The Enzyme Database

Your query returned 48 entries.    printer_iconPrintable version



EC 1.5.99.12     
Accepted name: cytokinin dehydrogenase
Reaction: N6-prenyladenine + acceptor + H2O = adenine + 3-methylbut-2-enal + reduced acceptor
Glossary: zeatin = (E)-2-methyl-4-(9H-purin-6-ylamino)but-2-en-1-ol = (E)-N6-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl)adenine
N6-prenyladenine = N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)purin-6-amine
Other name(s): N6-dimethylallyladenine:(acceptor) oxidoreductase; 6-N-dimethylallyladenine:acceptor oxidoreductase; OsCKX2; CKX; cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase; N6-dimethylallyladenine:acceptor oxidoreductase
Systematic name: N6-prenyladenine:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Catalyses the oxidation of cytokinins, a family of N6-substituted adenine derivatives that are plant hormones, where the substituent is a prenyl group. Although this activity was previously thought to be catalysed by a hydrogen-peroxide-forming oxidase, this enzyme does not require oxygen for activity and does not form hydrogen peroxide. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol, methylene blue, nitroblue tetrazolium, phenazine methosulfate and copper(II) in the presence of imidazole can act as acceptors. This enzyme plays a part in regulating rice-grain production, with lower levels of the enzyme resulting in enhanced grain production [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 55326-39-1
References:
1.  Galuszka, P., Frebort, I., Sebela, M., Jacobsen, S. and Pec, P. Cytokinin oxidase or dehydrogenase? Mechanism of cytokinin degradation in plants. Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (2001) 450–461. [DOI] [PMID: 11168382]
2.  Ashikari, M., Sakakibara, H., Lin, S., Yamamoto, T., Takashi, T., Nishimura, A., Angeles, E.R., Qian, Q., Kitano, H. and Matsuoka, M. Cytokinin oxidase regulates rice grain production. Science 309 (2005) 741–745. [DOI] [PMID: 15976269]
[EC 1.5.99.12 created 2001]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.83     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenylpyruvate oxygenase
Reaction: 3-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)pyruvate + O2 = 4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate + CO2
For diagram of 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 3-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)pyruvate = 3-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)-2-oxopropanoate
4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate = 2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)acetate
prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
Other name(s): CloR
Systematic name: 3-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)pyruvate:oxygen 1,2-oxidoreductase (4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate-forming)
Comments: Requires non-heme-iron(II). Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces roseochromogenes DS 12976. A bifunctional enzyme involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis that also catalyses the activity of EC 1.13.12.23, 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Pojer, F., Kahlich, R., Kammerer, B., Li, S.M. and Heide, L. CloR, a bifunctional non-heme iron oxygenase involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 30661–30668. [DOI] [PMID: 12777382]
[EC 1.13.11.83 created 2017]
 
 
EC 1.13.12.23     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate synthase
Reaction: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate + O2 = 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate + CO2 + H2O
For diagram of 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate = 2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)acetate
prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
Other name(s): CloR; novR (gene name)
Systematic name: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate forming)
Comments: Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces roseochromogenes DS 12976. A bifunctional enzyme involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis that also catalyses the activity of EC 1.13.11.83, 4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenylpyruvate oxygenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Pojer, F., Kahlich, R., Kammerer, B., Li, S.M. and Heide, L. CloR, a bifunctional non-heme iron oxygenase involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 30661–30668. [DOI] [PMID: 12777382]
[EC 1.13.12.23 created 2017]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.85      
Transferred entry: glyceollin synthase. Now EC 1.14.14.135, glyceollin synthase
[EC 1.14.13.85 created 2004, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.103      
Transferred entry: 8-dimethylallylnaringenin 2-hydroxylase. Now EC 1.14.14.142, 8-dimethylallylnaringenin 2-hydroxylase
[EC 1.14.13.103 created 2007, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.135     
Accepted name: glyceollin synthase
Reaction: (1) (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-2-prenylpterocarpan + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = glyceollin II + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O
(2) (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-2-prenylpterocarpan + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = glyceollin III + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O
(3) (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-4-prenylpterocarpan + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = glyceollin I + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O
For diagram of glyceollin biosynthesis (part 2), click here
Glossary: prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
Other name(s): dimethylallyl-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan cyclase
Systematic name: (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-2-prenylpterocarpan,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein purified from soybean.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Welle, R. and Grisebach, H. Induction of phytoalexin synthesis in soybean: enzymatic cyclization of prenylated pterocarpans to glyceollin isomers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 263 (1988) 191–198. [DOI] [PMID: 3369863]
[EC 1.14.14.135 created 2004 as EC 1.14.13.85, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.135]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.142     
Accepted name: 8-dimethylallylnaringenin 2′-hydroxylase
Reaction: sophoraflavanone B + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = leachianone G + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of sophoraflavanone G biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dimethylallyl = prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
lavandulyl = 5-methyl-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)hex-4-en-1-yl
leachianone G = (–)-(2S)-2′-hydroxy-8-prenylnaringenin = (–)-(2S)-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
naringenin = 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one
sophoraflavanone B = (–)-(2S)-8-prenylnaringenin = (–)-(2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
Other name(s): 8-DMAN 2′-hydroxylase
Systematic name: sophoraflavanone-B,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (2′-hydroxylating)
Comments: A membrane-bound cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein that is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum [1,2]. This enzyme is specific for sophoraflavanone B as substrate. Along with EC 2.5.1.70 (naringenin 8-dimethylallyltransferase) and EC 2.5.1.71 (leachianone G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase), this enzyme forms part of the sophoraflavanone G biosynthetic pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yamamoto, H., Yatou, A. and Inoue, K. 8-Dimethylallylnaringenin 2′-hydroxylase, the crucial cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase for lavandulylated flavanone formation in Sophora flavescens cultured cells. Phytochemistry 58 (2001) 671–676. [DOI] [PMID: 11672730]
2.  Zhao, P., Inoue, K., Kouno, I. and Yamamoto, H. Characterization of leachianone G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase, a novel prenyl side-chain elongation enzyme for the formation of the lavandulyl group of sophoraflavanone G in Sophora flavescens Ait. cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiol. 133 (2003) 1306–1313. [DOI] [PMID: 14551337]
[EC 1.14.14.142 created 2007 asEC 1.14.13.103, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.142]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.69     
Accepted name: tRNA 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-isopentenyladenosine37 hydroxylase
Reaction: 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-prenyladenosine37 in tRNA + reduced acceptor + O2 = N6-[(2E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl]-2-(methylsulfanyl)adenosine37 in tRNA + acceptor + H2O
Glossary: 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-prenyladenosine = N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2-(methylsulfanyl)adenosine
Other name(s): miaE (gene name); tRNA 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyl adenosine(37) hydroxylase; tRNA 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-dimethylallyladenosine37 hydroxylase
Systematic name: tRNA 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-prenyladenosine37,donor:oxygen 4-oxidoreductase (trans-hydroxylating)
Comments: The enzyme, found only within a small subset of facultative anaerobic bacteria, belongs to the nonheme diiron family. The enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium was shown to catalyse a stereoselective (E)-hydroxylation at the terminal C4-position of the prenyl group.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Persson, B.C. and Bjork, G.R. Isolation of the gene (miaE) encoding the hydroxylase involved in the synthesis of 2-methylthio-cis-ribozeatin in tRNA of Salmonella typhimurium and characterization of mutants. J. Bacteriol. 175 (1993) 7776–7785. [DOI] [PMID: 8253666]
2.  Persson, B.C., Olafsson, O., Lundgren, H.K., Hederstedt, L. and Bjork, G.R. The ms2io6A37 modification of tRNA in Salmonella typhimurium regulates growth on citric acid cycle intermediates. J. Bacteriol. 180 (1998) 3144–3151. [DOI] [PMID: 9620964]
3.  Corder, A.L., Subedi, B.P., Zhang, S., Dark, A.M., Foss, F.W., Jr. and Pierce, B.S. Peroxide-shunt substrate-specificity for the Salmonella typhimurium O2-dependent tRNA modifying monooxygenase (MiaE). Biochemistry 52 (2013) 6182–6196. [DOI] [PMID: 23906247]
[EC 1.14.99.69 created 2020]
 
 
EC 1.17.1.2      
Transferred entry: 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase, now classified as EC 1.17.7.4, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase.
