The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.10.3.15     
Accepted name: grixazone synthase
Reaction: 2 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate + N-acetyl-L-cysteine + 2 O2 = grixazone B + 4 H2O + CO2
For diagram of grixazone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: grixazone B = 8-amino-9-(N-acetyl-L-cystein-S-yl)-7-oxo-7H-phenoxazine-2-carboxylic acid
Other name(s): GriF
Systematic name: 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate:N-acetyl-L-cysteine:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A type 3 multi copper protein. The enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces griseus, catalyses an 8 electron oxidation. Activation of the enzyme requires a copper chaperone (GriE). It also acts on 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, giving grixazone A. The second aldehyde group is presumably lost as formate. The enzyme also catalyses the reaction of EC 1.10.3.4 o-aminophenol oxidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Suzuki, H., Ohnishi, Y., Furusho, Y., Sakuda, S. and Horinouchi, S. Novel benzene ring biosynthesis from C3 and C4 primary metabolites by two enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 36944–36951. [DOI] [PMID: 17003031]
2.  Le Roes-Hill, M., Goodwin, C. and Burton, S. Phenoxazinone synthase: what’s in a name. Trends Biotechnol. 27 (2009) 248–258. [DOI] [PMID: 19268377]
[EC 1.10.3.15 created 2014]
 
 
EC 4.1.99.20     
Accepted name: 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate synthase
Reaction: 2-amino-4,5-dihydroxy-6-oxo-7-(phosphooxy)heptanoate = 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate + phosphate + 2 H2O
For diagram of grixazone biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): 3,4-AHBA synthase; griH (gene name)
Systematic name: 2-amino-4,5-dihydroxy-6-oxo-7-(phosphooxy)heptanoate hydro-lyase (cyclizing, 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate-forming)
Comments: Requires Mn2+ for maximum activity. The reaction is suggested to take place in several steps. Schiff base formation, double bond migration and dephosphorylation followed by ring opening and closing to form a pyrrolidine ring, and finally dehydration to form the product 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate. In the bacterium Streptomyces griseus the enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of grixazone, a yellow pigment that contains a phenoxazinone chromophore.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Suzuki, H., Ohnishi, Y., Furusho, Y., Sakuda, S. and Horinouchi, S. Novel benzene ring biosynthesis from C3 and C4 primary metabolites by two enzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 36944–36951. [DOI] [PMID: 17003031]
[EC 4.1.99.20 created 2013, modified 2016]
 
 


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