The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.1.1.325     
Accepted name: juvenile hormone-III synthase
Reaction: (1) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + (2E,6E)-farnesoate = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + methyl (2E,6E)-farnesoate
(2) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + juvenile hormone III acid = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + juvenile hormone III
Glossary: juvenile hormone III = methyl (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
juvenile hormone III acid = (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
Other name(s): farnesoic acid methyltransferase; juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase; JHAMT
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:(2E,6E)-farnesoate O-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, found in insects, is involved in the synthesis of juvenile hormone III, a sesquiterpenoid that regulates several processes including embryonic development, metamorphosis, and reproduction, in many insect species.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Shinoda, T. and Itoyama, K. Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase: a key regulatory enzyme for insect metamorphosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100 (2003) 11986–11991. [DOI] [PMID: 14530389]
2.  Defelipe, L.A., Dolghih, E., Roitberg, A.E., Nouzova, M., Mayoral, J.G., Noriega, F.G. and Turjanski, A.G. Juvenile hormone synthesis: "esterify then epoxidize" or "epoxidize then esterify"? Insights from the structural characterization of juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 41 (2011) 228–235. [DOI] [PMID: 21195763]
3.  Van Ekert, E., Heylen, K., Rouge, P., Powell, C.A., Shatters, R.G., Jr., Smagghe, G. and Borovsky, D. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits substrate control. J. Insect Physiol. 64 (2014) 62–73. [DOI] [PMID: 24657668]
4.  Van Ekert, E., Shatters, R.G., Jr., Rouge, P., Powell, C.A., Smagghe, G. and Borovsky, D. Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). FEBS Open Bio 5 (2015) 264–275. [DOI] [PMID: 25893162]
[EC 2.1.1.325 created 2016]
 
 
EC 3.1.1.59     
Accepted name: juvenile-hormone esterase
Reaction: (1) juvenile hormone I + H2O = juvenile hormone I acid + methanol
(2) juvenile hormone III + H2O = juvenile hormone III acid + methanol
For diagram of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: juvenile hormone I = methyl (2E,6E,10R,11S)-10,11-epoxy-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6-tridecadienoate
juvenile hormone I acid = (2E,6E,10R,11S)-10,11-epoxy-7-ethyl-3,11-dimethyl-2,6-tridecadienoate
juvenile hormone III = methyl (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
juvenile hormone III acid = (2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6-dienoate
Other name(s): JH-esterase; juvenile hormone analog esterase; juvenile hormone carboxyesterase; methyl-(2E,6E)-(10R,11S)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyltrideca-2,6-dienoate acylhydrolase
Systematic name: methyl-(2E,6E,10R)-10,11-epoxy-3,7,11-trimethyltrideca-2,6-dienoate acylhydrolase
Comments: Demethylates the insect juvenile hormones JH1 and JH3, but does not hydrolyse the analogous ethyl or isopropyl esters.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 50812-15-2
References:
1.  de Kort, C.A.D. and Granger, N.A. Regulation of the juvenile hormone titer. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 26 (1981) 1–28.
2.  Mitsui, T., Riddiford, L.M. and Bellamy, G. Metabolism of juvenile hormone by the epidermis of the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta). Insect Biochem. 9 (1979) 637–643.
[EC 3.1.1.59 created 1989, modified 2015]
 
 


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