[EC 1.17.1.2 created 2003, modified 2009, deleted 2016]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.34     
Accepted name: tRNA (guanosine18-2′-O)-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + guanosine18 in tRNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 2′-O-methylguanosine18 in tRNA
Other name(s): tRNA (Gm18) 2′-O-methyltransferase; tRNA (Gm18) methyltransferase; TrmH; SpoU
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (guanosine18-2′-O)-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the methylation of guanosine18 in tRNA.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37257-01-5
References:
1.  Gefter, M.L. The in vitro synthesis of 2′-O-methylguanosine and 2-methylthio 6N (γ,gamma-dimethylallyl) adenosine in transfer RNA of Escherichia coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 36 (1969) 435–441. [DOI] [PMID: 4898378]
2.  Kumagai, I., Watanabe, K. and Oshima, T. Thermally induced biosynthesis of 2′-O-methylguanosine in tRNA from an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus HB27. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77 (1980) 1922–1926. [DOI] [PMID: 6990416]
3.  Hori, H., Yamazaki, N., Matsumoto, T., Watanabe, Y., Ueda, T., Nishikawa, K., Kumagai, I. and Watanabe, K. Substrate recognition of tRNA (guanosine-2′-)-methyltransferase from Thermus thermophilus HB27. J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 25721–25727. [DOI] [PMID: 9748240]
4.  Pleshe, E., Truesdell, J. and Batey, R.T. Structure of a class II TrmH tRNA-modifying enzyme from Aquifex aeolicus. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 61 (2005) 722–728. [DOI] [PMID: 16511140]
5.  Ochi, A., Makabe, K., Kuwajima, K. and Hori, H. Flexible recognition of the tRNA G18 methylation target site by TrmH methyltransferase through first binding and induced fit processes. J. Biol. Chem. 285 (2010) 9018–9029. [DOI] [PMID: 20053984]
[EC 2.1.1.34 created 1972, modified 2005, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.261     
Accepted name: 4-dimethylallyltryptophan N-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 4-prenyl-L-tryptophan = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 4-prenyl-L-abrine
For diagram of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 4-prenyl-L-tryptophan = 4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-L-tryptophan = 4-dimethylallyl-L-tryptophan (ambiguous);
4-prenyl-L-abrine = 4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-L-abrine = 4-dimethylallyl-L-abrine (ambiguous)
Other name(s): fgaMT (gene name); easF (gene name)
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-L-tryptophan N-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step in the pathway leading to biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids in certain fungi.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Rigbers, O. and Li, S.M. Ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus. Overproduction and biochemical characterization of a 4-dimethylallyltryptophan N-methyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 26859–26868. [DOI] [PMID: 18678866]
[EC 2.1.1.261 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.1     
Accepted name: dimethylallyltranstransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl diphosphate = diphosphate + geranyl diphosphate
For diagram of terpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl = isopentenyl (ambiguous)
prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl = dimethylallyl (ambiguous)
Other name(s): geranyl-diphosphate synthase; prenyltransferase; dimethylallyltransferase; DMAPP:IPP-dimethylallyltransferase; (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthetase; diprenyltransferase; geranyl pyrophosphate synthase; geranyl pyrophosphate synthetase; trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate dimethylallyltranstransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl-diphosphate prenyltranstransferase
Comments: This enzyme will not accept larger prenyl diphosphates as efficient donors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9032-79-5
References:
1.  Banthorpe, D.V., Bucknall, G.A., Doonan, H.J., Doonan, S. and Rowan, M.G. Biosynthesis of geraniol and nerol in cell-free extracts of Tanacetum vulgare. Phytochemistry 15 (1976) 91–100.
2.  Sagami, H., Ogura, K., Seto, S. and Kurokawa, T. A new prenyltransferase from Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 85 (1978) 572–578. [DOI] [PMID: 736921]
[EC 2.5.1.1 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.8      
Transferred entry: tRNA isopentenyltransferase. As it is now known that the substrate is dimethylallyl diphosphate, the enzyme has been transferred to EC 2.5.1.75, tRNA dimethylallyltransferase
[EC 2.5.1.8 created 1972, deleted 2009]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.10     
Accepted name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase
Reaction: geranyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
For diagram of terpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): farnesyl-diphosphate synthase; geranyl transferase I; prenyltransferase; farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase; farnesylpyrophosphate synthetase; geranyltranstransferase
Systematic name: geranyl-diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate geranyltranstransferase
Comments: Some forms of this enzyme will also use dimethylallyl diphosphate as a substrate. The enzyme will not accept larger prenyl diphosphates as efficient donors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37277-79-5
References:
1.  Lynen, F., Agranoff, B.W., Eggerer, H., Henning, V. and Möslein, E.M. Zur Biosynthese der Terpene. VI. γ,γ-Dimethyl-allyl-pyrophosphat und Geranyl-pyrophosphat, biologische Vorstufen des Squalens. Angew. Chem. 71 (1959) 657–663.
2.  Ogura, K., Nishino, T. and Seto, S. The purification of prenyltransferase and isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase of pumpkin fruit and their some properties. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 64 (1968) 197–203. [PMID: 4303505]
3.  Reed, B.C. and Rilling, H. Crystallization and partial characterization of prenyltransferase from avian liver. Biochemistry 14 (1975) 50–54. [PMID: 1109590]
4.  Takahashi, I. and Ogura, K. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase from Bacillus subtilis. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 89 (1981) 1581–1587. [PMID: 6792191]
5.  Takahashi, I. and Ogura, K. Prenyltransferases of Bacillus subtilis: undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 92 (1982) 1527–1537. [PMID: 6818223]
[EC 2.5.1.10 created 1972, modified 2010]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.11      
Transferred entry: trans-octaprenyltranstransferase. Now covered by EC 2.5.1.84 (all-trans-nonaprenyl-diphosphate synthase [geranyl-diphosphate specific]) and EC 2.5.1.85 (all-trans-nonaprenyl diphosphate synthase [geranylgeranyl-diphosphate specific])
[EC 2.5.1.11 created 1972, deleted 2010]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.27     
Accepted name: adenylate dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: dimethylallyl diphosphate + AMP = diphosphate + N6-(dimethylallyl)adenosine 5′-phosphate
For diagram of n6-(dimethylallyl)adenosine phosphates biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): cytokinin synthase (ambiguous); isopentenyltransferase (ambiguous); 2-isopentenyl-diphosphate:AMP Δ2-isopentenyltransferase; adenylate isopentenyltransferase (ambiguous); IPT
Systematic name: dimethylallyl-diphosphate:AMP dimethylallyltransferase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of cytokinins in plants. Some isoforms from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana are specific for AMP while others also have the activity of EC 2.5.1.112, adenylate dimethylallyltransferase (ADP/ATP-dependent).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 72840-95-0
References:
1.  Chen, C.-M. and Melitz, D.K. Cytokinin biosynthesis in a cell-free system from cytokinin-autotrophic tobacco tissue cultures. FEBS Lett. 107 (1979) 15–20. [DOI] [PMID: 499537]
2.  Takei, K., Sakakibara, H. and Sugiyama, T. Identification of genes encoding adenylate isopentenyltransferase, a cytokinin biosynthesis enzyme, in Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 26405–26410. [DOI] [PMID: 11313355]
3.  Sakano, Y., Okada, Y., Matsunaga, A., Suwama, T., Kaneko, T., Ito, K., Noguchi, H. and Abe, I. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of adenylate isopentenyltransferase from hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Phytochemistry 65 (2004) 2439–2446. [DOI] [PMID: 15381407]
[EC 2.5.1.27 created 1984, modified 2002, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.28     
Accepted name: dimethylallylcistransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + 3-methyl-but-3-en-1-yl diphosphate = diphosphate + neryl diphosphate
For diagram of all-cis-polyprenyl diphosphate, click here
Glossary: neryl = (2Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl
Other name(s): neryl-diphosphate synthase; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate dimethylallylcistransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:3-methyl-but-3-en-1-yl-diphosphate prenylcistransferase
Comments: This enzyme will not use larger prenyl diphosphates as efficient donors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9032-79-5
References:
1.  Banthorpe, D.V., Bucknall, G.A., Doonan, H.J., Doonan, S. and Rowan, M.G. Biosynthesis of geraniol and nerol in cell-free extracts of Tanacetum vulgare. Phytochemistry 15 (1976) 91–100.
