
Systematic name: dihydromonacolin L acid,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. The dehydration of 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid is believed to be spontaneous [1,2]. The enzyme from fungi also catalyses the reaction of EC, monacolin L hydroxylase [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Treiber, L.R., Reamer, R.A., Rooney, C.S. and Ramjit, H.G. Origin of monacolin L from Aspergillus terreus cultures. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 42 (1989) 30–36. [PMID: 2921224]
2.  Nakamura, T., Komagata, D., Murakawa, S., Sakai, K. and Endo, A. Isolation and biosynthesis of 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 43 (1990) 1597–1600. [PMID: 2276977]
3.  Barriuso, J., Nguyen, D.T., Li, J.W., Roberts, J.N., MacNevin, G., Chaytor, J.L., Marcus, S.L., Vederas, J.C. and Ro, D.K. Double oxidation of the cyclic nonaketide dihydromonacolin L to monacolin J by a single cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, LovA. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 8078–8081. [DOI] [PMID: 21495633]
[EC created 2014 as EC, transferred 2018 to EC]
Accepted name: lovastatin nonaketide synthase
Reaction: 9 malonyl-CoA + 11 NADPH + 10 H+ + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + holo-[lovastatin nonaketide synthase] = dihydromonacolin L-[lovastatin nonaketide synthase] + 9 CoA + 9 CO2 + 11 NADP+ + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 6 H2O
For diagram of polyketides biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dihydromonacolin L acid = (3R,5R)-7-[(1S,2S,4aR,6R,8aS)-2,6-dimethyl-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Other name(s): LNKS; LovB; LovC; acyl-CoA:malonyl-CoA C-acyltransferase (decarboxylating, oxoacyl- and enoyl-reducing, thioester-hydrolysing)
Systematic name: acyl-CoA:malonyl-CoA C-acyltransferase (dihydromonacolin L acid-forming)
Comments: This fungal enzyme system comprises a multi-functional polyketide synthase (PKS) and an enoyl reductase. The PKS catalyses many of the chain building reactions of EC, fatty-acid synthase system, as well as a reductive methylation and a Diels-Alder reaction, while the reductase is responsible for three enoyl reductions that are necessary for dihydromonacolin L acid production.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 235426-97-8
1.  Ma, S.M., Li, J.W., Choi, J.W., Zhou, H., Lee, K.K., Moorthie, V.A., Xie, X., Kealey, J.T., Da Silva, N.A., Vederas, J.C. and Tang, Y. Complete reconstitution of a highly reducing iterative polyketide synthase. Science 326 (2009) 589–592. [DOI] [PMID: 19900898]
2.  Kennedy, J., Auclair, K., Kendrew, S.G., Park, C., Vederas, J.C. and Hutchinson, C.R. Modulation of polyketide synthase activity by accessory proteins during lovastatin biosynthesis. Science 284 (1999) 1368–1372. [DOI] [PMID: 10334994]
3.  Auclair, K., Sutherland, A., Kennedy, J., Witter, D.J., van der Heever, J.P., Hutchinson, C.R. and Vederas, J.C. Lovastatin nonaketide synthase catalyses an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of a substrate analogue. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122 (2000) 11519–11520.
[EC created 2002, modified 2015, modified 2016, modified 2019]
Accepted name: dihydromonacolin L-[lovastatin nonaketide synthase] thioesterase
Reaction: dihydromonacolin L-[lovastatin nonaketide synthase] + H2O = holo-[lovastatin nonaketide synthase] + dihydromonacolin L acid
For diagram of lovastatin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dihydromonacolin L acid = (3R,5R)-7-[(1S,2S,4aR,6R,8aS)-2,6-dimethyl-1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Other name(s): LovG
Systematic name: dihydromonacolin L-[lovastatin nonaketide synthase] hydrolase
Comments: Dihydromonacolin L acid is synthesized while bound to an acyl-carrier protein domain of the lovastatin nonaketide synthase (EC Since that enzyme lacks a thioesterase domain, release of the dihydromonacolin L acid moiety from the polyketide synthase requires this dedicated enzyme.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Xu, W., Chooi, Y.H., Choi, J.W., Li, S., Vederas, J.C., Da Silva, N.A. and Tang, Y. LovG: the thioesterase required for dihydromonacolin L release and lovastatin nonaketide synthase turnover in lovastatin biosynthesis. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 52 (2013) 6472–6475. [DOI] [PMID: 23653178]
[EC created 2015]

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