The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.340     
Accepted name: 1-deoxy-11β-hydroxypentalenate dehydrogenase
Reaction: 1-deoxy-11β-hydroxypentalenate + NAD+ = 1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenate + NADH + H+
For diagram of pentalenolactone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 1-deoxy-11β-hydroxypentalenate = (1S,2R,3aR,5aS,8aR)-2-hydroxy-1,7,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,3a,5a,6,7,8-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pentalene-4-carboxylate
1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenate = (1S,3aR,5aS)-1,7,7-trimethyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,3a,5a,6,7,8-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pentalene-4-carboxylate
Other name(s): 1-deoxy-11β-hydroxypentalenic acid dehydrogenase; ptlF (gene name); penF (gene name)
Systematic name: 1-deoxy-11β-hydroxypentalenate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis and present in many other Streptomyces species. Part of the pathway for pentalenolactone biosynthesis.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  You, Z., Omura, S., Ikeda, H. and Cane, D.E. Pentalenolactone biosynthesis: Molecular cloning and assignment of biochemical function to PtlF, a short-chain dehydrogenase from Streptomyces avermitilis, and identification of a new biosynthetic intermediate. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 459 (2007) 233–240. [DOI] [PMID: 17178094]
[EC 1.1.1.340 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.3.7.10      
Transferred entry: pentalenolactone synthase. Now EC 1.14.19.8, pentalenolactone synthase
[EC 1.3.7.10 created 2012, deleted 2013]
 
 
EC 1.14.11.35     
Accepted name: 1-deoxypentalenic acid 11β-hydroxylase
Reaction: 1-deoxypentalenate + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 1-deoxy-11β-hydroxypentalenate + succinate + CO2
For diagram of pentalenolactone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 1-deoxypentalenate = (1R,3aR,5aS,8aR)-1,7,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,3a,5a,6,7,8-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pentalene-4-carboxylate
1-deoxy-11β-hydroxypentalenate = (1S,2R,3aR,5aS,8aR)-2-hydroxy-1,7,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,3a,5a,6,7,8-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pentalene-4-carboxylate
Other name(s): ptlH (gene name); sav2991 (gene name); pntH (gene name)
Systematic name: 1-deoxypentalenic acid,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme requires Fe(II) and ascorbate. Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. Part of the pathway for pentalenolactone biosynthesis.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  You, Z., Omura, S., Ikeda, H. and Cane, D.E. Pentalenolactone biosynthesis. Molecular cloning and assignment of biochemical function to PtlH, a non-heme iron dioxygenase of Streptomyces avermitilis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 6566–6567. [DOI] [PMID: 16704250]
2.  You, Z., Omura, S., Ikeda, H., Cane, D.E. and Jogl, G. Crystal structure of the non-heme iron dioxygenase PtlH in pentalenolactone biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 36552–36560. [DOI] [PMID: 17942405]
[EC 1.14.11.35 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.11.36     
Accepted name: pentalenolactone F synthase
Reaction: pentalenolactone D + 2 2-oxoglutarate + 2 O2 = pentalenolactone F + 2 succinate + 2 CO2 + H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) pentalenolactone D + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = pentalenolactone E + succinate + CO2 + H2O
(1b) pentalenolactone E + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = pentalenolactone F + succinate + CO2
For diagram of pentalenolactone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: pentalenolactone D = (1S,4aR,6aS,9aR)-1,8,8-trimethyl-2-oxo-1,2,4,4a,6a,7,8,9-octahydropentaleno[1,6a-c]pyran-5-carboxylate
pentalenolactone E = (4aR,6aS,9aR)-8,8-dimethyl-1-methylene-2-oxo-1,2,4,4a,6a,7,8,9-octahydropentaleno[1,6a-c]pyran-5-carboxylate
pentalenolactone F = (1′R,4′aR,6′aS,9′aR)-8′,8′-dimethyl-2′-oxo-4′,4′a,6′a,8′,9′-hexahydrospiro[oxirane-2,1′-pentaleno[1,6a-c]pyran]-5′-carboxylic acid
Other name(s): penD (gene name); pntD (gene name); ptlD (gene name)
Systematic name: pentalenolactone-D,2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: Requires Fe(II) and ascorbate. Isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces exfoliatus, Streptomyces arenae and Streptomyces avermitilis. Part of the pentalenolactone biosynthesis pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Seo, M.J., Zhu, D., Endo, S., Ikeda, H. and Cane, D.E. Genome mining in Streptomyces. Elucidation of the role of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases and non-heme iron-dependent dehydrogenase/oxygenases in the final steps of the biosynthesis of pentalenolactone and neopentalenolactone. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 1739–1754. [DOI] [PMID: 21250661]
[EC 1.14.11.36 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.133      
Transferred entry: pentalenene oxygenase. Now EC 1.14.15.32, pentalenene oxygenase
[EC 1.14.13.133 created 2011, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.170     
Accepted name: pentalenolactone D synthase
Reaction: 1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = pentalenolactone D + NADP+ + H2O
For diagram of pentalenolactone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenate = (1S,3aR,5aS)-1,7,7-trimethyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,3a,5a,6,7,8-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pentalene-4-carboxylate
pentalenolactone D = (1S,4aR,6aS,9aR)-1,8,8-trimethyl-2-oxo-1,2,4,4a,6a,7,8,9-octahydropentaleno[1,6a-c]pyran-5-carboxylate
Other name(s): penE (gene name); pntE (gene name)
Systematic name: 1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (pentalenolactone-D-forming)