2.  Beytía, E., Valenzuela, P. and Cori, O. Terpene biosynthesis: formation of nerol, geraniol, and other prenols by an enzyme system from Pinus radiata seedlings. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 129 (1969) 346–356. [DOI] [PMID: 4303098]
[EC 2.5.1.28 created 1984]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.29     
Accepted name: geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
Reaction: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
For diagram of terpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase; geranylgeranyl-PP synthetase; farnesyltransferase; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase; farnesyltranstransferase (obsolete)
Systematic name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate farnesyltranstransferase
Comments: Some forms of this enzyme will also use geranyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate as donors; it will not use larger prenyl diphosphates as efficient donors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9032-58-0
References:
1.  Sagami, H., Ishi, K. and Ogura, K. Occurrence and unusual properties of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase of pig liver. Biochem. Int. 3 (1981) 669–675.
[EC 2.5.1.29 created 1984, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.34     
Accepted name: 4-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase
Reaction: dimethylallyl diphosphate + L-tryptophan = diphosphate + 4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-L-tryptophan
For diagram of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): dimethylallylpyrophosphate:L-tryptophan dimethylallyltransferase; dimethylallyltryptophan synthetase; dimethylallylpyrophosphate:tryptophan dimethylallyl transferase; DMAT synthetase; 4-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl)tryptophan synthase; tryptophan dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: dimethylallyl-diphosphate:L-tryptophan 4-dimethylallyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 55127-01-0
References:
1.  Lee, S.L., Floss, H.G. and Heinstein, P. Purification and properties of dimethylallylpyrophosphate:tryptophan dimethylallyl transferase, the first enzyme of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Claviceps sp. SD 58. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 177 (1976) 84–94. [DOI] [PMID: 999297]
[EC 2.5.1.34 created 1984, modified 2010]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.35     
Accepted name: aspulvinone dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: 2 prenyl diphosphate + aspulvinone E = 2 diphosphate + aspulvinone H
Other name(s): dimethylallyl pyrophosphate:aspulvinone dimethylallyltransferase; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:aspulvinone-E dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:aspulvinone-E prenyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme will also use as acceptor aspulvinone G, a hydroxylated derivative of the complex phenolic pigment aspulvinone E.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 67584-68-3
References:
1.  Takahashi, I., Ojima, N., Ogura, K. and Seto, S. Purification and characterization of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate: aspulvinone dimethylallyltransferase from Aspergillus terreus. Biochemistry 17 (1978) 2696–2702. [PMID: 678538]
[EC 2.5.1.35 created 1984]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.36     
Accepted name: trihydroxypterocarpan dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: (1) prenyl diphosphate + (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan = diphosphate + (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-2-prenylpterocarpan
(2) prenyl diphosphate + (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan = diphosphate + (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-4-prenylpterocarpan
For diagram of glyceollin biosynthesis (part 2), click here
Other name(s): glyceollin synthase; dimethylallylpyrophosphate:3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan dimethylallyltransferase; dimethylallylpyrophosphate:trihydroxypterocarpan dimethylallyl transferase; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:(6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan dimethyltransferase; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:(6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:(6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan prenyltransferase
Comments: Part of the glyceollin biosynthesis system in soy bean.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 70851-94-4
References:
1.  Leube, J. and Grisebach, H. Further studies on induction of enzymes of phytoalexin synthesis in soybean and cultured soybean cells. Z. Naturforsch. C: Biosci. 38 (1983) 730–735.
2.  Zähringer, U., Schaller, E. and Grisebach, H. Induction of phytoalexin synthesis in soybean. Structure and reactions of naturally occurring and enzymatically prepared prenylated pterocarpans from elicitor-treated cotyledons and cell cultures of soybean. Z. Natursforsch. C: Biosci. 36 (1981) 234–241.
[EC 2.5.1.36 created 1989]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.39     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase
Reaction: a polyprenyl diphosphate + 4-hydroxybenzoate = diphosphate + a 4-hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoate
For diagram of ubiquinol biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): nonaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate transferase; 4-hydroxybenzoate transferase; p-hydroxybenzoate dimethylallyltransferase; p-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase; p-hydroxybenzoic acid-polyprenyl transferase; p-hydroxybenzoic-polyprenyl transferase; 4-hydroxybenzoate nonaprenyltransferase
Systematic name: polyprenyl-diphosphate:4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme, involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone, attaches a polyprenyl side chain to a 4-hydroxybenzoate ring, producing the first ubiquinone intermediate that is membrane bound. The number of isoprenoid subunits in the side chain varies in different species. The enzyme does not have any specificity concerning the length of the polyprenyl tail, and accepts tails of various lengths with similar efficiency [2,4,5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9030-77-7
References:
1.  Kalén, A., Appelkvist, E.-L., Chojnacki, T. and Dallner, G. Nonaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate transferase, an enzyme involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis, in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi system of rat liver. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 1158–1164. [PMID: 2295606]
2.  Melzer, M. and Heide, L. Characterization of polyprenyldiphosphate: 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase from Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1212 (1994) 93–102. [DOI] [PMID: 8155731]
3.  Okada, K., Ohara, K., Yazaki, K., Nozaki, K., Uchida, N., Kawamukai, M., Nojiri, H. and Yamane, H. The AtPPT1 gene encoding 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyl diphosphate transferase in ubiquinone biosynthesis is required for embryo development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol. Biol. 55 (2004) 567–577. [DOI] [PMID: 15604701]
4.  Forsgren, M., Attersand, A., Lake, S., Grunler, J., Swiezewska, E., Dallner, G. and Climent, I. Isolation and functional expression of human COQ2, a gene encoding a polyprenyl transferase involved in the synthesis of CoQ. Biochem. J. 382 (2004) 519–526. [DOI] [PMID: 15153069]
5.  Tran, U.C. and Clarke, C.F. Endogenous synthesis of coenzyme Q in eukaryotes. Mitochondrion 7 Suppl (2007) S62–S71. [DOI] [PMID: 17482885]
[EC 2.5.1.39 created 1992, modified 2010]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.67     
Accepted name: chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase
Reaction: 2 prenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + chrysanthemyl diphosphate
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: chrysanthemyl = [2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)cyclopropyl]methyl
chrysanthemic acid = 2,2-dimethyl-3-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid
Other name(s): CPPase; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:dimethylallyl-diphosphate dimethylallyltransferase (chrysanthemyl-diphosphate-forming)
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:prenyl-diphosphate prenyltransferase (chrysanthemyl-diphosphate-forming)
Comments: Requires a divalent metal ion for activity, with Mg2+ being better than Mn2+ [1]. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate is a monoterpene with a non-head-to-tail linkage. It is unlike most monoterpenoids, which are derived from geranyl diphosphate and have isoprene units that are linked head-to-tail. The mechanism of its formation is similar to that of the early steps of squalene and phytoene biosynthesis. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate is the precursor of chrysanthemic acid, the acid half of the pyrethroid insecticides found in chrysanthemums.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Rivera, S.B., Swedlund, B.D., King, G.J., Bell, R.N., Hussey, C.E., Jr., Shattuck-Eidens, D.M., Wrobel, W.M., Peiser, G.D. and Poulter, C.D. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase: isolation of the gene and characterization of the recombinant non-head-to-tail monoterpene synthase from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98 (2001) 4373–4378. [DOI] [PMID: 11287653]
