The Enzyme Database

Displaying entries 101-150 of 164.

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EC 2.7.1.157     
Accepted name: N-acetylgalactosamine kinase
Reaction: ATP + N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine = ADP + N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine 1-phosphate
Other name(s): GALK2; GK2; GalNAc kinase; N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-1-phosphate kinase; ATP:N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 1-phosphotransferase
Systematic name: ATP:N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine 1-phosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme is highly specific for GalNAc as substrate, but has slight activity with D-galactose [2]. Requires Mg2+, Mn2+ or Co2+ for activity, with Mg2+ resulting in by far the greatest stimulation of enzyme activity.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Pastuszak, I., Drake, R. and Elbein, A.D. Kidney N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-1-phosphate kinase, a new pathway of GalNAc activation. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1999) 20776–20782. [DOI] [PMID: 8702831]
2.  Pastuszak, I., O'Donnell, J. and Elbein, A.D. Identification of the GalNAc kinase amino acid sequence. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 23653–23656. [DOI] [PMID: 8798585]
3.  Thoden, J.B. and Holden, H.M. The molecular architecture of human N-acetylgalactosamine kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 32784–32791. [DOI] [PMID: 16006554]
[EC 2.7.1.157 created 2005]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.178     
Accepted name: 2-dehydro-3-deoxyglucono/galactono-kinase
Reaction: (1) ATP + 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate = ADP + 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate
(2) ATP + 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate = ADP + 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate
For diagram of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, click here
Other name(s): KDG kinase (ambiguous); KDGK (ambiguous); 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate kinase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: ATP:2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate/2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate 6-phosphotransferase
Comments: The enzyme from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is involved in glucose and galactose catabolism via the branched variant of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. It phosphorylates 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate with similar catalytic efficiency. cf. EC 2.7.1.45, 2-dehydro-3-deoxygluconokinase and EC 2.7.1.58, 2-dehydro-3-deoxygalactonokinase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lamble, H.J., Theodossis, A., Milburn, C.C., Taylor, G.L., Bull, S.D., Hough, D.W. and Danson, M.J. Promiscuity in the part-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. FEBS Lett. 579 (2005) 6865–6869. [DOI] [PMID: 16330030]
2.  Potter, J.A., Kerou, M., Lamble, H.J., Bull, S.D., Hough, D.W., Danson, M.J. and Taylor, G.L. The structure of Sulfolobus solfataricus 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate kinase. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 64 (2008) 1283–1287. [DOI] [PMID: 19018105]
3.  Kim, S. and Lee, S.B. Characterization of Sulfolobus solfataricus 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate kinase in the modified Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70 (2006) 1308–1316. [DOI] [PMID: 16794308]
[EC 2.7.1.178 created 2013]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.196     
Accepted name: protein-Nπ-phosphohistidine—N,N′-diacetylchitobiose phosphotransferase
Reaction: [protein]-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine + N,N′-diacetylchitobiose[side 1] = [protein]-L-histidine + N,N′-diacetylchitobiose 6′-phosphate[side 2]
Other name(s): chbABC (gene names); N,N′-diacetylchitobiose PTS permease; chitobiose PTS permease; EIIcel; EIIchb; Enzyme IIcel; Enzyme IIchb
Systematic name: protein-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine:N,N′-diacetylchitobiose Nπ-phosphotransferase
Comments: This enzyme is a component (known as enzyme II) of a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent, sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS). The system, which is found only in prokaryotes, simultaneously transports its substrate from the periplasm or extracellular space into the cytoplasm and phosphorylates it. The phosphate donor, which is shared among the different systems, is a phospho-carrier protein of low molecular mass that has been phosphorylated by EC 2.7.3.9 (phosphoenolpyruvate—protein phosphotransferase). Enzyme II, on the other hand, is specific for a particular substrate, although in some cases alternative substrates can be transported with lower efficiency. The reaction involves a successive transfer of the phosphate group to several amino acids within the enzyme before the final transfer to the substrate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Keyhani, N.O., Wang, L.X., Lee, Y.C. and Roseman, S. The chitin disaccharide, N,N′-diacetylchitobiose, is catabolized by Escherichia coli and is transported/phosphorylated by the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 33084–33090. [DOI] [PMID: 10913117]
2.  Reizer, J., Reizer, A. and Saier, M.H., Jr. The cellobiose permease of Escherichia coli consists of three proteins and is homologous to the lactose permease of Staphylococcus aureus. Res. Microbiol. 141 (1990) 1061–1067. [DOI] [PMID: 2092358]
3.  Keyhani, N.O., Boudker, O. and Roseman, S. Isolation and characterization of IIAChb, a soluble protein of the enzyme II complex required for the transport/phosphorylation of N, N′-diacetylchitobiose in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 33091–33101. [DOI] [PMID: 10913118]
4.  Keyhani, N.O., Bacia, K. and Roseman, S. The transport/phosphorylation of N,N′-diacetylchitobiose in Escherichia coli. Characterization of phospho-IIB(Chb) and of a potential transition state analogue in the phosphotransfer reaction between the proteins IIA(Chb) AND IIB(Chb). J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 33102–33109. [DOI] [PMID: 10913119]
[EC 2.7.1.196 created 1972 as EC 2.7.1.69, part transferred 2016 to EC 2.7.1.196]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.204     
Accepted name: protein-Nπ-phosphohistidine—D-galactose phosphotransferase
Reaction: [protein]-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine + D-galactose[side 1] = [protein]-L-histidine + D-galactose 6-phosphate[side 2]
Other name(s): D-galactose PTS permease; EIIGal; Enzyme IIGal
Systematic name: protein-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine:D-galactose Nπ-phosphotransferase
Comments: This enzyme is a component (known as enzyme II) of a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent, sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS). The system, which is found only in prokaryotes, simultaneously transports its substrate from the periplasm or extracellular space into the cytoplasm and phosphorylates it. The phosphate donor, which is shared among the different systems, is a phospho-carrier protein of low molecular mass that has been phosphorylated by EC 2.7.3.9 (phosphoenolpyruvate—protein phosphotransferase). Enzyme II, on the other hand, is specific for a particular substrate, although in some cases alternative substrates can be transported with lower efficiency. The reaction involves a successive transfer of the phosphate group to several amino acids within the enzyme before the final transfer to the substrate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Zeng, L., Martino, N.C. and Burne, R.A. Two gene clusters coordinate galactose and lactose metabolism in Streptococcus gordonii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78 (2012) 5597–5605. [DOI] [PMID: 22660715]
2.  Zeng, L., Xue, P., Stanhope, M.J. and Burne, R.A. A galactose-specific sugar: phosphotransferase permease is prevalent in the non-core genome of Streptococcus mutans. Mol Oral Microbiol 28 (2013) 292–301. [DOI] [PMID: 23421335]
[EC 2.7.1.204 created 1972 as EC 2.7.1.69, part transferred 2016 to EC 2.7.1.204]
 
