The Enzyme Database

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Transferred entry: methyl farnesoate epoxidase. Now EC, methyl farnesoate epoxidase
[EC created 2015, deleted 2018]
Accepted name: methyl farnesoate epoxidase
Reaction: methyl (2E,6E)-farnesoate + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = juvenile hormone III + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: juvenile hormone III = methyl (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
Other name(s): CYP15A1
Systematic name: methyl (2E,6E)-farnesoate,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. The enzyme, found in insects except for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) is specific for methyl farnesoate (cf. EC, farnesoate epoxidase) [1,2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Helvig, C., Koener, J.F., Unnithan, G.C. and Feyereisen, R. CYP15A1, the cytochrome P450 that catalyzes epoxidation of methyl farnesoate to juvenile hormone III in cockroach corpora allata. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (2004) 4024–4029. [DOI] [PMID: 15024118]
2.  Daimon, T. and Shinoda, T. Function, diversity, and application of insect juvenile hormone epoxidases (CYP15). Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 60 (2013) 82–91. [DOI] [PMID: 23586995]
[EC created 2015 as EC, transferred 2018 to EC]
Accepted name: juvenile hormone-III synthase
Reaction: (1) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + (2E,6E)-farnesoate = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + methyl (2E,6E)-farnesoate
(2) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + juvenile hormone III acid = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + juvenile hormone III
Glossary: juvenile hormone III = methyl (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
juvenile hormone III acid = (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
Other name(s): farnesoic acid methyltransferase; juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase; JHAMT
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:(2E,6E)-farnesoate O-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, found in insects, is involved in the synthesis of juvenile hormone III, a sesquiterpenoid that regulates several processes including embryonic development, metamorphosis, and reproduction, in many insect species.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
1.  Shinoda, T. and Itoyama, K. Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase: a key regulatory enzyme for insect metamorphosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003) 11986–11991. [DOI] [PMID: 14530389]
2.  Defelipe, L.A., Dolghih, E., Roitberg, A.E., Nouzova, M., Mayoral, J.G., Noriega, F.G. and Turjanski, A.G. Juvenile hormone synthesis: "esterify then epoxidize" or "epoxidize then esterify"? Insights from the structural characterization of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 41 (2011) 228–235. [DOI] [PMID: 21195763]
3.  Van Ekert, E., Heylen, K., Rouge, P., Powell, C.A., Shatters, R.G., Jr., Smagghe, G. and Borovsky, D. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control. J. Insect Physiol. 64 (2014) 62–73. [DOI] [PMID: 24657668]
4.  Van Ekert, E., Shatters, R.G., Jr., Rouge, P., Powell, C.A., Smagghe, G. and Borovsky, D. Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). FEBS Open Bio 5 (2015) 264–275. [DOI] [PMID: 25893162]
[EC created 2016]
Accepted name: juvenile-hormone esterase
Reaction: (1) juvenile hormone I + H2O = juvenile hormone I acid + methanol
(2) juvenile hormone III + H2O = juvenile hormone III acid + methanol
For diagram of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: juvenile hormone I = methyl (2E,6E,10R,11S)-10,11-epoxy-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6-tridecadienoate
juvenile hormone I acid = (2E,6E,10R,11S)-10,11-epoxy-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6-tridecadienoate
juvenile hormone III = methyl (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
juvenile hormone III acid = (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
Other name(s): JH-esterase; juvenile hormone analog esterase; juvenile hormone carboxyesterase; methyl-(2E,6E)-(10R,11S)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyltrideca-2,6-dienoate acylhydrolase
Systematic name: methyl-(2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyltrideca-2,6-dienoate acylhydrolase
Comments: Demethylates the insect juvenile hormones JH1 and JH3, but does not hydrolyse the analogous ethyl or isopropyl esters.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 50812-15-2
1.  de Kort, C.A.D. and Granger, N.A. Regulation of the juvenile hormone titer. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 26 (1981) 1–28.
2.  Mitsui, T., Riddiford, L.M. and Bellamy, G. Metabolism of juvenile hormone by the epidermis of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). Insect Biochem. 9 (1979) 637–643.
[EC created 1989, modified 2015]

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