2.  Erickson, H.K. and Poulter, C.D. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase. The relationship among chain elongation, branching, and cyclopropanation reactions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125 (2003) 6886–6888. [DOI] [PMID: 12783539]
[EC 2.5.1.67 created 2007]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.69     
Accepted name: lavandulyl diphosphate synthase
Reaction: 2 prenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + lavandulyl diphosphate
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: lavandulyl = 5-methyl-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)hex-4-en-1-yl
Other name(s): FDS-5; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:dimethylallyl-diphosphate dimethylallyltransferase (lavandulyl-diphosphate-forming)
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:prenyl-diphosphate prenyltransferase (lavandulyl-diphosphate-forming)
Comments: Lavandulyl diphosphate is a monoterpene with a non-head-to-tail linkage. It is unlike most monoterpenoids, which are derived from geranyl diphosphate and have isoprene units that are linked head-to-tail. When this enzyme is incubated with prenyl diphosphate and 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl diphosphate, it also forms the regular monoterpene geranyl diphosphate [2]. The enzyme from Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush) forms both lavandulyl diphosphate and chrysanthemyl diphosphate (see EC 2.5.1.67, chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase) when prenyl diphosphate is the sole substrate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Erickson, H.K. and Poulter, C.D. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase. The relationship among chain elongation, branching, and cyclopropanation reactions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125 (2003) 6886–6888. [DOI] [PMID: 12783539]
2.  Hemmerlin, A., Rivera, S.B., Erickson, H.K. and Poulter, C.D. Enzymes encoded by the farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene family in the Big Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 32132–32140. [DOI] [PMID: 12782626]
[EC 2.5.1.69 created 2007]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.70     
Accepted name: naringenin 8-dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + (–)-(2S)-naringenin = diphosphate + sophoraflavanone B
For diagram of sophoraflavanone G biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dimethylallyl = prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
(–)-(2S)-naringenin = (–)-(2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one
sophoraflavanone B = (–)-(2S)-8-prenylnaringenin = (–)-(2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one
Other name(s): N8DT; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:naringenin 8-dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:naringenin 8-prenyltransferase
Comments: Requires Mg2+. This membrane-bound protein is located in the plastids [2]. In addition to naringenin, the enzyme can prenylate several other flavanones at the C-8 position, but more slowly. Along with EC 1.14.14.142 (8-dimethylallylnaringenin 2′-hydroxylase) and EC 2.5.1.71 (leachianone-G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase), this enzyme forms part of the sophoraflavanone-G-biosynthesis pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yamamoto, H., Senda, M. and Inoue, K. Flavanone 8-dimethylallyltransferase in Sophora flavescens cell suspension cultures. Phytochemistry 54 (2000) 649–655. [DOI] [PMID: 10975499]
2.  Zhao, P., Inoue, K., Kouno, I. and Yamamoto, H. Characterization of leachianone G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase, a novel prenyl side-chain elongation enzyme for the formation of the lavandulyl group of sophoraflavanone G in Sophora flavescens Ait. cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiol. 133 (2003) 1306–1313. [DOI] [PMID: 14551337]
[EC 2.5.1.70 created 2007]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.71     
Accepted name: leachianone-G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + leachianone G = diphosphate + sophoraflavanone G
For diagram of sophoraflavanone G biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dimethylallyl = prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
isopentenyl = 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl
lavandulyl = 5-methyl-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)hex-4-en-1-yl
leachianone G = (–)-(2S)-2′-hydroxy-8-prenylnaringenin = (–)-(2S)-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
sophoraflavanone G = (2S)-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-[(2R)-5-methyl-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)hex-4-en-1-yl]-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
Other name(s): LG 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase; leachianone G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase; LGDT; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:leachianone-G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:leachianone-G 2′′-prenyltransferase
Comments: This membrane-bound enzyme is located in the plastids and requires Mg2+ for activity. The reaction forms the lavandulyl sidechain of sophoraflavanone G by transferring a prenyl group to the 2′′ position of another prenyl group attached at position 8 of leachianone G. The enzyme is specific for prenyl diphosphate as the prenyl donor, as it cannot be replaced by isopentenyl diphosphate or geranyl diphosphate. Euchrenone a7 (a 5-deoxy derivative of leachianone G) and kenusanone I (a 7-methoxy derivative of leachianone G) can also act as substrates, but more slowly. Along with EC 1.14.14.142 (8-dimethylallylnaringenin 2′-hydroxylase) and EC 2.5.1.70 (naringenin 8-dimethylallyltransferase), this enzyme forms part of the sophoraflavanone-G-biosynthesis pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Zhao, P., Inoue, K., Kouno, I. and Yamamoto, H. Characterization of leachianone G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase, a novel prenyl side-chain elongation enzyme for the formation of the lavandulyl group of sophoraflavanone G in Sophora flavescens Ait. cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiol. 133 (2003) 1306–1313. [DOI] [PMID: 14551337]
[EC 2.5.1.71 created 2007]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.75     
Accepted name: tRNA dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + adenosine37 in tRNA = diphosphate + N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-adenosine37 in tRNA
For diagram of N6-(Dimethylallyl)adenosine37 modified tRNA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-adenine37 in tRNA = N6-dimethylallyladenine37 in tRNA
Other name(s): tRNA prenyltransferase; MiaA; transfer ribonucleate isopentenyltransferase (incorrect); Δ2-isopentenyl pyrophosphate:tRNA-Δ2-isopentenyl transferase (incorrect); Δ2-isopentenyl pyrophosphate:transfer ribonucleic acid Δ2-isopentenyltransferase (incorrect); dimethylallyl-diphosphate: tRNA dimethylallyltransferase; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:adenine37 in tRNA dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:adenine37 in tRNA prenyltransferase
Comments: Formerly known as tRNA isopentenyltransferase, but it is now known that prenyl diphosphate, rather than isopentenyl diphosphate, is the substrate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Leung, H.C., Chen, Y. and Winkler, M.E. Regulation of substrate recognition by the MiaA tRNA prenyltransferase modification enzyme of Escherichia coli K-12. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 13073–13083. [DOI] [PMID: 9148919]
2.  Soderberg, T. and Poulter, C.D. Escherichia coli dimethylallyl diphosphate:tRNA dimethylallyltransferase: essential elements for recognition of tRNA substrates within the anticodon stem-loop. Biochemistry 39 (2000) 6546–6553. [DOI] [PMID: 10828971]
3.  Moore, J.A., Mathis, J.R. and Poulter, C.D. Escherichia coli dimethylallyl diphosphate:tRNA dimethylallyltransferase: pre-steady-state kinetic studies. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1479 (2000) 166–174. [DOI] [PMID: 11004538]
[EC 2.5.1.75 created 1972 as EC 2.5.1.8, transferred 2009 to EC 2.5.1.75]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.80     
Accepted name: 7-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + L-tryptophan = diphosphate + 7-prenyl-L-tryptophan
Glossary: prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