 
EC 2.7.1.207     
Accepted name: protein-Nπ-phosphohistidine—lactose phosphotransferase
Reaction: [protein]-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine + lactose[side 1] = [protein]-L-histidine + lactose 6′-phosphate[side 2]
Other name(s): lacEF (gene names); lactose PTS permease; EIILac; Enzyme IILac
Systematic name: protein-Nπ-phospho-L-histidine:lactose Nπ-phosphotransferase
Comments: This enzyme is a component (known as enzyme II) of a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent, sugar transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS). The system, which is found only in prokaryotes, simultaneously transports its substrate from the periplasm or extracellular space into the cytoplasm and phosphorylates it. The phosphate donor, which is shared among the different systems, is a phospho-carrier protein of low molecular mass that has been phosphorylated by EC 2.7.3.9 (phosphoenolpyruvate—protein phosphotransferase). Enzyme II, on the other hand, is specific for a particular substrate, although in some cases alternative substrates can be transported with lower efficiency. The reaction involves a successive transfer of the phosphate group to several amino acids within the enzyme before the final transfer to the substrate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Hengstenberg, W. Solubilization of the membrane bound lactose specific component of the staphylococcal PEP dependant phosphotransferase system. FEBS Lett. 8 (1970) 277–280. [DOI] [PMID: 11947593]
2.  Vadeboncoeur, C. and Proulx, M. Lactose transport in Streptococcus mutans: isolation and characterization of factor IIIlac, a specific protein component of the phosphoenolpyruvate-lactose phosphotransferase system. Infect. Immun. 46 (1984) 213–219. [PMID: 6480107]
3.  Breidt, F., Jr., Hengstenberg, W., Finkeldei, U. and Stewart, G.C. Identification of the genes for the lactose-specific components of the phosphotransferase system in the lac operon of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 16444–16449. [PMID: 2824493]
4.  De Vos, W.M., Boerrigter, I., Van Rooijen, R.J., Reiche, B., Hengstenberg, W. Characterization of the lactose-specific enzymes of the phosphotransferase system in Lactococcus lactis. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 22554–22560. [PMID: 2125052]
5.  Peters, D., Frank, R. and Hengstenberg, W. Lactose-specific enzyme II of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of Staphylococcus aureus. Purification of the histidine-tagged transmembrane component IICBLac and its hydrophilic IIB domain by metal-affinity chromatography, and functional characterization. Eur. J. Biochem. 228 (1995) 798–804. [DOI] [PMID: 7737179]
[EC 2.7.1.207 created 1972 as EC 2.7.1.69, part transferred 2016 to EC 2.7.1.207]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.9     
Accepted name: UTP—glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Reaction: UTP + α-D-glucose 1-phosphate = diphosphate + UDP-glucose
For diagram of the biosynthesis of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose and UDP-glucuronate, click here
Other name(s): UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase; glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; UDPG phosphorylase; UDPG pyrophosphorylase; uridine 5′-diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase; uridine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase; uridine diphosphate-D-glucose pyrophosphorylase; uridine-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase
Systematic name: UTP:α-D-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9026-22-6
References:
1.  Kalckar, H.M. The role of phosphoglycosyl compounds in the biosynthesis of nucleosides and nucleotides. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 12 (1953) 250–264. [DOI] [PMID: 13115434]
2.  Kamogawa, A. and Kurahashi, K. Purification and properties of uridinediphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli K12. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 57 (1965) 758–765. [PMID: 4284510]
3.  Lobelle-Rich, P.A. and Reeves, R.E. Separation and characterization of two UTP-utilizing hexose phosphate uridylyltransferases from Entamoeba histolytica. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 7 (1983) 173–182. [DOI] [PMID: 6304512]
4.  Smith, E.E.B. and Mills, G.T. The uridyl transferase of mammary gland. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 18 (1955) 152. [DOI] [PMID: 13260264]
5.  Turnquist, R.L., Gillett, T.A. and Hansen, R.G. Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase. Crystallization and properties of the enzyme from rabbit liver and species comparisons. J. Biol. Chem. 249 (1974) 7695–7700. [PMID: 4436332]
[EC 2.7.7.9 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.10     
Accepted name: UTP—hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Reaction: UTP + α-D-galactose 1-phosphate = diphosphate + UDP-α-D-galactose
For diagram of the biosynthesis of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose and UDP-glucuronate, click here
Other name(s): galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; α-D-galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; galactose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase; UDPgalactose pyrophosphorylase; uridine diphosphate galactose pyrophosphorylase; uridine diphosphogalactose pyrophosphorylase
Systematic name: UTP:α-D-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Comments: α-D-Glucose 1-phosphate can also act as acceptor, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9016-11-9
References:
1.  Isselbacher, K.J. A mammalian uridinediphosphate galactose pyrophosphorylase. J. Biol. Chem. 232 (1958) 429–444. [PMID: 13549431]
2.  Kalckar, H.M. The role of phosphoglycosyl compounds in the biosynthesis of nucleosides and nucleotides. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 12 (1953) 250–264. [DOI] [PMID: 13115434]
3.  Lee, L., Kimura, A. and Tochikura, T. Purification and properties of UDP-glucose (UDP-galactose) pyrophosphorylase from Bifidobacterium bifidum. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 86 (1979) 923–928. [PMID: 500588]
4.  Lobelle-Rich, P.A. and Reeves, R.E. Separation and characterization of two UTP-utilizing hexose phosphate uridylyltransferases from Entamoeba histolytica. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 7 (1983) 173–182. [DOI] [PMID: 6304512]
[EC 2.7.7.10 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.12     
Accepted name: UDP-glucose—hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + α-D-galactose 1-phosphate = α-D-glucose 1-phosphate + UDP-α-D-galactose
For diagram of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose and UDP-glucuronate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): uridyl transferase; hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase; uridyltransferase; hexose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase; UDP-glucose:α-D-galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:α-D-galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9026-21-5
References:
1.  Kalckar, H.M., Braganca, B. and Munch-Petersen, A. Uridyl transferases and the formation of uridinediphosphogalactose. Nature 172 (1953) 1038. [PMID: 13111247]
2.  Kurahashi, K. and Sugimura, A. Purification and properties of galactose 1-phosphate uridyl transferase from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 940–946. [PMID: 14412847]
3.  Mayes, J.S. and Hansen, R.G. Galactose 1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Methods Enzymol. 9 (1966) 708–713.
4.  Saito, S., Ozutsumi, M. and Kurahashi, K. Galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase of Escherichia coli. II. Further purification and characterization. J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 2362–2368. [PMID: 5338129]
5.  Smith, E.E.B. and Mills, G.T. The uridyl transferase of mammary gland. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 18 (1955) 152. [DOI] [PMID: 13260264]
[EC 2.7.7.12 created 1961]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.32     
Accepted name: galactose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase
Reaction: dTTP + α-D-galactose 1-phosphate = diphosphate + dTDP-galactose
Other name(s): dTDP galactose pyrophosphorylase; galactose 1-phosphate thymidylyl transferase; thymidine diphosphogalactose pyrophosphorylase; thymidine triphosphate:α-D-galactose 1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase
Systematic name: dTTP:α-D-galactose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9023-25-0
References:
1.  Pazur, J.H. and Anderson, J.S. Thymidine triphosphate: α-D-galactose 1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase from Streptococcus faecalis grown on D-galactose. J. Biol. Chem. 238 (1963) 3155–3160. [PMID: 14085355]
[EC 2.7.7.32 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.69     
Accepted name: GDP-L-galactose/GDP-D-glucose: hexose 1-phosphate guanylyltransferase
Reaction: (1) GDP-β-L-galactose + α-D-mannose 1-phosphate = β-L-galactose 1-phosphate + GDP-α-D-mannose
(2) GDP-α-D-glucose + α-D-mannose 1-phosphate = α-D-glucose 1-phosphate + GDP-α-D-mannose
Other name(s): VTC2; VTC5; GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase
Systematic name: GDP-β-L-galactose/GDP-α-D-glucose:hexose 1-phosphate guanylyltransferase
Comments: This plant enzyme catalyses the conversion of GDP-β-L-galactose and GDP-α-D-glucose to β-L-galactose 1-phosphate and α-D-glucose 1-phosphate, respectively. The enzyme can use inorganic phosphate as the co-substrate, but several hexose 1-phosphates, including α-D-mannose 1-phosphate, α-D-glucose 1-phosphate, and α-D-galactose 1-phosphate, are better guanylyl acceptors. The enzyme's activity on GDP-β-L-galactose is crucial for the biosynthesis of L-ascorbate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Linster, C.L., Gomez, T.A., Christensen, K.C., Adler, L.N., Young, B.D., Brenner, C. and Clarke, S.G. Arabidopsis VTC2 encodes a GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, the last unknown enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to ascorbic acid in plants. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 18879–18885. [DOI] [PMID: 17462988]
2.  Dowdle, J., Ishikawa, T., Gatzek, S., Rolinski, S. and Smirnoff, N. Two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encoding GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase are required for ascorbate biosynthesis and seedling viability. Plant J. 52 (2007) 673–689. [DOI] [PMID: 17877701]
3.  Wolucka, B.A. and Van Montagu, M. The VTC2 cycle and the de novo biosynthesis pathways for vitamin C in plants: an opinion. Phytochemistry 68 (2007) 2602–2613. [DOI] [PMID: 17950389]
4.  Laing, W.A., Wright, M.A., Cooney, J. and Bulley, S.M. The missing step of the L-galactose pathway of ascorbate biosynthesis in plants, an L-galactose guanyltransferase, increases leaf ascorbate content. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104 (2007) 9534–9539. [DOI] [PMID: 17485667]
5.  Linster, C.L., Adler, L.N., Webb, K., Christensen, K.C., Brenner, C. and Clarke, S.G. A second GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase in arabidopsis en route to vitamin C. Covalent intermediate and substrate requirements for the conserved reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 18483–18492. [DOI] [PMID: 18463094]
6.  Muller-Moule, P. An expression analysis of the ascorbate biosynthesis enzyme VTC2. Plant Mol. Biol. 68 (2008) 31–41. [DOI] [PMID: 18516687]
[EC 2.7.7.69 created 2010, modified 2020]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.78     
Accepted name: GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-glucose + phosphate = α-D-glucose 1-phosphate + GDP
Systematic name: GDP:α-D-glucose 1-phosphate guanylyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme may be involved in prevention of misincorporation of glucose in place of mannose residues into glycoconjugates i.e. to remove accidentally produced GDP-α-D-glucose. Activities with GDP-L-galactose, GDP-D-mannose and UDP-D-glucose are all less than 3% that with GDP-D-glucose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Adler, L.N., Gomez, T.A., Clarke, S.G. and Linster, C.L. A novel GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase involved in quality control of the nucleoside diphosphate sugar pool in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 21511–21523. [DOI] [PMID: 21507950]
[EC 2.7.7.78 created 2011]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.6     
Accepted name: undecaprenyl-phosphate galactose phosphotransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + undecaprenyl phosphate = UMP + α-D-galactosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol
Other name(s): poly(isoprenol)-phosphate galactose phosphotransferase; poly(isoprenyl)phosphate galactosephosphatetransferase; undecaprenyl phosphate galactosyl-1-phosphate transferase; UDP-galactose:undecaprenyl-phosphate galactose phosphotransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:undecaprenyl-phosphate galactose phosphotransferase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37278-29-8
References:
1.  Osborn, M.J. and Yuan Tze-Yuen, R. Biosynthesis of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. VII. Enzymatic formation of the first intermediate in biosynthesis of the O-antigen of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Biol. Chem. 243 (1968) 5145–5152. [PMID: 4878433]
2.  Wright, A., Dankert, M., Fennessen, P. and Robbins, P.W. Characterization of a polyisoprenoid compound functional in O-antigen biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 57 (1967) 1798–1803. [DOI] [PMID: 4291948]
[EC 2.7.8.6 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.7.8.18     
Accepted name: UDP-galactose—UDP-N-acetylglucosamine galactose phosphotransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-galactose + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = UMP + UDP-N-acetyl-6-(α-D-galactose-1-phospho)-α-D-glucosamine
Other name(s): uridine diphosphogalactose-uridine diphosphoacetylglucosamine galactose-1-phosphotransferase; galactose-1-phosphotransferase; galactosyl phosphotransferase; UDP-galactose:UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine galactose phosphotransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-galactose:UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine galactose phosphotransferase
Comments: N-Acetylglucosamine end-groups in glycoproteins can also act as acceptors.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 84932-43-4
References:
1.  Nakanishi, Y., Otsu, K. and Suzuki, S. Enzymatic transfer of galactosyl phosphate from UDP-galactose to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. FEBS Lett. 151 (1983) 15–18. [DOI] [PMID: 6130977]
[EC 2.7.8.18 created 1986]
 
