The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.14.13.186      
Transferred entry: 20-oxo-5-O-mycaminosyltylactone 23-monooxygenase. Now EC 1.14.15.34, 20-oxo-5-O-mycaminosyltylactone 23-monooxygenase
[EC 1.14.13.186 created 2014, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.15.34     
Accepted name: 20-oxo-5-O-mycaminosyltylactone 23-monooxygenase
Reaction: 20-oxo-5-O-β-mycaminosyltylactone + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = 5-O-β-mycaminosyltylonolide + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
For diagram of tylosin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: tylactone = (4R,5S,6S,7S,9R,11E,13E,15S,16R)-7,16-diethyl-4,6-dihydroxy-5,9,13,15-tetramethyl-1-oxacyclohexadeca-11,13-diene-2,10-dione
α-D-mycaminose = 3-dimethylamino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
tylonolide = 2-[(4R,5S,6S,7R,9R,11E,13E,15R,16R)-16-ethyl-4,6-dihydroxy-15-(hydroxymethyl)-5,9,13-trimethyl-2,10-dioxo-1-oxacyclohexadeca-11,13-dien-7-yl]acetaldehyde
Other name(s): tylH1 (gene name)
Systematic name: 20-oxo-5-O-β-mycaminosyltylactone,reduced ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (23-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. Involved in the biosynthetic pathway of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin, which is produced by several species of Streptomyces bacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Baltz, R.H. and Seno, E.T. Properties of Streptomyces fradiae mutants blocked in biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 20 (1981) 214–225. [PMID: 7283418]
2.  Reeves, C.D., Ward, S.L., Revill, W.P., Suzuki, H., Marcus, M., Petrakovsky, O.V., Marquez, S., Fu, H., Dong, S.D. and Katz, L. Production of hybrid 16-membered macrolides by expressing combinations of polyketide synthase genes in engineered Streptomyces fradiae hosts. Chem. Biol. 11 (2004) 1465–1472. [DOI] [PMID: 15489173]
[EC 1.14.15.34 created 2014 as EC 1.14.13.186, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.15.34]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.234     
Accepted name: dTDP-3-amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose N,N-dimethyltransferase
Reaction: 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + dTDP-3-amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose = 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + dTDP-3-dimethylamino-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
For diagram of dTDP-D-desosamine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: α-D-desosamine = 3-dimethylamino-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
dTDP-3-dimethylamino-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose = dTDP-D-desosamine
Other name(s): DesVI
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:dTDP-3-amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose 3-N,N-dimethyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of desosamine, a 3-(dimethylamino)-3,4,6-trideoxyhexose found in certain macrolide antibiotics such as erthyromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Chen, H., Yamase, H., Murakami, K., Chang, C.W., Zhao, L., Zhao, Z. and Liu, H.W. Expression, purification, and characterization of two N,N-dimethyltransferases, tylM1 and desVI, involved in the biosynthesis of mycaminose and desosamine. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 9165–9183. [DOI] [PMID: 12119032]
2.  Burgie, E.S. and Holden, H.M. Three-dimensional structure of DesVI from Streptomyces venezuelae: a sugar N,N-dimethyltransferase required for dTDP-desosamine biosynthesis. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 3982–3988. [DOI] [PMID: 18327916]
[EC 2.1.1.234 created 2011]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.235     
Accepted name: dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose N,N-dimethyltransferase
Reaction: 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose = 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + dTDP-3-dimethylamino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
For diagram of dTDP-D-mycaminose biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dTDP-D-mycaminose = dTDP-3-dimethylamino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): TylM1
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose 3-N,N-dimethyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of mycaminose, an essential structural component of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin, which is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Chen, H., Yamase, H., Murakami, K., Chang, C.W., Zhao, L., Zhao, Z. and Liu, H.W. Expression, purification, and characterization of two N,N-dimethyltransferases, tylM1 and desVI, involved in the biosynthesis of mycaminose and desosamine. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 9165–9183. [DOI] [PMID: 12119032]
2.  Carney, A.E. and Holden, H.M. Molecular architecture of TylM1 from Streptomyces fradiae: an N,N-dimethyltransferase involved in the production of dTDP-D-mycaminose. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 780–787. [DOI] [PMID: 21142177]
[EC 2.1.1.235 created 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.316     