Other name(s): 7-DMATS; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:L-tryptophan 7-dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:L-tryptophan 7-prenyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme is more flexible towards the aromatic substrate than EC 2.5.1.34 (4-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase), but similar to that enzyme, accepts only prenyl diphosphate as the prenyl donor.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kremer, A. and Li, S.M. Potential of a 7-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase as a tool for production of prenylated indole derivatives. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 79 (2008) 951–961. [DOI] [PMID: 18481055]
2.  Kremer, A., Westrich, L. and Li, S.M. A 7-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase from Aspergillus fumigatus: overproduction, purification and biochemical characterization. Microbiology 153 (2007) 3409–3416. [DOI] [PMID: 17906140]
[EC 2.5.1.80 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.92     
Accepted name: (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase
Reaction: dimethylallyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate = 2 diphosphate + (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate
(1a) dimethylallyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + neryl diphosphate
(1b) neryl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate
For diagram of all-cis-polyprenyl diphosphate, click here
Other name(s): cis,cis-farnesyl diphosphate synthase; Z,Z-FPP synthase; zFPS; Z,Z-farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase
Systematic name: dimethylallyl-diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate cistransferase (adding 2 isopentenyl units)
Comments: This enzyme, originally characterized from wild tomato, specifically forms (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate via neryl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. In wild tomato it is involved in the biosynthesis of several sesquiterpenes. See also EC 2.5.1.68 [(2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase] and EC 2.5.1.10 [(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sallaud, C., Rontein, D., Onillon, S., Jabes, F., Duffe, P., Giacalone, C., Thoraval, S., Escoffier, C., Herbette, G., Leonhardt, N., Causse, M. and Tissier, A. A novel pathway for sesquiterpene biosynthesis from Z,Z-farnesyl pyrophosphate in the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites. Plant Cell 21 (2009) 301–317. [DOI] [PMID: 19155349]
[EC 2.5.1.92 created 2010, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.100     
Accepted name: fumigaclavine A dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: fumigaclavine A + prenyl diphosphate = fumigaclavine C + diphosphate
For diagram of fumigaclavin alkaloid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: fumigaclavine A = 6,8β-dimethylergolin-9β-yl acetate;
fumigaclavine C = 6,8β-dimethyl-2-(2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl)ergolin-9β-yl acetate
Other name(s): FgaPT1; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:fumigaclavine A dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:fumigaclavine A prenyltransferase
Comments: Fumigaclavine C is an ergot alkaloid produced by some fungi of the Trichocomaceae family. Activity does not require any metal ions.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Unsöld, I.A. and Li, S.M. Reverse prenyltransferase in the biosynthesis of fumigaclavine C in Aspergillus fumigatus: gene expression, purification, and characterization of fumigaclavine C synthase FGAPT1. ChemBioChem 7 (2006) 158–164. [DOI] [PMID: 16397874]
[EC 2.5.1.100 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.106     
Accepted name: tryprostatin B synthase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + brevianamide F = diphosphate + tryprostatin B
For diagram of fumitremorgin alkaloid biosynthesis (part 1), click here
Glossary: brevianamide F = (3S,8aS)-3-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione
tryprostatin B = (3S,8aS)-3-{[2-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl]methyl}hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione
Other name(s): ftmPT1 (gene name); brevianamide F prenyltransferase (ambiguous); dimethylallyl-diphosphate:brevianamide-F dimethylallyl-C-2-transferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:brevianamide-F prenyl-C-2-transferase
Comments: The enzyme from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus can also prenylate other tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides. Prenylation occurs mainly at C-2 [1], but also at C-3 [2]. Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several indole alkaloids such as tryprostatins, cyclotryprostatins, spirotryprostatins, fumitremorgins and verruculogen.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Grundmann, A. and Li, S.M. Overproduction, purification and characterization of FtmPT1, a brevianamide F prenyltransferase from Aspergillus fumigatus. Microbiology 151 (2005) 2199–2207. [DOI] [PMID: 16000710]
2.  Wollinsky, B., Ludwig, L., Xie, X. and Li, S.M. Breaking the regioselectivity of indole prenyltransferases: identification of regular C3-prenylated hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indoles as side products of the regular C2-prenyltransferase FtmPT1. Org. Biomol. Chem. 10 (2012) 9262–9270. [DOI] [PMID: 23090579]
[EC 2.5.1.106 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.107     
Accepted name: verruculogen prenyltransferase
Reaction: dimethylallyl diphosphate + verruculogen = diphosphate + fumitremorgin A
For diagram of fumitremorgin alkaloid biosynthesis (part 2), click here
Glossary: verruculogen = (5R,10S,10aR,14aS,15bS)-10,10a-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-5-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-1,10,10a,14,14a,15b-hexahydro-12H-3,4-dioxa-5a,11a,15a-triazacycloocta[1,2,3-lm]indeno[5,6-b]fluorene-11,15(2H,13H)-dione
fumitremorgin A = (5R,10S,10aR,14aS,15bS)-10a-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-10-[(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)oxy]-5-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-1,10,10a,14,14a,15b-hexahydro-12H-3,4-dioxa-5a,11a,15a-triazacycloocta[1,2,3-lm]indeno[5,6-b]fluorene-11,15(H,13H)-dione
Other name(s): FtmPT3
Systematic name: dimethylallyl-diphosphate:verruculogen dimethylallyl-O-transferase
Comments: Found in a number of fungi. Catalyses the last step in the biosynthetic pathway of the indole alkaloid fumitremorgin A. The enzyme from the fungus Neosartorya fischeri is also active with fumitremorgin B and 12α,13α-dihydroxyfumitremorgin C.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Mundt, K., Wollinsky, B., Ruan, H.L., Zhu, T. and Li, S.M. Identification of the verruculogen prenyltransferase FtmPT3 by a combination of chemical, bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. ChemBioChem 13 (2012) 2583–2592. [DOI] [PMID: 23109474]
[EC 2.5.1.107 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.109     
Accepted name: brevianamide F prenyltransferase (deoxybrevianamide E-forming)
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + brevianamide F = diphosphate + deoxybrevianamide E
For diagram of fumitremorgin alkaloid biosynthesis (part 1), click here
Glossary: brevianamide F = (3S,8aS)-3-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione
deoxybrevianamide E = (3S,8aS)-3-{[2-(2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl)-1H-indol-3-yl]methyl}-octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]piperazine-1,4-dione
Other name(s): NotF; BrePT; brevianamide F reverse prenyltransferase; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:brevianamide-F tert-dimethylallyl-C-2-transferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:brevianamide-F 2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl-C-2-transferase
Comments: The enzyme from the fungus Aspergilus sp. MF297-2 is specific for brevianamide F [1], while the enzyme from Aspergillus versicolor accepts a broad range of trytophan-containing cyclic dipeptides [2]. Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several indole alkaloids such as paraherquamides and malbrancheamides.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ding, Y., de Wet, J.R., Cavalcoli, J., Li, S., Greshock, T.J., Miller, K.A., Finefield, J.M., Sunderhaus, J.D., McAfoos, T.J., Tsukamoto, S., Williams, R.M. and Sherman, D.H. Genome-based characterization of two prenylation steps in the assembly of the stephacidin and notoamide anticancer agents in a marine-derived Aspergillus sp. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132 (2010) 12733–12740. [DOI] [PMID: 20722388]
2.  Yin, S., Yu, X., Wang, Q., Liu, X.Q. and Li, S.M. Identification of a brevianamide F reverse prenyltransferase BrePT from Aspergillus versicolor with a broad substrate specificity towards tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 97 (2013) 1649–1660. [DOI] [PMID: 22660767]
[EC 2.5.1.109 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.110     
Accepted name: 12α,13α-dihydroxyfumitremorgin C prenyltransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + 12α,13α-dihydroxyfumitremorgin C = diphosphate + fumitremorgin B