 
EC 2.8.2.5     
Accepted name: chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase
Reaction: 3′-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + chondroitin = adenosine 3′,5′-bisphosphate + chondroitin 4′-sulfate
For diagram of chondroitin biosynthesis (later stages), click here
Glossary: 3′-phosphoadenylyl sulfate = PAPS
Other name(s): chondroitin sulfotransferase; 3′-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:chondroitin 4′-sulfotransferase
Systematic name: 3′-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:chondroitin 4′-sulfonotransferase
Comments: The sulfation takes place at the 4-position of N-acetyl-galactosamine residues of chondroitin. Not identical with EC 2.8.2.17 chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 83589-04-2
References:
1.  Habuchi, O. and Miyashita, N. Separation and characterization of chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase and chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase from chick embryo cartilage. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 717 (1982) 414–421. [DOI] [PMID: 6957247]
2.  Nakanishi, Y., Otsu, K. and Suzuki, S. Enzymatic transfer of galactosyl phosphate from UDP-galactose to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. FEBS Lett. 151 (1983) 15–18. [DOI] [PMID: 6130977]
3.  Nakanishi, Y., Shimizu, M., Otsu, K., Kato, S., Tsuji, M. and Suzuki, S. A terminal 6-sulfotransferase catalyzing a synthesis of N-acetylgalactosamine 4,6-bissulfate residue at the nonreducing terminal position of chondroitin sulfate. J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 5443–5449. [PMID: 6787041]
4.  Suzuki, S. and Strominger, J.L. Enzymatic sulfation of mucopolysaccharides in hen oviduct. I. Transfer of sulfate from 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate to mucopolysaccharides. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 257–266. [PMID: 13835879]
5.  Suzuki, S. and Strominger, J.L. Enzymatic sulfation of mucopolysaccharides in hen oviduct. II. Mechanism of the reaction studied with oligosaccharides and monosaccharides as acceptors. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 267–273. [PMID: 13835880]
6.  Suzuki, S. and Strominger, J.L. Enzymatic sulfation of mucopolysaccharides in hen oviduct. III. Mechanism of sulfation of chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate A. J. Biol. Chem. 235 (1960) 274–276. [PMID: 13835881]
[EC 2.8.2.5 created 1965, modified 1986]
 
 
EC 3.1.3.10     
Accepted name: glucose-1-phosphatase
Reaction: α-D-glucose 1-phosphate + H2O = D-glucose + phosphate
Systematic name: α-D-glucose-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase
Comments: Also acts, more slowly, on D-galactose 1-phosphate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9001-38-1
References:
1.  Faulkner, P. A hexose-1-phosphatase in silkworm blood. Biochem. J. 60 (1955) 590–596. [PMID: 13249953]
2.  Turner, D.H. and Turner, J.F. The hydrolysis of glucose monophosphates by a phosphatase preparation from pea seeds. Biochem. J. 74 (1960) 486–491. [PMID: 13839934]
[EC 3.1.3.10 created 1961]
 
 
EC 3.1.3.93     
Accepted name: L-galactose 1-phosphate phosphatase
Reaction: β-L-galactose 1-phosphate + H2O = L-galactose + phosphate
Other name(s): VTC4 (gene name) (ambiguous); IMPL2 (gene name) (ambiguous)
Systematic name: β-L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase
Comments: The enzyme from plants also has the activity of EC 3.1.3.25, inositol-phosphate phosphatase. The enzymes have very low activity with D-galactose 1-phosphate (cf. EC 3.1.3.94, D-galactose 1-phosphate phosphatase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Laing, W.A., Bulley, S., Wright, M., Cooney, J., Jensen, D., Barraclough, D. and MacRae, E. A highly specific L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase on the path to ascorbate biosynthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101 (2004) 16976–16981. [DOI] [PMID: 15550539]
2.  Torabinejad, J., Donahue, J.L., Gunesekera, B.N., Allen-Daniels, M.J. and Gillaspy, G.E. VTC4 is a bifunctional enzyme that affects myoinositol and ascorbate biosynthesis in plants. Plant Physiol. 150 (2009) 951–961. [DOI] [PMID: 19339506]
3.  Petersen, L.N., Marineo, S., Mandala, S., Davids, F., Sewell, B.T. and Ingle, R.A. The missing link in plant histidine biosynthesis: Arabidopsis myoinositol monophosphatase-like2 encodes a functional histidinol-phosphate phosphatase. Plant Physiol. 152 (2010) 1186–1196. [DOI] [PMID: 20023146]
[EC 3.1.3.93 created 2014]
 
 
EC 3.1.3.94     
Accepted name: D-galactose 1-phosphate phosphatase
Reaction: α-D-galactose 1-phosphate + H2O = D-galactose + phosphate
Systematic name: α-D-galactose-1-phosphate phosphohydrolase
Comments: The human enzyme also has the activity of EC 3.1.3.25, inositol-phosphate phosphatase. The enzyme has very low activity with L-galactose 1-phosphate (cf. EC 3.1.3.93, L-galactose 1-phosphate phosphatase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Parthasarathy, R., Parthasarathy, L. and Vadnal, R. Brain inositol monophosphatase identified as a galactose 1-phosphatase. Brain Res. 778 (1997) 99–106. [DOI] [PMID: 9462881]
[EC 3.1.3.94 created 2014]
 
 
EC 3.1.6.4     
Accepted name: N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of the 6-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and of the D-galactose 6-sulfate units of keratan sulfate
For diagram of the later stages of chondroitin biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): chondroitin sulfatase; chondroitinase; galactose-6-sulfate sulfatase; acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase; N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase; N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase
Systematic name: N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-6-sulfate 6-sulfohydrolase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9025-60-9
References:
1.  Epstein, E.H. and Leventhal, M.E. Steroid sulfatase of human leukocytes and epidermis and the diagnosis of recessive X-linked ichthyosis. J. Clin. Invest. 67 (1981) 1257–1262. [DOI] [PMID: 6939689]
2.  Glössl, J. and Kresse, H. Impaired degradation of keratan sulphate by Morquio A fibroblasts. Biochem. J. 203 (1982) 335–338. [PMID: 6213226]
3.  Lim, C.T. and Horwitz, A.L. Purification and properties of human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 657 (1981) 344–355. [DOI] [PMID: 7213753]
4.  Sørensen, S.H., Norén, O., Sjöström, H. and Danielsen, E.M. Amphiphilic pig intestinal microvillus maltase/glucoamylase. Structure and specificity. Eur. J. Biochem. 126 (1982) 559–568. [DOI] [PMID: 6814909]
5.  Yutaka, T., Okada, S., Kato, T., Inui, K. and Yabuchi, H. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome. Clin. Chim. Acta 122 (1982) 169–180. [DOI] [PMID: 6809361]
[EC 3.1.6.4 created 1961]
 