Accepted name: tylactone mycaminosyltransferase
Reaction: tylactone + dTDP-α-D-mycaminose = dTDP + 5-O-β-D-mycaminosyltylactone
For diagram of tylactone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: tylactone = (4R,5S,6S,7S,9R,11E,13E,15S,16R)-7,16-diethyl-4,6-dihydroxy-5,9,13,15-tetramethyloxacyclohexadeca-11,13-diene-2,10-dione
dTDP-α-D-mycaminose = dTDP-3,6-dideoxy-3-dimethylamino-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): tylM2 (gene name)
Systematic name: dTDP-α-D-mycaminose:tylactone 5-O-β-D-mycaminosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin, which is produced by several species of Streptomyces bacteria. Activity is significantly enhanced by the presence of an accessory protein encoded by the tylM3 gene.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Gandecha, A.R., Large, S.L. and Cundliffe, E. Analysis of four tylosin biosynthetic genes from the tylLM region of the Streptomyces fradiae genome. Gene 184 (1997) 197–203. [DOI] [PMID: 9031628]
2.  Melancon, C.E., 3rd, Takahashi, H. and Liu, H.W. Characterization of tylM3/tylM2 and mydC/mycB pairs required for efficient glycosyltransfer in macrolide antibiotic biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (2004) 16726–16727. [DOI] [PMID: 15612702]
[EC 2.4.1.316 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.317     
Accepted name: O-mycaminosyltylonolide 6-deoxyallosyltransferase
Reaction: 5-O-β-D-mycaminosyltylonolide + dTDP-6-deoxy-α-D-allose = dTDP + demethyllactenocin
For diagram of tylosin biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: mycaminose = 3,6-dideoxy-3-dimethylamino-glucopyranose
tylonolide = 2-[(4R,5S,6S,7R,9R,11E,13E,15R,16R)-16-ethyl-4,6-dihydroxy-15-(hydroxymethyl)-5,9,13-trimethyl-2,10-dioxooxacyclohexadeca-11,13-dien-7-yl]acetaldehyde
demethyllactenocin = [(2R,3R,4E,6E,9R,11R,12S,13S,14R)-12-{[3,6-dideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy}-2-ethyl-14-hydroxy-5,9,13-trimethyl-8,16-dioxo-11-(2-oxoethyl)oxacyclohexadeca-4,6-dien-3-yl]methyl 6-deoxy-β-D-allopyranoside
Other name(s): tylN (gene name)
Systematic name: dTDP-6-deoxy-α-D-allose:5-O-β-D-mycaminosyltylonolide 23-O-6-deoxy-α-D-allosyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin, which is produced by several species of Streptomyces bacteria.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Wilson, V.T. and Cundliffe, E. Characterization and targeted disruption of a glycosyltransferase gene in the tylosin producer, Streptomyces fradiae. Gene 214 (1998) 95–100. [DOI] [PMID: 9651492]
[EC 2.4.1.317 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.89     
Accepted name: dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose transaminase
Reaction: dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + 2-oxoglutarate = dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + L-glutamate
For diagram of dTDP-D-mycaminose biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dTDP-D-mycaminose = dTDP-3-dimethylamino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): TylB; TDP-3-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3-aminotransferase; TDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3-aminotransferase; dTDP-3-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3-aminotransferase; dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose 3-aminotransferase
Systematic name: dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The reaction occurs in the reverse direction. The enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of D-mycaminose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Melancon, C.E., 3rd, Hong, L., White, J.A., Liu, Y.N. and Liu, H.W. Characterization of TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose-3,4-ketoisomerase from the D-mycaminose biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces fradiae: in vitro activity and substrate specificity studies. Biochemistry 46 (2007) 577–590. [DOI] [PMID: 17209568]
[EC 2.6.1.89 created 2011]
 
 
EC 5.3.2.4     
Accepted name: TDP-4-oxo-6-deoxy-α-D-glucose-3,4-oxoisomerase (dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose-forming)
Reaction: dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose = dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
For diagram of dTDP-D-mycaminose biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose-3,4-ketoisomerase (ambiguous); Tyl1a; dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose-3,4-ketoisomerase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: dTDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose:dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose isomerase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of D-mycaminose.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Melancon, C.E., 3rd, Hong, L., White, J.A., Liu, Y.N. and Liu, H.W. Characterization of TDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose-3,4-ketoisomerase from the D-mycaminose biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces fradiae: in vitro activity and substrate specificity studies. Biochemistry 46 (2007) 577–590. [DOI] [PMID: 17209568]
[EC 5.3.2.4 created 2011]
 
 


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