For diagram of fumitremorgin alkaloid biosynthesis (part 2), click here
Glossary: 12α,13α-dihydroxyfumitremorgin = (5aR,6S,12S,14aS)-5a,6-dihydroxy-9-methoxy-12-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-1,2,3,5a,6,11,12,14a-octahydro-5H,14H-pyrrolo[1′′,2′′:4′,5′]pyrazino[1′,2′:1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-5,14-dione
fumitremorgin B = (5aR,6S,12S,14aS)-5a,6-dihydroxy-9-methoxy-11-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-12-(2-methylprop-1-en-1-yl)-1,2,3,5a,6,11,12,14a-octahydro-5H,14H-pyrrolo[1′′,2′′:4′,5′]pyrazino[1′,2′:1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-5,14-dione
Other name(s): ftmH (gene name); FtmPT2; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:12α,13α-dihydroxyfumitremorgin C dimethylallyl-N-1-transferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:12α,13α-dihydroxyfumitremorgin C prenyl-N-1-transferase
Comments: The enzyme from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus also shows some activity with fumitremorgin C. Involved in the biosynthetic pathways of several indole alkaloids such as fumitremorgins and verruculogen.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Grundmann, A., Kuznetsova, T., Afiyatullov, S.Sh and Li, S.M. FtmPT2, an N-prenyltransferase from Aspergillus fumigatus, catalyses the last step in the biosynthesis of fumitremorgin B. ChemBioChem 9 (2008) 2059–2063. [DOI] [PMID: 18683158]
[EC 2.5.1.110 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.111     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate 3-dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate = diphosphate + 3-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)pyruvate
For diagram of 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate metabolites, click here
Glossary: 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate = 3-[4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)phenyl]-2-oxopropanoate
Other name(s): CloQ; 4HPP dimethylallyltransferase; NovQ; dimethylallyl diphosphate:4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate 3-dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate 3′-prenyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme's product feeds into the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotics clorobiocin and novobiocin [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Pojer, F., Wemakor, E., Kammerer, B., Chen, H., Walsh, C.T., Li, S.M. and Heide, L. CloQ, a prenyltransferase involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003) 2316–2321. [DOI] [PMID: 12618544]
2.  Keller, S., Pojer, F., Heide, L. and Lawson, D.M. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the aromatic prenyltransferase CloQ from the clorobiocin biosynthetic cluster of Streptomyces roseochromogenes. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 62 (2006) 1153–1155. [DOI] [PMID: 17077503]
3.  Metzger, U., Keller, S., Stevenson, C.E., Heide, L. and Lawson, D.M. Structure and mechanism of the magnesium-independent aromatic prenyltransferase CloQ from the clorobiocin biosynthetic pathway. J. Mol. Biol. 404 (2010) 611–626. [DOI] [PMID: 20946900]
4.  Ozaki, T., Mishima, S., Nishiyama, M. and Kuzuyama, T. NovQ is a prenyltransferase capable of catalyzing the addition of a dimethylallyl group to both phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 62 (2009) 385–392. [DOI] [PMID: 19557032]
[EC 2.5.1.111 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.112     
Accepted name: adenylate dimethylallyltransferase (ADP/ATP-dependent)
Reaction: (1) prenyl diphosphate + ADP = diphosphate + N6-prenyladenosine 5′-diphosphate
(2) prenyl diphosphate + ATP = diphosphate + N6-prenyladenosine 5′-triphosphate
For diagram of N6-(Dimethylallyl)adenosine phosphates biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): cytokinin synthase (ambiguous); isopentenyltransferase (ambiguous); 2-isopentenyl-diphosphate:ADP/ATP Δ2-isopentenyltransferase; adenylate isopentenyltransferase (ambiguous); dimethylallyl diphosphate:ATP/ADP isopentenyltransferase: IPT; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:ADP/ATP dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:ADP/ATP prenyltransferase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of cytokinins in plants. The IPT4 isoform from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana is specific for ADP and ATP [1]. Other isoforms, such as IPT1 from Arabidopsis thaliana [1,2] and the enzyme from the common hop, Humulus lupulus [3], also have a lower activity with AMP (cf. EC 2.5.1.27, adenylate dimethylallyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kakimoto, T. Identification of plant cytokinin biosynthetic enzymes as dimethylallyl diphosphate:ATP/ADP isopentenyltransferases. Plant Cell Physiol. 42 (2001) 677–685. [PMID: 11479373]
2.  Takei, K., Sakakibara, H. and Sugiyama, T. Identification of genes encoding adenylate isopentenyltransferase, a cytokinin biosynthesis enzyme, in Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 26405–26410. [DOI] [PMID: 11313355]
3.  Sakano, Y., Okada, Y., Matsunaga, A., Suwama, T., Kaneko, T., Ito, K., Noguchi, H. and Abe, I. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of adenylate isopentenyltransferase from hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Phytochemistry 65 (2004) 2439–2446. [DOI] [PMID: 15381407]
[EC 2.5.1.112 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.121     
Accepted name: 5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate 9-dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + 5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate = diphosphate + 9-prenyl-5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate
Glossary: 9-prenyl-5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate = 9-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate
Other name(s): PpzP; dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate dimethylallyltransferase; 5,10-dihydrophenazine 1-carboxylate dimethylallyltransferase; dimethylallyl diphosphate:5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate 9-dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate 9-prenyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of prenylated phenazines by the bacterium Streptomyces anulatus. It is specific for both prenyl diphosphate and 5,10-dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Saleh, O., Gust, B., Boll, B., Fiedler, H.P. and Heide, L. Aromatic prenylation in phenazine biosynthesis: dihydrophenazine-1-carboxylate dimethylallyltransferase from Streptomyces anulatus. J. Biol. Chem. 284 (2009) 14439–14447. [DOI] [PMID: 19339241]
[EC 2.5.1.121 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.122     
Accepted name: 4-O-dimethylallyl-L-tyrosine synthase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + L-tyrosine = diphosphate + 4-O-prenyl-L-tyrosine
Other name(s): SirD; dimethylallyl diphosphate:L-tyrosine 4-O-dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:L-tyrosine 4-O-prenyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of the phytotoxin sirodesmin PL by the phytopathogenic ascomycete Leptosphaeria maculans.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Kremer, A. and Li, S.M. A tyrosine O-prenyltransferase catalyses the first pathway-specific step in the biosynthesis of sirodesmin PL. Microbiology 156 (2010) 278–286. [DOI] [PMID: 19762440]
2.  Zou, H.X., Xie, X., Zheng, X.D. and Li, S.M. The tyrosine O-prenyltransferase SirD catalyzes O-, N-, and C-prenylations. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 89 (2011) 1443–1451. [DOI] [PMID: 21038099]
[EC 2.5.1.122 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.129     
Accepted name: flavin prenyltransferase
Reaction: prenyl phosphate + FMNH2 = prenylated FMNH2 + phosphate
For diagram of prenylated FMNH2 biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: prenylated FMNH2 = 3,3,4,5-tetramethyl-7-[(2S,3S,4R)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-5-(phosphonatooxy)pentyl]-2,3-dihydro-1H,7H-naphtho[1,8-fg]pteridine-9,11(8H,10H)-dione
Other name(s): ubiX (gene name); PAD1 (gene name); dimethylallyl-phosphate:FMNH2 prenyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-phosphate:FMNH2 prenyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme produces the modified flavin cofactor prenylated FMNH2, which is required by EC 4.1.1.98, 4-hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoate decarboxylase, and EC 4.1.1.102, phenacrylate decarboxylase. The enzyme acts as a flavin prenyltransferase, linking a prenyl moiety to the flavin N-5 and C-6 atoms and thus adding a fourth non-aromatic ring to the flavin isoalloxazine group.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  White, M.D., Payne, K.A., Fisher, K., Marshall, S.A., Parker, D., Rattray, N.J., Trivedi, D.K., Goodacre, R., Rigby, S.E., Scrutton, N.S., Hay, S. and Leys, D. UbiX is a flavin prenyltransferase required for bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis. Nature 522 (2015) 502–506. [DOI] [PMID: 26083743]
[EC 2.5.1.129 created 2015]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.136     