 
EC 3.1.6.8     
Accepted name: cerebroside-sulfatase
Reaction: a cerebroside 3-sulfate + H2O = a cerebroside + sulfate
Other name(s): arylsulfatase A; cerebroside sulfate sulfatase
Systematic name: cerebroside-3-sulfate 3-sulfohydrolase
Comments: Hydrolyses galactose-3-sulfate residues in a number of lipids. Also hydrolyses ascorbate 2-sulfate and many phenol sulfates.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9068-68-2
References:
1.  Mehl, E. and Jatzkewitz, H. A cerebrosidesulfatase from swine kidney. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 339 (1964) 260–276. [PMID: 5829234]
2.  Roy, A.B. Sulphatases, lysosomes and disease. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 54 (1976) 111–135. [PMID: 13772]
[EC 3.1.6.8 created 1972]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.22     
Accepted name: α-galactosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing α-D-galactose residues in α-D-galactosides, including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans and galactolipids
Other name(s): melibiase; α-D-galactosidase; α-galactosidase A; α-galactoside galactohydrolase
Systematic name: α-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
Comments: Also hydrolyses α-D-fucosides.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9025-35-8
References:
1.  Suzuki, H., Li, S.-C. and Li, Y.-T. α-Galactosidase from Mortierella vinacea. Crystallization and properties. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 781–786. [PMID: 5418105]
2.  Wiederschain, G. and Beyer, E. [Interrelation of α-D-fucosidase and α-D-galactosidase activities in man and animals] Dokl. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 231 (1976) 486–488. [PMID: 976079]
[EC 3.2.1.22 created 1961]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.23     
Accepted name: β-galactosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing β-D-galactose residues in β-D-galactosides
Other name(s): lactase (ambiguous); β-lactosidase; maxilact; hydrolact; β-D-lactosidase; S 2107; lactozym; trilactase; β-D-galactanase; oryzatym; sumiklat
Systematic name: β-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
Comments: Some enzymes in this group hydrolyse α-L-arabinosides; some animal enzymes also hydrolyse β-D-fucosides and β-D-glucosides; cf. EC 3.2.1.108 lactase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9031-11-2
References:
1.  Blakely, J.A. and MacKenzie, S.L. Purification and properties of a β-hexosidase from Sporobolomyces singularis. Can. J. Biochem. 47 (1969) 1021–1025. [PMID: 5389663]
2.  Kuby, S.A. and Lardy, H.A. Purification and kinetics of β-D-galactosidase from Escherichia coli, strain K-12. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 75 (1953) 890–896.
3.  Kuo, C.H. and Wells, W.W. β-Galactosidase from rat mammary gland. Its purification, properties, and role in the biosynthesis of 6β-O-D-galactopyranosyl myo-inositol. J. Biol. Chem. 253 (1978) 3550–3556. [PMID: 418065]
4.  Landman, O.E. Properties and induction of β-galactosidase in Bacillus megaterium. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 23 (1957) 558–569. [PMID: 13426167]
5.  Llanillo, M., Perez, N. and Cabezas, J.A. β-Galactosidase and β-glucosidase activities of the same enzyme from rabbit liver. Int. J. Biochem. 8 (1977) 557–564.
6.  Monod, J. and Cohn, M. La biosynthèse induite des enzymes (adaptation enzymatique). Adv. Enzymol. Relat. Subj. Biochem. 13 (1952) 67–119. [PMID: 14943665]
7.  Wallenfels, K. and Malhotra, O.P. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 4, Academic Press, New York, 1960, pp. 409–430.
8.  Asp, N.G., Dahlqvist, A. and Koldovský, O. Human small-intestinal β-galactosidases. Separation and characterization of one lactase and one hetero β-galactosidase. Biochem. J. 114 (1969) 351–359. [PMID: 5822067]
[EC 3.2.1.23 created 1961, modified 1980]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.46     
Accepted name: galactosylceramidase
Reaction: a D-galactosyl-N-acylsphingosine + H2O = D-galactose + a ceramide
Glossary: a ceramide = an N-acylsphingosine
Other name(s): cerebroside galactosidase; galactocerebroside.β-galactosidase; galactosylcerebrosidase; galactocerebrosidase; ceramide galactosidase; galactocerebroside galactosidase; galactosylceramide.β-galactosidase; cerebroside β-galactosidase; galactosylceramidase I; β-galactosylceramidase; galactocerebroside-β-D-galactosidase; lactosylceramidase I; β-galactocerebrosidase; lactosylceramidase
Systematic name: D-galactosyl-N-acylsphingosine galactohydrolase
Comments: cf. EC 3.2.1.62 glycosylceramidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9027-89-8
References:
1.  Brady, R.O., Gal, A.E., Kanfer, J.N. and Bradley, R.M. The metabolism of glucocerebrosides. 3. Purification and properties of a glucosyl- and galactosylceramide-cleaving enzyme from rat intestinal tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 3766–3770. [PMID: 5320641]
[EC 3.2.1.46 created 1972]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.47      
Deleted entry: galactosylgalactosylglucosylceramidase. Now known to be catalyzed by EC 3.2.1.22, α-galactosidase.
[EC 3.2.1.47 created 1972, modified 2011, deleted 2021]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.62     
Accepted name: glycosylceramidase
Reaction: (1) a β-D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine + H2O = a ceramide + β-D-glucose
(2) a β-D-galactosyl-N-acylsphingosine + H2O = a ceramide + β-D-galactose
(3) a flavonoid-O-β-D-glucoside + H2O = a flavonoid + β-D-glucose
For diagram of phloretin biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of glycolipid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: a ceramide = an N-acylsphingosine
Other name(s): phlorizin hydrolase; phloretin-glucosidase; glycosyl ceramide glycosylhydrolase; cerebrosidase; phloridzin β-glucosidase; lactase-phlorizin hydrolase; phloridzin glucosidase; LPH (gene name); LCT (gene name); glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine glycohydrolase
Systematic name: β-D-glucosyl-N-acylsphingosine glycohydrolase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme, found in the intestinal mucosa, hydrolyses β-D-glucosyl and β-D-galactosyl residues from a very broad range of substrates using a retaining mechanism. Characterized substrates include glucosyl- and galactosyl-ceramides [3], O3-, O4′ and O7-glucosylated flavonoids [6], and the 2′-O-glucosylated dihydrochalcone phlorizin [1]. The enzyme includes two glycosyl hydrolase domains, both belonging to the GH1 family. While one domain is responsible for the activity described here, the other catalyses the reaction of EC 3.2.1.108, lactase [4,5]. cf. EC 3.2.1.45, glucosylceramidase and EC 3.2.1.46, galactosylceramidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9033-10-7
References:
1.  Malathi, P. and Crane, R.K. Phlorizin hydrolase: a β-glucosidase of hamster intestinal brush border membrane. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 173 (1969) 245–256. [DOI] [PMID: 5774775]
2.  Lorenz-Meyer, H., Blum, A.L., Haemmerli, H.P. and Semenza, G. A second enzyme defect in acquired lactase deficiency: lack of small-intestinal phlorizin-hydrolase. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 2 (1972) 326–331. [DOI] [PMID: 5082068]
3.  Leese, H.J. and Semenza, G. On the identity between the small intestinal enzymes phlorizin hydrolase and glycosylceramidase. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 8170–8173. [DOI] [PMID: 4752949]
4.  Zecca, L., Mesonero, J.E., Stutz, A., Poiree, J.C., Giudicelli, J., Cursio, R., Gloor, S.M. and Semenza, G. Intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH): the two catalytic sites; the role of the pancreas in pro-LPH maturation. FEBS Lett. 435 (1998) 225–228. [DOI] [PMID: 9762914]
5.  Arribas, J.C., Herrero, A.G., Martin-Lomas, M., Canada, F.J., He, S. and Withers, S.G. Differential mechanism-based labeling and unequivocal activity assignment of the two active sites of intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 6996–7005. [DOI] [PMID: 11106409]
6.  Nemeth, K., Plumb, G.W., Berrin, J.G., Juge, N., Jacob, R., Naim, H.Y., Williamson, G., Swallow, D.M. and Kroon, P.A. Deglycosylation by small intestinal epithelial cell β-glucosidases is a critical step in the absorption and metabolism of dietary flavonoid glycosides in humans. Eur J Nutr 42 (2003) 29–42. [DOI] [PMID: 12594539]
[EC 3.2.1.62 created 1972, modified 1976, modified 2022]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.63     
Accepted name: 1,2-α-L-fucosidase
Reaction: methyl-2-α-L-fucopyranosyl-β-D-galactoside + H2O = L-fucose + methyl β-D-galactoside
Other name(s): almond emulsin fucosidase; α-(1→2)-L-fucosidase
Systematic name: 2-α-L-fucopyranosyl-β-D-galactoside fucohydrolase
Comments: Highly specific for non-reducing terminal L-fucose residues linked to D-galactose residues by a 1,2-α-linkage. Not identical with EC 3.2.1.111 1,3-α-L-fucosidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37288-45-2
References:
1.  Bahl, O.P. Glycosidases of Aspergillus niger. II. Purification and general properties of 1,2-α-L-fucosidase. J. Biol. Chem. 245 (1970) 299–304. [PMID: 5460888]
2.  Ogata-Arakawa, M., Muramatsu, T. and Kobata, A. α-L-Fucosidases from almond emulsin: characterization of the two enzymes with different specificities. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 181 (1977) 353–358. [DOI] [PMID: 18111]
3.  Reglero, A. and Cabezas, J.A. Glycosidases of molluscs. Purification and properties of α-L-fucosidase from Chamelea gallina L. Eur. J. Biochem. 66 (1976) 379–387. [DOI] [PMID: 7458]
[EC 3.2.1.63 created 1972]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.81     
Accepted name: β-agarase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of (1→4)-β-D-galactosidic linkages in agarose, giving the tetramer as the predominant product
Glossary: agarose = a linear polysaccharide produced by some members of the Rhodophyta (red algae) made up from alternating D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose residues joined by α-(1→3)- and β-(1→4)-linkages. In the field of oligosaccharides derived from agarose, carrageenans, etc., in which alternate residues are 3,6-anhydro sugars, the prefix ’neo’ designates an oligosaccharide whose non-reducing end is the anhydro sugar, and the absence of this prefix means that it is not.
For example:
neoagarobiose = 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-D-galactose
agarobiose = β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-L-galactose
Other name(s): agarase (ambiguous); AgaA; AgaB; endo-β-agarase; agarose 3-glycanohydrolase (incorrect)
Systematic name: agarose 4-glycanohydrolase
Comments: Also acts on porphyran, but more slowly [1]. This enzyme cleaves the β-(1→4) linkages of agarose in a random manner with retention of the anomeric-bond configuration, producing β-anomers that give rise progressively to α-anomers when mutarotation takes place [6]. The end products of hydrolysis are neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose in the case of AgaA from the marine bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, and neoagarotetraose and neoagarobiose in the case of AgaB [6].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37288-57-6
References:
1.  Duckworth, M. and Turvey, J.R. The action of a bacterial agarase on agarose, porphyran and alkali-treated porphyran. Biochem. J. 113 (1969) 687–692. [PMID: 5386190]
2.  Allouch, J., Jam, M., Helbert, W., Barbeyron, T., Kloareg, B., Henrissat, B. and Czjzek, M. The three-dimensional structures of two β-agarases. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 47171–47180. [DOI] [PMID: 12970344]
3.  Ohta, Y., Nogi, Y., Miyazaki, M., Li, Z., Hatada, Y., Ito, S. and Horikoshi, K. Enzymatic properties and nucleotide and amino acid sequences of a thermostable β-agarase from the novel marine isolate, JAMB-A94. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 68 (2004) 1073–1081. [DOI] [PMID: 15170112]
4.  Ohta, Y., Hatada, Y., Nogi, Y., Miyazaki, M., Li, Z., Akita, M., Hidaka, Y., Goda, S., Ito, S. and Horikoshi, K. Enzymatic properties and nucleotide and amino acid sequences of a thermostable β-agarase from a novel species of deep-sea Microbulbifer. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 64 (2004) 505–514. [DOI] [PMID: 15088129]
5.  Sugano, Y., Terada, I., Arita, M., Noma, M. and Matsumoto, T. Purification and characterization of a new agarase from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain JT0107. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59 (1993) 1549–1554. [PMID: 8517750]
6.  Jam, M., Flament, D., Allouch, J., Potin, P., Thion, L., Kloareg, B., Czjzek, M., Helbert, W., Michel, G. and Barbeyron, T. The endo-β-agarases AgaA and AgaB from the marine bacterium Zobellia galactanivorans: two paralogue enzymes with different molecular organizations and catalytic behaviours. Biochem. J. 385 (2005) 703–713. [DOI] [PMID: 15456406]
[EC 3.2.1.81 created 1972, modified 2006]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.83     
Accepted name: κ-carrageenase
Reaction: Endohydrolysis of (1→4)-β-D-linkages between D-galactose 4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose in κ-carrageenans
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: In the field of oligosaccharides derived from agarose, carrageenans, etc., in which alternate residues are 3,6-anhydro sugars, the prefix ’neo’ designates an oligosaccharide whose non-reducing end is the anhydro sugar, and the absence of this prefix means that it is not.
For example:
ι-neocarrabiose = 3,6-anhydro-2-O-sulfo-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulfo-D-galactose
ι-carrabiose = 4-O-sulfo- β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-2-O-sulfo-D-galactose
Other name(s): κ-carrageenan 4-β-D-glycanohydrolase
Systematic name: κ-carrageenan 4-β-D-glycanohydrolase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The main products of hydrolysis are neocarrabiose-sulfate and neocarratetraose-sulfate [5]. Unlike EC 3.2.1.157 (ι-carrageenase), but similar to EC 3.2.1.81 (β-agarase), this enzyme proceeds with retention of the anomeric configuration.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37288-59-8
References:
1.  Weigl, J. and Yashe, W. The enzymic hydrolysis of carrageenan by Pseudomonas carrageenovora: purification of a κ-carrageenase. Can. J. Microbiol. 12 (1966) 939–947. [PMID: 5972647]
2.  Potin, P., Sanseau, A., Le Gall, Y., Rochas, C. and Kloareg, B. Purification and characterization of a new κ-carrageenase from a marine Cytophaga-like bacterium. Eur. J. Biochem. 201 (1991) 241–247. [DOI] [PMID: 1915370]
3.  Potin, P., Richard, C., Barbeyron, T., Henrissat, B., Gey, C., Petillot, Y., Forest, E., Dideberg, O., Rochas, C. and Kloareg, B. Processing and hydrolytic mechanism of the cgkA-encoded κ-carrageenase of Alteromonas carrageenovora. Eur. J. Biochem. 228 (1995) 971–975. [DOI] [PMID: 7737202]
4.  Michel, G., Barbeyron, T., Flament, D., Vernet, T., Kloareg, B. and Dideberg, O. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of the κ-carrageenase from Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 55 (1999) 918–920. [PMID: 10089334]
5.  Michel, G., Chantalat, L., Duee, E., Barbeyron, T., Henrissat, B., Kloareg, B. and Dideberg, O. The κ-carrageenase of P. carrageenovora features a tunnel-shaped active site: a novel insight in the evolution of Clan-B glycoside hydrolases. Structure 9 (2001) 513–525. [DOI] [PMID: 11435116]
[EC 3.2.1.83 created 1972, modified 2006]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.85     
Accepted name: 6-phospho-β-galactosidase
Reaction: a 6-phospho-β-D-galactoside + H2O = 6-phospho-D-galactose + an alcohol
Other name(s): phospho-β-galactosidase; β-D-phosphogalactoside galactohydrolase; phospho-β-D-galactosidase; 6-phospho-β-D-galactosidase
Systematic name: 6-phospho-β-D-galactoside 6-phosphogalactohydrolase
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37237-42-6
References:
1.  Hengstenberg, W., Penberthy, W.K. and Morse, M.L. Purification of the staphylococcal 6-phospho-β-D-galactosidase. Eur. J. Biochem. 14 (1970) 27–32. [DOI] [PMID: 5447434]
[EC 3.2.1.85 created 1976]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.87     
Accepted name: capsular-polysaccharide endo-1,3-α-galactosidase
Reaction: Random hydrolysis of (1→3)-α-D-galactosidic linkages in Aerobacter aerogenes capsular polysaccharide
Other name(s): polysaccharide depolymerase; capsular polysaccharide galactohydrolase
Systematic name: Aerobacter-capsular-polysaccharide galactohydrolase
Comments: Hydrolyses the galactosyl-α-1,3-D-galactose linkages only in the complex substrate, bringing about depolymerization.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 62213-16-5
References:
1.  Yurewicz, E.C., Ghalambor, M.A., Duckworth, D.H. and Heath, E.C. Catalytic and molecular properties of a phage-induced capsular polysaccharide depolymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 246 (1971) 5607–5716. [PMID: 5096084]
2.  Yurewicz, E.C., Ghalambor, M.A. and Heath, E.C. The structure of Aerobacter aerogenes capsular polysaccharide. J. Biol. Chem. 246 (1971) 5596–5606. [PMID: 4328830]
[EC 3.2.1.87 created 1976]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.108     
Accepted name: lactase
Reaction: lactose + H2O = β-D-galactose + D-glucose