Accepted name: 2-acylphloroglucinol 4-prenyltransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + a 2-acylphloroglucinol = diphosphate + a 2-acyl-4-prenylphloroglucinol
Glossary: naringenin chalcone = 2′,4,4′,6′-tetrahydroxychalcone = 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
phlorisovalerophenone = 3-methyl-1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)butan-1-one
Other name(s): PT-1 (gene name); PT1L (gene name); aromatic prenyltransferase (ambiguous); dimethylallyl-diphosphate:2-acylphloroglucinol 4-dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:2-acylphloroglucinol 4-prenyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from hop (Humulus lupulus), acts on phlorisovalerophenone, phlormethylbutanophenone, and phlorisobutanophenone during the synthesis of bitter acids. It also acts with much lower activity on naringenin chalcone. Forms a complex with EC 2.5.1.137, 2-acyl-4-prenylphloroglucinol 6-prenyltransferase, which catalyses additional prenylation reactions. Requires Mg2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tsurumaru, Y., Sasaki, K., Miyawaki, T., Uto, Y., Momma, T., Umemoto, N., Momose, M. and Yazaki, K. HlPT-1, a membrane-bound prenyltransferase responsible for the biosynthesis of bitter acids in hops. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 417 (2012) 393–398. [DOI] [PMID: 22166201]
2.  Li, H., Ban, Z., Qin, H., Ma, L., King, A.J. and Wang, G. A heteromeric membrane-bound prenyltransferase complex from hop catalyzes three sequential aromatic prenylations in the bitter acid pathway. Plant Physiol. 167 (2015) 650–659. [DOI] [PMID: 25564559]
[EC 2.5.1.136 created 2017]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.137     
Accepted name: 2-acyl-4-prenylphloroglucinol 6-prenyltransferase
Reaction: (1) prenyl diphosphate + a 2-acyl-4-prenylphloroglucinol = diphosphate + a 2-acyl-4,6-bis(prenyl)phloroglucinol
(2) prenyl diphosphate + a 2-acyl-4,6-bis(prenyl)phloroglucinol = diphosphate + a 2-acyl-4,6,6-tris(prenyl)cyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-one
Glossary: a 2-acyl-4,6,6-tris(prenyl)cyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-one = a β bitter acid
Other name(s): PT2 (gene name); aromatic prenyltransferase (ambiguous); dimethylallyl-diphosphate:2-acyl-4-prenylphloroglucinol 6-dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:2-acyl-4-prenylphloroglucinol 6-prenyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from hop (Humulus lupulus), catalyses two successive prenylations of a 2-acyl-4-prenylphloroglucinol during the synthesis of bitter acids. Forms a complex with EC 2.5.1.136, 2-acylphloroglucinol 4-prenyltransferase, which catalyses the initial prenylation of the substrates. Requires Mg2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Li, H., Ban, Z., Qin, H., Ma, L., King, A.J. and Wang, G. A heteromeric membrane-bound prenyltransferase complex from hop catalyzes three sequential aromatic prenylations in the bitter acid pathway. Plant Physiol. 167 (2015) 650–659. [DOI] [PMID: 25564559]
[EC 2.5.1.137 created 2017]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.139     
Accepted name: umbelliferone 6-dimethylallyltransferase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + umbelliferone = diphosphate + demethylsuberosin
For diagram of psoralen biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: demethylsuberosin = 7-hydroxy-6-prenyl-1-benzopyran-2-one
osthenol = 7-hydroxy-8-prenyl-1-benzopyran-2-one
Other name(s): PcPT; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:umbelliferone 6-dimethylallyltransferase
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:umbelliferone 6-prenyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is specific for umbelliferone and prenyl diphosphate. A minor product is osthenol, which is produced by transfer of the prenyl group to C-8 of umbelliferone.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hamerski, D., Schmitt, D. and Matern, U. Induction of two prenyltransferases for the accumulation of coumarin phytoalexins in elicitor-treated Ammi majus cell suspension cultures. Phytochemistry 29 (1990) 1131–1135. [DOI] [PMID: 1366425]
2.  Karamat, F., Olry, A., Munakata, R., Koeduka, T., Sugiyama, A., Paris, C., Hehn, A., Bourgaud, F. and Yazaki, K. A coumarin-specific prenyltransferase catalyzes the crucial biosynthetic reaction for furanocoumarin formation in parsley. Plant J. 77 (2014) 627–638. [DOI] [PMID: 24354545]
[EC 2.5.1.139 created 2017]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.142     
Accepted name: nerylneryl diphosphate synthase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate + 3 (3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl diphosphate) = 3 diphosphate + nerylneryl diphosphate
(1a) prenyl diphosphate + 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl diphosphate = diphosphate + neryl diphosphate
(1b) neryl diphosphate + 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl diphosphate = diphosphate + (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate
(1c) (2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate + 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl diphosphate = diphosphate + nerylneryl diphosphate
For diagram of all-cis-polyprenyl diphosphate, click here
Glossary: nerylneryl diphosphate = all-cis-tetraprenyl diphosphate
Other name(s): CPT2; dimethylallyl-diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate cistransferase (adding 3 isopentenyl units)
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl-diphosphate cistransferase (adding 3 units of 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl)
Comments: Isolated from the plant Solanum lycopersicum (tomato).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Akhtar, T.A., Matsuba, Y., Schauvinhold, I., Yu, G., Lees, H.A., Klein, S.E. and Pichersky, E. The tomato cis-prenyltransferase gene family. Plant J. 73 (2013) 640–652. [DOI] [PMID: 23134568]
2.  Matsuba, Y., Zi, J., Jones, A.D., Peters, R.J. and Pichersky, E. Biosynthesis of the diterpenoid lycosantalonol via nerylneryl diphosphate in Solanum lycopersicum. PLoS One 10:e0119302 (2015). [DOI] [PMID: 25786135]
[EC 2.5.1.142 created 2017]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.149     
Accepted name: lycopene elongase/hydratase (flavuxanthin-forming)
Reaction: (1) prenyl diphosphate + all-trans-lycopene + acceptor + H2O = nonaflavuxanthin + reduced electron acceptor + diphosphate
(2) prenyl diphosphate + nonaflavuxanthin + acceptor + H2O = flavuxanthin + reduced electron acceptor + diphosphate
Glossary: flavuxanthin = 2,2′-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl)-1,16,1′,16′-tetradehydro-1,2,1′,2′-tetrahydro-ψ,ψ-carotene = (2E,8E,10E,12E,14E,16E,18E,20E,22E,24E,26E,28E,34E)-5,32-diisopropenyl-2,8,12,16,21,25,29,35-octamethylhexatriaconta-2,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24,26,28,34-tridecaene-1,36-diol
Other name(s): crtEb (gene name); dimethylallyl-diphosphate:all-trans-lycopene dimethylallyltransferase (hydrating, flavuxanthin-forming)
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:all-trans-lycopene prenyltransferase (hydrating, flavuxanthin-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, is bifunctional. It catalyses the elongation of the C40 carotenoid all-trans-lycopene by attaching an isoprene unit at C-2, as well as the hydroxylation of the new isoprene unit. The enzyme acts at both ends of the substrate, forming the C50 carotenoid flavuxanthin via the C45 intermediate nonaflavuxanthin. cf. EC 2.5.1.150, lycopene elongase/hydratase (dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin-forming).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Krubasik, P., Kobayashi, M. and Sandmann, G. Expression and functional analysis of a gene cluster involved in the synthesis of decaprenoxanthin reveals the mechanisms for C50 carotenoid formation. Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (2001) 3702–3708. [PMID: 11432736]
2.  Heider, S.A., Peters-Wendisch, P. and Wendisch, V.F. Carotenoid biosynthesis and overproduction in Corynebacterium glutamicum. BMC Microbiol. 12:198 (2012). [PMID: 22963379]
[EC 2.5.1.149 created 2018]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.150     
Accepted name: lycopene elongase/hydratase (dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin-forming)
Reaction: (1) prenyl diphosphate + all-trans-lycopene + H2O = dihydroisopentenyldehydrorhodopin + diphosphate
(2) prenyl diphosphate + isopentenyldehydrorhodopin + H2O = dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin + diphosphate
Glossary: dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin = (2S,2S′)-2,2′-bis(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-3,3′,4,4′-tetradehydro-1,1′,2,2′-tetrahydro-ψ,ψ-carotene-1,1′-diol = (3S,4E,6E,8E,10E,12E,14E,16E,18E,20E,22E,24E,26E,30R)-2,6,10,14,19,23,27,31-octamethyl-3,30-bis(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)dotriaconta-4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20,22,24,26-dodecaene-2,31-diol
Other name(s): lbtA (gene name); lyeJ (gene name); dimethylallyl-diphosphate:all-trans-lycopene dimethylallyltransferase (hydrating, dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin-forming)
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate:all-trans-lycopene prenyltransferase (hydrating, dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin-forming)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Dietzia sp. CQ4 and the halophilic archaea Halobacterium salinarum and Haloarcula japonica, is bifunctional. It catalyses the elongation of the C40 carotenoid all-trans-lycopene by attaching an isoprene unit at C-2 as well as the hydroxylation of the previous end of the molecule. The enzyme acts at both ends of the substrate, and combined with the action of EC 1.3.99.37, 1-hydroxy-2-isopentenylcarotenoid 3,4-desaturase, it forms the C50 carotenoid dihydrobisanhydrobacterioruberin. cf. EC 2.5.1.149, lycopene elongase/hydratase (flavuxanthin-forming).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tao, L., Yao, H. and Cheng, Q. Genes from a Dietzia sp. for synthesis of C40 and C50 β-cyclic carotenoids. Gene 386 (2007) 90–97. [DOI] [PMID: 17008032]
2.  Dummer, A.M., Bonsall, J.C., Cihla, J.B., Lawry, S.M., Johnson, G.C. and Peck, R.F. Bacterioopsin-mediated regulation of bacterioruberin biosynthesis in Halobacterium salinarum. J. Bacteriol. 193 (2011) 5658–5667. [PMID: 21840984]
3.  Yang, Y., Yatsunami, R., Ando, A., Miyoko, N., Fukui, T., Takaichi, S. and Nakamura, S. Complete biosynthetic pathway of the C50 carotenoid bacterioruberin from lycopene in the extremely halophilic archaeon Haloarcula japonica. J. Bacteriol. 197 (2015) 1614–1623. [DOI] [PMID: 25712483]
[EC 2.5.1.150 created 2018]
 
 
EC 2.8.4.3     
Accepted name: tRNA-2-methylthio-N6-dimethylallyladenosine synthase
Reaction: N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-adenine37 in tRNA + sulfur-(sulfur carrier) + 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + reduced electron acceptor = N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2-(methylsulfanyl)adenine37 in tRNA + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + (sulfur carrier) + L-methionine + 5′-deoxyadenine + electron acceptor (overall reaction)
(1a) N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-adenine37 in tRNA + sulfur-(sulfur carrier) + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + reduced electron acceptor = N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2-thioadenine37 in tRNA + (sulfur carrier) + L-methionine + 5′-deoxyadenine + electron acceptor
(1b) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2-thioadenine37 in tRNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2-(methylsulfanyl)adenine37 in tRNA
For diagram of N6-(dimethylallyl)adenosine37 modified tRNA biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-adenine37 in tRNA = N6-dimethylallyladenine37 in tRNA
Other name(s): MiaB; 2-methylthio-N-6-isopentenyl adenosine synthase; tRNA-i6A37 methylthiotransferase; tRNA (N6-dimethylallyladenosine37):sulfur-(sulfur carrier),S-adenosyl-L-methionine C2-methylthiotransferase
Systematic name: tRNA N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-adenine37:sulfur-(sulfur carrier),S-adenosyl-L-methionine C2-(methylsulfanyl)transferase
Comments: This bacterial enzyme binds two [4Fe-4S] clusters as well as the transferred sulfur [3]. The enzyme is a member of the superfamily of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent radical (radical AdoMet) enzymes. The sulfur donor is believed to be one of the [4Fe-4S] clusters, which is sacrificed in the process, so that in vitro the reaction is a single turnover. The identity of the electron donor is not known.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Pierrel, F., Bjork, G.R., Fontecave, M. and Atta, M. Enzymatic modification of tRNAs: MiaB is an iron-sulfur protein. J. Biol. Chem. 277 (2002) 13367–13370. [DOI] [PMID: 11882645]
2.  Pierrel, F., Hernandez, H.L., Johnson, M.K., Fontecave, M. and Atta, M. MiaB protein from Thermotoga maritima. Characterization of an extremely thermophilic tRNA-methylthiotransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 29515–29524. [DOI] [PMID: 12766153]
3.  Pierrel, F., Douki, T., Fontecave, M. and Atta, M. MiaB protein is a bifunctional radical-S-adenosylmethionine enzyme involved in thiolation and methylation of tRNA. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 47555–47563. [DOI] [PMID: 15339930]
4.  Hernandez, H.L., Pierrel, F., Elleingand, E., Garcia-Serres, R., Huynh, B.H., Johnson, M.K., Fontecave, M. and Atta, M. MiaB, a bifunctional radical-S-adenosylmethionine enzyme involved in the thiolation and methylation of tRNA, contains two essential [4Fe-4S] clusters. Biochemistry 46 (2007) 5140–5147. [DOI] [PMID: 17407324]
5.  Landgraf, B.J., Arcinas, A.J., Lee, K.H. and Booker, S.J. Identification of an intermediate methyl carrier in the radical S-adenosylmethionine methylthiotransferases RimO and MiaB. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 (2013) 15404–15416. [DOI] [PMID: 23991893]
[EC 2.8.4.3 created 2014, modified 2015]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.27     
Accepted name: isoprene synthase
Reaction: prenyl diphosphate = isoprene + diphosphate
For diagram of isoprene biosynthesis and metabolism, click here
Glossary: isoprene = 2-methylbuta-1,3-diene
Other name(s): ISPC; ISPS; dimethylallyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (isoprene-forming)
Systematic name: prenyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (isoprene-forming)
Comments: Requires Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. This enzyme is located in the chloroplast of isoprene-emitting plants, such as poplar and aspen, and may be activitated by light-dependent changes in chloroplast pH and Mg2+ concentration [2,8].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 139172-14-8
References:
1.  Silver, G.M. and Fall, R. Enzymatic synthesis of isoprene from dimethylallyl diphosphate in aspen leaf extracts. Plant Physiol. 97 (1991) 1588–1591. [PMID: 16668590]
2.  Silver, G.M. and Fall, R. Characterization of aspen isoprene synthase, an enzyme responsible for leaf isoprene emission to the atmosphere. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 13010–13016. [DOI] [PMID: 7768893]
3.  Wildermuth, M.C. and Fall, R. Light-dependent isoprene emission (characterization of a thylakoid-bound isoprene synthase in Salix discolor chloroplasts). Plant Physiol. 112 (1996) 171–182. [PMID: 12226383]
4.  Schnitzler, J.P., Arenz, R., Steinbrecher, R. and Lehming, A. Characterization of an isoprene synthase from leaves of Quercus petraea. Bot. Acta 109 (1996) 216–221.
5.  Miller, B., Oschinski, C. and Zimmer, W. First isolation of an isoprene synthase gene from poplar and successful expression of the gene in Escherichia coli. Planta 213 (2001) 483–487. [PMID: 11506373]
6.  Sivy, T.L., Shirk, M.C. and Fall, R. Isoprene synthase activity parallels fluctuations of isoprene release during growth of Bacillus subtilis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 294 (2002) 71–75. [DOI] [PMID: 12054742]
7.  Sasaki, K., Ohara, K. and Yazaki, K. Gene expression and characterization of isoprene synthase from Populus alba. FEBS Lett. 579 (2005) 2514–2518. [DOI] [PMID: 15848197]
8.  Schnitzler, J.-P., Zimmer, I., Bachl, A., Arend, M., Fromm, J. and Fischbach, R.J. Biochemical properties of isoprene synthase in poplar (Populus x canescens). Planta 222 (2005) 777–786. [DOI] [PMID: 16052321]
[EC 4.2.3.27 created 2007]
 
 
EC 6.3.1.15     
Accepted name: 8-demethylnovobiocic acid synthase
Reaction: ATP + 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate + 3-amino-4,7-dihydroxycoumarin = AMP + diphosphate + 8-demethylnovobiocic acid
For diagram of novobiocin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 8-demethylnovobiocic acid = N-(2,7-dihydroxy-4-oxochromen-3-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)benzamide
Other name(s): novL (gene name); novobiocin ligase; novobiocic acid synthetase (misleading); 8-desmethyl-novobiocic acid synthetase; 8-demethylnovobiocic acid synthetase; 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxybenzoate:3-amino-4,7-dihydroxycoumarin ligase (AMP-forming)
Systematic name: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate:3-amino-4,7-dihydroxycoumarin ligase (AMP-forming)
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Steffensky, M., Li, S.M. and Heide, L. Cloning, overexpression, and purification of novobiocic acid synthetase from Streptomyces spheroides NCIMB 11891. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 21754–21760. [DOI] [PMID: 10801869]
2.  Pi, N., Meyers, C.L., Pacholec, M., Walsh, C.T. and Leary, J.A. Mass spectrometric characterization of a three-enzyme tandem reaction for assembly and modification of the novobiocin skeleton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (2004) 10036–10041. [DOI] [PMID: 15218104]
3.  Pacholec, M., Tao, J. and Walsh, C.T. CouO and NovO: C-methyltransferases for tailoring the aminocoumarin scaffold in coumermycin and novobiocin antibiotic biosynthesis. Biochemistry 44 (2005) 14969–14976. [DOI] [PMID: 16274243]
[EC 6.3.1.15 created 2013]
 
 


Data © 2001–2021 IUBMB
Web site © 2005–2021 Andrew McDonald