Glossary: lactose = β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): lactase-phlorizin hydrolase; LPH (gene name); LCT (gene name)
Systematic name: lactose galactohydrolase (configuration-retaining)
Comments: The enzyme from intestinal mucosa contains two glycosyl hydrolase domains, both of which belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 1 (GH1). While the first domain catalyses the activity described here, the second domain catalyses the reaction of EC 3.2.1.62 glycosylceramidase. cf. EC 3.2.1.33 amylo-α-1,6-glucosidase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9031-11-2
References:
1.  Asp, N.G., Dahlqvist, A. and Koldovský, O. Human small-intestinal β-galactosidases. Separation and characterization of one lactase and one hetero β-galactosidase. Biochem. J. 114 (1969) 351–359. [PMID: 5822067]
2.  Schlegel-Haueter, S., Hore, P., Kerry, K.R. and Semenza, G. The preparation of lactase and glucoamylase of rat small intestine. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 258 (1972) 506–519. [DOI] [PMID: 5010299]
3.  Lorenz-Meyer, H., Blum, A.L., Haemmerli, H.P. and Semenza, G. A second enzyme defect in acquired lactase deficiency: lack of small-intestinal phlorizin-hydrolase. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 2 (1972) 326–331. [DOI] [PMID: 5082068]
4.  Ramaswamay, S. and Radhakrishnan, A.N. Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase complex from monkey small intestine. Purification, properties and evidence for two catalytic sites. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 403 (1975) 446–455. [DOI] [PMID: 810166]
5.  Skovbjerg, H., Sjöström, H. and Norén, O. Purification and characterization of amphiphilic lactase-phlorizin hydrolase from human small-intestine. Eur. J. Biochem. 114 (1981) 653–661. [DOI] [PMID: 6786877]
6.  Skovbjerg, H., Norén, O., Sjöström, H., Danielsen, E.M. and Enevoldsen, B.S. Further characterization of intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 707 (1982) 89–97. [DOI] [PMID: 6814489]
7.  Zecca, L., Mesonero, J.E., Stutz, A., Poiree, J.C., Giudicelli, J., Cursio, R., Gloor, S.M. and Semenza, G. Intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH): the two catalytic sites; the role of the pancreas in pro-LPH maturation. FEBS Lett. 435 (1998) 225–228. [DOI] [PMID: 9762914]
8.  Arribas, J.C., Herrero, A.G., Martin-Lomas, M., Canada, F.J., He, S. and Withers, S.G. Differential mechanism-based labeling and unequivocal activity assignment of the two active sites of intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase. Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (2000) 6996–7005. [DOI] [PMID: 11106409]
[EC 3.2.1.108 created 1984, modified 2022]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.140     
Accepted name: lacto-N-biosidase
Reaction: β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc + H2O = β-D-Gal-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc + β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc
Glossary: β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc = lacto-N-tetraose
β-D-Gal-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc = lacto-N-biose
β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc = lactose
Systematic name: oligosaccharide lacto-N-biosylhydrolase
Comments: The enzyme from Streptomyces specifically hydrolyses the terminal lacto-N-biosyl residue (β-D-Gal-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc) from the non-reducing end of oligosaccharides with the structure β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→R). Lacto-N-hexaose (β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GlcNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc) is hydrolysed to form first lacto-N-tetraose plus lacto-N-biose, with the subsequent formation of lactose. Oligosaccharides in which the non-reducing terminal Gal or the penultimate GlcNAc are replaced by fucose or sialic acid are not substrates. Asialo GM1 tetraose (β-D-Gal-(1→3)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc) is hydrolysed very slowly, but lacto-N-neotetraose (β-D-Gal-(1→4)-β-D-GalNAc-(1→3)-β-D-Gal-(1→4)-D-Glc) is not a substrate
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 146359-52-6
References:
1.  Sano, M., Hayakawa, K., Kato, I. An enzyme releasing lacto-N-biose from oligosaccharides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89 (1992) 8512–8516. [DOI] [PMID: 1528855]
2.  Sano, M., Hayakawa, K., Kato, I. Purification and characterization of an enzyme releasing lacto-N-biose from oligosaccharides with type 1 chain. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 18560–18566. [PMID: 7689556]
[EC 3.2.1.140 created 1999]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.145     
Accepted name: galactan 1,3-β-galactosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing β-D-galactose residues in (1→3)-β-D-galactopyranans
Other name(s): galactan (1→3)-β-D-galactosidase
Systematic name: galactan 3-β-D-galactosidase
Comments: This enzyme removes not only free galactose, but also 6-glycosylated residues, e.g., (1→6)-β-D-galactobiose, and galactose bearing oligosaccharide chains on O-6. Hence, it releases branches from [arabino-galacto-(1→6)]-(1→3)-β-D-galactans.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 161515-48-6
References:
1.  Tsumuraya, Y., Mochizuki, N. , Hashimoto Y. and Kovac, P. Purification of exo-(1→3)-D-galactanase of Irpex lacteus (Polyporus tulipiferae) and its action on arabinogalactan-proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 7207–7215. [PMID: 2158993]
2.  Pellerin, P. and Brillouet, J.M. Purification and properties of an exo-(1→3)-β-D-galactanase from Aspergillus niger. Carbohydr. Res. 264 (1994) 281–291. [DOI] [PMID: 7805066]
[EC 3.2.1.145 created 2001]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.146     
Accepted name: β-galactofuranosidase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing β-D-galactofuranosides, releasing galactose
Other name(s): exo-β-galactofuranosidase; exo-β-D-galactofuranosidase; β-D-galactofuranosidase
Systematic name: β-D-galactofuranoside hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme from Helminthosporium sacchari detoxifies helminthosporoside, a bis(digalactosyl)terpene produced by this fungus, by releasing its four molecules of bound galactose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 52357-57-0
References:
1.  Rietschel-Berst, M., Jentoft, N.H., Rick, P.D., Pletcher, C., Fang, F. and Gander, J.E. Extracellular exo-β-galactofuranosidase from Penicillium charlesii: isolation, purification, and properties. J. Biol. Chem. 252 (1977) 3219–3226. [PMID: 863879]
2.  Daley, L.S. and Strobel, G.A. β-Galactofuranosidase activity in Helminthosporium sacchari and its relationship to the production of helminthosporoside. Plant Sci. Lett. 30 (1983) 145–154.
3.  Cousin, M.A., Notermans, S., Hoogerhout, P. and Van Boom, J.H. Detection of β-galactofuranosidase production by Penicillium and Aspergillus species using 4-nitrophenyl β-D-galactofuranoside. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 66 (1989) 311–317. [PMID: 2502527]
4.  Miletti, L.C., Marino, C., Marino, K., de Lederkremer, R.M., Colli, W. and Alves, M.J.M. Immobilized 4-aminophenyl-1-thio-β-D-galactofuranoside as a matrix for affinity purification of an exo-β-D-galactofuranosidase. Carbohydr. Res. 320 (1999) 176–182. [DOI] [PMID: 10573856]
[EC 3.2.1.146 created 2001]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.157     
Accepted name: ι-carrageenase
Reaction: Endohydrolysis of (1→4)-β-D-linkages between D-galactose 4-sulfate and 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose-2-sulfate in ι-carrageenans
For diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: In the field of oligosaccharides derived from agarose, carrageenans, etc., in which alternate residues are 3,6-anhydro sugars, the prefix ’neo’ designates an oligosaccharide whose non-reducing end is the anhydro sugar, and the absence of this prefix means that it is not.
For example:
ι-neocarrabiose = 3,6-anhydro-2-O-sulfo-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulfo-D-galactose
ι-carrabiose = 4-O-sulfo-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-2-O-sulfo-D-galactose
Systematic name: ι-carrageenan 4-β-D-glycanohydrolase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The main products of hydrolysis are ι-neocarratetraose sulfate and ι-neocarrahexaose sulfate. ι-Neocarraoctaose is the shortest substrate oligomer that can be cleaved. Unlike EC 3.2.1.81, β-agarase and EC 3.2.1.83, κ-carrageenase, this enzyme proceeds with inversion of the anomeric configuration. ι-Carrageenan differs from κ-carrageenan by possessing a sulfo group on O-2 of the 3,6-anhydro-D-galactose residues, in addition to that present in the κ-compound on O-4 of the D-galactose residues.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 50936-37-3
References:
1.  Barbeyron, T., Michel, G., Potin, P., Henrissat, B. and Kloareg, B. ι-Carrageenases constitute a novel family of glycoside hydrolases, unrelated to that of κ-carrageenases. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 35499–35505. [DOI] [PMID: 10934194]
2.  Michel, G., Chantalat, L., Fanchon, E., Henrissat, B., Kloareg, B. and Dideberg, O. The ι-carrageenase of Alteromonas fortis. A β-helix fold-containing enzyme for the degradation of a highly polyanionic polysaccharide. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 40202–40209. [DOI] [PMID: 11493601]
3.  Michel, G., Helbert, W., Kahn, R., Dideberg, O. and Kloareg, B. The structural bases of the processive degradation of ι-carrageenan, a main cell wall polysaccharide of red algae. J. Mol. Biol. 334 (2003) 421–433. [DOI] [PMID: 14623184]
[EC 3.2.1.157 created 2006]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.158     
Accepted name: α-agarase
Reaction: Endohydrolysis of (1→3)-α-L-galactosidic linkages in agarose, yielding agarotetraose as the major product
Glossary: agarose = a linear polysaccharide produced by some members of the Rhodophyta (red algae) made up from alternating D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose residues joined by α-(1→3)- and β-(1→4)-linkages. In the field of oligosaccharides derived from agarose, carrageenans, etc., in which alternate residues are 3,6-anhydro sugars, the prefix ’neo’ designates an oligosaccharide whose non-reducing end is the anhydro sugar, and the absence of this prefix means that it is not.
For example:
neoagarobiose = 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-D-galactose
agarobiose = β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-L-galactose
Other name(s): agarase (ambiguous); agaraseA33
Systematic name: agarose 3-glycanohydrolase
Comments: Requires Ca2+. The enzyme from Thalassomonas sp. can use agarose, agarohexaose and neoagarohexaose as substrate. The products of agarohexaose hydrolysis are dimers and tetramers, with agarotetraose being the predominant product, whereas hydrolysis of neoagarohexaose gives rise to two types of trimer. While the enzyme can also hydrolyse the highly sulfated agarose porphyran very efficiently, it cannot hydrolyse the related compounds κ-carrageenan (see EC 3.2.1.83) and ι-carrageenan (see EC 3.2.1.157) [2]. See also EC 3.2.1.81, β-agarase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 63952-00-1
References:
1.  Potin, P., Richard, C., Rochas, C. and Kloareg, B. Purification and characterization of the α-agarase from Alteromonas agarlyticus (Cataldi) comb. nov., strain GJ1B. Eur. J. Biochem. 214 (1993) 599–607. [DOI] [PMID: 8513809]
2.  Ohta, Y., Hatada, Y., Miyazaki, M., Nogi, Y., Ito, S. and Horikoshi, K. Purification and characterization of a novel α-agarase from a Thalassomonas sp. Curr. Microbiol. 50 (2005) 212–216. [DOI] [PMID: 15902469]
[EC 3.2.1.158 created 2006]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.159     
Accepted name: α-neoagaro-oligosaccharide hydrolase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of the (1→3)-α-L-galactosidic linkages of neoagaro-oligosaccharides that are smaller than a hexamer, yielding 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose and D-galactose
Glossary: In the field of oligosaccharides derived from agarose, carrageenans, etc., in which alternate residues are 3,6-anhydro sugars, the prefix ’neo’ designates an oligosaccharide whose non-reducing end is the anhydro sugar, and the absence of this prefix means that it is not.
For example:
neoagarobiose = 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-D-galactose
agarobiose = β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-L-galactose
Other name(s): α-neoagarooligosaccharide hydrolase; α-NAOS hydrolase
Systematic name: α-neoagaro-oligosaccharide 3-glycohydrolase
Comments: When neoagarohexaose is used as a substrate, the oligosaccharide is cleaved at the non-reducing end to produce 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose and agaropentaose, which is further hydrolysed to agarobiose and agarotriose. With neoagarotetraose as substrate, the products are predominantly agarotriose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose. In Vibrio sp. the actions of EC 3.2.1.81, β-agarase and EC 3.2.1.159 can be used to degrade agarose to 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose and D-galactose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 60063-77-6
References:
1.  Sugano, Y., Kodama, H., Terada, I., Yamazaki, Y. and Noma, M. Purification and characterization of a novel enzyme, α-neoagarooligosaccharide hydrolase (α-NAOS hydrolase), from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain JT0107. J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 6812–6818. [DOI] [PMID: 7961439]
[EC 3.2.1.159 created 2006]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.164     
Accepted name: galactan endo-1,6-β-galactosidase
Reaction: Endohydrolysis of (1→6)-β-D-galactosidic linkages in arabinogalactan proteins and (1→3):(1→6)-β-galactans to yield galactose and (1→6)-β-galactobiose as the final products
Other name(s): endo-1,6-β-galactanase
Systematic name: endo-β-(1→6)-galactanase
Comments: The enzyme specifically hydrolyses 1,6-β-D-galactooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) higher than 3, and their acidic derivatives with 4-O-methylglucosyluronate or glucosyluronate groups at the non-reducing terminals [2]. 1,3-β-D- and 1,4-β-D-galactosyl residues cannot act as substrates. The enzyme can also hydrolyse α-L-arabinofuranosidase-treated arabinogalactan protein (AGP) extracted from radish roots [2,3]. AGPs are thought to be involved in many physiological events, such as cell division, cell expansion and cell death [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Brillouet, J.-M., Williams, P. and Moutounet, M. Purification and some properties of a novel endo-β-(1→6)-D-galactanase from Aspergillus niger. Agric. Biol. Chem. 55 (1991) 1565–1571.
2.  Okemoto, K., Uekita, T., Tsumuraya, Y., Hashimoto, Y. and Kasama, T. Purification and characterization of an endo-β-(1→6)-galactanase from Trichoderma viride. Carbohydr. Res. 338 (2003) 219–230. [DOI] [PMID: 12543554]
3.  Kotake, T., Kaneko, S., Kubomoto, A., Haque, M.A., Kobayashi, H. and Tsumuraya, Y. Molecular cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a Trichoderma viride endo-β-(1→6)-galactanase gene. Biochem. J. 377 (2004) 749–755. [DOI] [PMID: 14565843]
[EC 3.2.1.164 created 2007]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.178     
Accepted name: β-porphyranase
Reaction: Hydrolysis of β-D-galactopyranose-(1→4)-α-L-galactopyranose-6-sulfate linkages in porphyran
Other name(s): porphyranase; PorA; PorB; endo-β-porphyranase
Systematic name: porphyran β-D-galactopyranose-(1→4)-α-L-galactopyranose-6-sulfate 4-glycanohydrolase
Comments: The backbone of porphyran consists largely (~70%) of (1→3)-linked β-D-galactopyranose followed by (1→4)-linked α-L-galactopyranose-6-sulfate [the other 30% are mostly agarobiose repeating units of (1→3)-linked β-D-galactopyranose followed by (1→4)-linked 3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose] [2]. This enzyme cleaves the (1→4) linkages between β-D-galactopyranose and α-L-galactopyranose-6-sulfate, forming mostly the disaccharide α-L-galactopyranose-6-sulfate-(1→3)-β-D-galactose, although some longer oligosaccharides of even number of residues are also observed. Since the enzyme is inactive on the non-sulfated agarose portion of the porphyran backbone, some agarose fragments are also included in the products [1]. Methylation of the D-galactose prevents the enzyme from Zobellia galactanivorans, but not that from Wenyingzhuangia fucanilytica, from binding at subsite -1 [2,3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hehemann, J.H., Correc, G., Barbeyron, T., Helbert, W., Czjzek, M. and Michel, G. Transfer of carbohydrate-active enzymes from marine bacteria to Japanese gut microbiota. Nature 464 (2010) 908–912. [DOI] [PMID: 20376150]
2.  Correc, G., Hehemann, J.H., Czjzek, M. and Helbert, W. Structural analysis of the degradation products of porphyran digested by Zobellia galactanivorans β-porphyranase A. Carbohydrate Polymers 83 (2011) 277–283.
3.  Zhang, Y., Chang, Y., Shen, J., Mei, X. and Xue, C. Characterization of a novel porphyranase accommodating methyl-galactoses at its subsites. J. Agr. Food Chem. 68 (2020) 7032–7039. [PMID: 32520542]
[EC 3.2.1.178 created 2011]
 
 
EC 3.2.1.179     
Accepted name: gellan tetrasaccharide unsaturated glucuronosyl hydrolase
Reaction: β-D-4-deoxy-Δ4-GlcAp-(1→4)-β-D-Glcp-(1→4)-α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-D-Glcp + H2O = 5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucuronate + β-D-Glcp-(1→4)-α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-D-Glcp
Glossary: 5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucuronate = (4S,5R)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,6-dioxohexanoate
β-D-4-deoxy-Δ4-GlcAp-(1→3)-D-GalNAc = 3-(4-deoxy-β-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine = 3-(4-deoxy-α-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranosyluronic acid)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose
Other name(s): UGL (ambiguous); unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase (ambiguous); gellan tetrasaccharide unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase
Systematic name: β-D-4-deoxy-Δ4-GlcAp-(1→4)-β-D-Glcp-(1→4)-α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-D-Glcp β-D-4-deoxy-Δ4-GlcAp hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme releases 4-deoxy-4(5)-unsaturated D-glucuronic acid from oligosaccharides produced by polysaccharide lyases, e.g. the tetrasaccharide β-D-4-deoxy-Δ4-GlcAp-(1→4)-β-D-Glcp-(1→4)-α-L-Rhap-(1→3)-D-Glcp produced by EC 4.2.2.25, gellan lyase. The enzyme can also hydrolyse unsaturated chondroitin and hyaluronate disaccharides (β-D-4-deoxy-Δ4-GlcAp-(1→3)-D-GalNAc, β-D-4-deoxy-Δ4-GlcAp-(1→3)-D-GalNAc6S, β-D-4-deoxy-Δ4-GlcAp2S-(1→3)-D-GalNAc, β-D-4-deoxy-Δ4-GlcAp-(1→3)-D-GlcNAc), preferring the unsulfated disaccharides to the sulfated disaccharides.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Itoh, T., Akao, S., Hashimoto, W., Mikami, B. and Murata, K. Crystal structure of unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase, responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycan, from Bacillus sp. GL1 at 1.8 Å resolution. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 31804–31812. [DOI] [PMID: 15148314]
2.  Hashimoto, W., Kobayashi, E., Nankai, H., Sato, N., Miya, T., Kawai, S. and Murata, K. Unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase of Bacillus sp. GL1: novel enzyme prerequisite for metabolism of unsaturated oligosaccharides produced by polysaccharide lyases. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 368 (1999) 367–374. [DOI] [PMID: 10441389]
3.  Itoh, T., Hashimoto, W., Mikami, B. and Murata, K. Substrate recognition by unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus sp. GL1. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 344 (2006) 253–262. [DOI] [PMID: 16630576]
[EC 3.2.1.179 created 2011, modified 2016]
 
 
EC 3.6.3.17      
Transferred entry: monosaccharide-transporting ATPase. Now covered by various ABC-type monosaccharide transporters in sub-subclass EC 7.5.2.
[EC 3.6.3.17 created 2000, deleted 2019]
 
 
EC 3.6.3.18      
Transferred entry: oligosaccharide-transporting ATPase. Now EC 7.5.2.2, ABC-type oligosaccharide transporter
[EC 3.6.3.18 created 2000, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 3.13.1.1     
Accepted name: UDP-sulfoquinovose synthase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-sulfoquinovopyranose + H2O = UDP-α-D-glucose + sulfite
For diagram of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose and UDP-glucuronate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): sulfite:UDP-glucose sulfotransferase; UDPsulfoquinovose synthase; UDP-6-sulfo-6-deoxyglucose sulfohydrolase
Systematic name: UDP-6-sulfo-6-deoxy-α-D-glucose sulfohydrolase
Comments: Requires NAD+, which appears to oxidize UDP-α-D-glucose to UDP-4-dehydroglucose, which dehydrates to UDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxygluc-5-enose, to which sulfite is added. The reaction is completed when the substrate is rehydrogenated at C-4. The enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana is specific for UDP-Glc and sulfite.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Essigmann, B., Gler, S., Narang, R.A., Linke, D. and Benning, C. Phosphate availability affects the thylakoid lipid composition and the expression of SQD1, a gene required for sulfolipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 1950–1955. [DOI] [PMID: 9465123]
2.  Essigmann, B., Hespenheide, B.M., Kuhn, L.A. and Benning, C. Prediction of the active-site structure and NAD+ binding in SQD1, a protein essential for sulfolipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 369 (1999) 30–41. [DOI] [PMID: 10462438]
3.  Mulichak, A.M., Theisen, M.J., Essigmann, B., Benning, C. and Garavito, R.M. Crystal structure of SQD1, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the plant sulfolipid headgroup donor UDP-sulfoquinovose. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 13097–13102. [DOI] [PMID: 10557279]
4.  Sanda, S., Leustek, T., Theisen, M., Garavito, R.M. and Benning, C. Recombinant Arabidopsis SQD1 converts UDP-glucose and sulfite to the sulfolipid head group precursor UDP-sulfoquinovose in vitro. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 3941–3946. [DOI] [PMID: 11073956]
[EC 3.13.1.1 created 2001, modified 2010]
 
 
EC 4.1.2.21     
Accepted name: 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase
Reaction: 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate = pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
For diagram of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, click here
Other name(s): 6-phospho-2-keto-3-deoxygalactonate aldolase; phospho-2-keto-3-deoxygalactonate aldolase; 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonic aldolase; phospho-2-keto-3-deoxygalactonic aldolase; 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonic acid aldolase; (KDPGal)aldolase; 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate-6-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase; 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate-6-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase (pyruvate-forming)
Systematic name: 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phospho-lyase (pyruvate-forming)
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the last reaction in a D-galactose degradation pathway. cf. EC 4.1.2.55, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate/2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9030-99-3
References:
1.  Shuster, C.W. 2-Keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonic acid aldolase. Methods Enzymol. 9 (1966) 524–528.
[EC 4.1.2.21 created 1972, modified 2014]
 
 
EC 4.1.2.40     
Accepted name: tagatose-bisphosphate aldolase
Reaction: D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate = glycerone phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Glossary: glycerone phosphate = dihydroxyacetone phosphate = 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl phosphate
Other name(s): D-tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate triosephosphate lyase
Systematic name: D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase (glycerone-phosphate-forming)
Comments: Enzyme activity is stimulated by certain divalent cations. It is involved in the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway of lactose catabolism in bacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 39433-95-9
References:
1.  Anderson, R.L. and Markwell, J.P. D-Tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (class II) from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods Enzymol. 90 (1982) 232–234. [DOI] [PMID: 6759854]
2.  Van Rooijen, R.J., Van Schalkwijk, S., De Vos, W.M. Molecular cloning, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway gene cluster of the lactose operon of Lactococcus lactis. J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 7176–7181. [PMID: 1901863]
[EC 4.1.2.40 created 1999]
 
 
EC 4.1.2.51     
Accepted name: 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate aldolase
Reaction: 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate = pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde
For diagram of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, click here
Other name(s): Pto1279 (gene name); KDGA; KDG-specific aldolase
Systematic name: 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate D-glyceraldehyde-lyase (pyruvate-forming)
Comments: The enzyme from the archaeon Picrophilus torridus is involved in D-glucose and D-galactose catabolism via the nonphosphorylative variant of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. In the direction of aldol synthesis the enzyme catalyses the formation of 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate at a similar ratio. It shows no activity with 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate 6-phosphate. cf. EC 4.1.2.14, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate aldolase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Reher, M., Fuhrer, T., Bott, M. and Schonheit, P. The nonphosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway in the thermoacidophilic euryarchaeon Picrophilus torridus involves a novel 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate- specific aldolase. J. Bacteriol. 192 (2010) 964–974. [DOI] [PMID: 20023024]
[EC 4.1.2.51 created 2013]
 
 
EC 4.1.2.55     
Accepted name: 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate/2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase
Reaction: (1) 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate = pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
(2) 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate = pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
For diagram of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, click here
Other name(s): 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate aldolase (ambiguous); KDGA (ambiguous)
Systematic name: 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate/2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-galactonate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase (pyruvate-forming)
Comments: In the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus the enzyme is involved in glucose and galactose catabolism via the branched variant of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. It utilizes 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphate-D-gluconate and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphate-D-galactonate with similar catalytic efficiency. In vitro the enzyme can also catalyse the cleavage of the non-phosphorylated forms 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate with much lower catalytic efficiency. cf. EC 4.1.2.21, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase, and EC 4.1.2.14, 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate aldolase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Buchanan, C.L., Connaris, H., Danson, M.J., Reeve, C.D. and Hough, D.W. An extremely thermostable aldolase from Sulfolobus solfataricus with specificity for non-phosphorylated substrates. Biochem. J. 343 (1999) 563–570. [PMID: 10527934]
2.  Lamble, H.J., Theodossis, A., Milburn, C.C., Taylor, G.L., Bull, S.D., Hough, D.W. and Danson, M.J. Promiscuity in the part-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. FEBS Lett. 579 (2005) 6865–6869. [DOI] [PMID: 16330030]
3.  Wolterink-van Loo, S., van Eerde, A., Siemerink, M.A., Akerboom, J., Dijkstra, B.W. and van der Oost, J. Biochemical and structural exploration of the catalytic capacity of Sulfolobus KDG aldolases. Biochem. J. 403 (2007) 421–430. [DOI] [PMID: 17176250]
[EC 4.1.2.55 created 2014]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.6     
Accepted name: galactonate dehydratase
Reaction: D-galactonate = 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate + H2O
For diagram of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, click here
Other name(s): D-galactonate dehydrase; D-galactonate dehydratase; D-galactonate hydro-lyase
Systematic name: D-galactonate hydro-lyase (2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate-forming)
Comments: The enzyme shows no activity with D-gluconate [2]. cf. EC 4.2.1.140, gluconate/galactonate dehydratase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9024-38-8
References:
1.  De Ley, J. and Doudoroff, M. The metabolism of D-galactose in Pseudomonas saccharophila. J. Biol. Chem. 227 (1957) 745–757. [PMID: 13462997]
2.  Donald, A., Sibley, D., Lyons, D.E. and Dahms, A.S. D-Galactonate dehydrase. Purification and properties. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 2132–2137. [PMID: 422572]
[EC 4.2.1.6 created 1961]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.76     
Accepted name: UDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose = UDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucose + H2O
For diagram of UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose and UDP-glucuronate biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): UDP-D-glucose-4,6-hydrolyase; UDP-D-glucose oxidoreductase; UDP-glucose 4,6-hydro-lyase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose 4,6-hydro-lyase (UDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucose-forming)
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 68189-53-7
References:
1.  Kamsteeg, J., van Brederode, J. and van Nigtevecht, G. The formation of UDP-L-rhamnose from UDP-D-glucose by an enzyme preparation of red campion (Silene dioica (L) Clairv) leaves. FEBS Lett. 91 (1978) 281–284. [DOI] [PMID: 680134]
[EC 4.2.1.76 created 1984]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.115     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4,6-dehydratase (configuration-inverting)
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hex-4-ulose + H2O
For diagram of UDP-N-acetyl-β-L-fucosamine biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of mechanism, click here
Glossary: pseudaminic acid = 5,7-bis(acetylamino)-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid
Other name(s): FlaA1; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 5-inverting 4,6-dehydratase; PseB; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine hydro-lyase (inverting; UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hex-4-ulose-forming)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine hydro-lyase (inverting; UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hex-4-ulose-forming)
Comments: Contains NADP+ as a cofactor. This is the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of pseudaminic acid [3], a sialic-acid-like sugar that is unique to bacteria and is used by Helicobacter pylori to modify its flagellin. This enzyme plays a critical role in H. pylori’s pathogenesis, being involved in the synthesis of both functional flagella and lipopolysaccharides [1,2]. It is completely inhibited by UDP-α-D-galactose. The reaction results in the chirality of the C-5 atom being inverted. It is thought that Lys-133 acts sequentially as a catalytic acid, protonating the C-6 hydroxy group and as a catalytic base, abstracting the C-5 proton, resulting in the elimination of water. This enzyme belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of enzymes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Ishiyama, N., Creuzenet, C., Miller, W.L., Demendi, M., Anderson, E.M., Harauz, G., Lam, J.S. and Berghuis, A.M. Structural studies of FlaA1 from Helicobacter pylori reveal the mechanism for inverting 4,6-dehydratase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 24489–24495. [DOI] [PMID: 16651261]
2.  Schirm, M., Soo, E.C., Aubry, A.J., Austin, J., Thibault, P. and Logan, S.M. Structural, genetic and functional characterization of the flagellin glycosylation process in Helicobacter pylori. Mol. Microbiol. 48 (2003) 1579–1592. [DOI] [PMID: 12791140]
3.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Elucidation of the CMP-pseudaminic acid pathway in Helicobacter pylori: synthesis from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by a single enzymatic reaction. Glycobiology 16 (2006) 8C–14C. [DOI] [PMID: 16751642]
[EC 4.2.1.115 created 2009]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.140     
Accepted name: gluconate/galactonate dehydratase
Reaction: (1) D-gluconate = 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate + H2O
(2) D-galactonate = 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate + H2O
For diagram of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, click here
Other name(s): gluconate dehydratase (ambiguous); Sso3198 (gene name); Pto0485 (gene name)
Systematic name: D-gluconate/D-galactonate hydro-lyase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in glucose and galactose catabolism via the nonphosphorylative variant of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Picrophilus torridus [3] and via the branched variant of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Sulfolobus solfataricus [1,2]. In vitro it utilizes D-gluconate with 6-10 fold higher catalytic efficiency than D-galactonate [1,3]. It requires Mg2+ for activity [1,2]. cf. EC 4.2.1.6, galactonate dehydratase, and EC 4.2.1.39, gluconate dehydratase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lamble, H.J., Milburn, C.C., Taylor, G.L., Hough, D.W. and Danson, M.J. Gluconate dehydratase from the promiscuous Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Sulfolobus solfataricus. FEBS Lett. 576 (2004) 133–136. [DOI] [PMID: 15474024]
2.  Ahmed, H., Ettema, T.J., Tjaden, B., Geerling, A.C., van der Oost, J. and Siebers, B. The semi-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway in hyperthermophilic archaea: a re-evaluation. Biochem. J. 390 (2005) 529–540. [DOI] [PMID: 15869466]
3.  Reher, M., Fuhrer, T., Bott, M. and Schonheit, P. The nonphosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway in the thermoacidophilic euryarchaeon Picrophilus torridus involves a novel 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate- specific aldolase. J. Bacteriol. 192 (2010) 964–974. [DOI] [PMID: 20023024]
[EC 4.2.1.140 created 2013]
 
 


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