Comments: A FAD-dependent oxygenase. Isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces exfoliatus and Streptomyces arenae. The ketone undergoes a biological Baeyer-Villiger reaction. Part of the pathway of pentalenolactone biosynthesis.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Seo, M.J., Zhu, D., Endo, S., Ikeda, H. and Cane, D.E. Genome mining in Streptomyces. Elucidation of the role of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases and non-heme iron-dependent dehydrogenase/oxygenases in the final steps of the biosynthesis of pentalenolactone and neopentalenolactone. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 1739–1754. [DOI] [PMID: 21250661]
[EC 1.14.13.170 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.171     
Accepted name: neopentalenolactone D synthase
Reaction: 1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = neopentalenolactone D + NADP+ + H2O
For diagram of pentalenolactone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenate = (1S,3aR,5aS)-1,7,7-trimethyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,3a,5a,6,7,8-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pentalene-4-carboxylate
neopentalenolactone D = (1S,4aR,6aS)-1,7,7-trimethyl-3-oxo-4,4a,6a,7,8,9-hexahydro-3H-pentaleno[6a,1-c]pyran-5-carboxylate
Other name(s): ptlE (gene name)
Systematic name: 1-deoxy-11-oxopentalenate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (neopentalenolactone-D-forming)
Comments: A FAD-dependent oxygenase. Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. The ketone undergoes a biological Baeyer-Villiger reaction.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Seo, M.J., Zhu, D., Endo, S., Ikeda, H. and Cane, D.E. Genome mining in Streptomyces. Elucidation of the role of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases and non-heme iron-dependent dehydrogenase/oxygenases in the final steps of the biosynthesis of pentalenolactone and neopentalenolactone. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 1739–1754. [DOI] [PMID: 21250661]
[EC 1.14.13.171 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.15.11     
Accepted name: pentalenic acid synthase
Reaction: 1-deoxypentalenate + reduced ferredoxin + O2 = pentalenate + oxidized ferredoxin + H2O
For diagram of pentalenolactone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 1-deoxypentalenate = (1R,3aR,5aS,8aR)-1,7,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,3a,5a,6,7,8-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pentalene-4-carboxylate
pentalenate = (1R,3aR,5aS,6R,8aS)-6-hydroxy-1,7,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,3a,5a,6,7,8-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pentalene-4-carboxylate
Other name(s): CYP105D7; sav7469 (gene name); 1-deoxypentalenate,reduced ferredoxin:O2 oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 1-deoxypentalenate,reduced ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A heme-thiolate enzyme (P-450). Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. The product, pentalenate, is a co-metabolite from pentalenolactone biosynthesis.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Takamatsu, S., Xu, L.H., Fushinobu, S., Shoun, H., Komatsu, M., Cane, D.E. and Ikeda, H. Pentalenic acid is a shunt metabolite in the biosynthesis of the pentalenolactone family of metabolites: hydroxylation of 1-deoxypentalenic acid mediated by CYP105D7 (SAV_7469) of Streptomyces avermitilis. J. Antibiot. (Tokyo) 64 (2011) 65–71. [DOI] [PMID: 21081950]
[EC 1.14.15.11 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.15.32     
Accepted name: pentalenene oxygenase
Reaction: pentalenene + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 4 H+ + 2 O2 = pentalen-13-al + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 3 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) pentalenene + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = pentalen-13-ol + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
(1b) pentalen-13-ol + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = pentalen-13-al + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
For diagram of humulene-based sequiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): PtlI
Systematic name: pentalenene,reduced ferredoxin:oxygen 13-oxidoreductase
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein found in the bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of pentalenolactone and related antibiotics.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Quaderer, R., Omura, S., Ikeda, H. and Cane, D.E. Pentalenolactone biosynthesis. Molecular cloning and assignment of biochemical function to PtlI, a cytochrome P450 of Streptomyces avermitilis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 13036–13037. [DOI] [PMID: 17017767]
[EC 1.14.15.32 created 2011 as EC 1.14.13.133, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.15.32]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.8     
Accepted name: pentalenolactone synthase
Reaction: pentalenolactone F + O2 + 2 reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+ = pentalenolactone + 2 oxidized ferredoxin + 2 H2O
For diagram of pentalenolactone biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: pentalenolactone F = (1R,4aR,6aS,9aR)-8,8-dimethyl-2-oxo-4,4a,6a,8,9-hexahydrospiro[oxirane-2,1-pentaleno[1,6a-c]pyran]-5-carboxylic acid
pentalenolactone = (1R,4aR,6aR,7S,9aS)-7,8-dimethyl-2-oxo-4,4a,6a,7-tetrahydrospiro[oxirane-2,1-pentaleno[1,6a-c]pyran]-5-carboxylic acid
Other name(s): penM (gene name); pntM (gene name)
Systematic name: pentalenolactone-reduced-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (pentalenolactone-forming)
Comments: A heme-thiolate protein (P-450). Isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces exfoliatus and Streptomyces arenae.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Zhu, D., Seo, M.J., Ikeda, H. and Cane, D.E. Genome mining in streptomyces. Discovery of an unprecedented P450-catalyzed oxidative rearrangement that is the final step in the biosynthesis of pentalenolactone. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 2128–2131. [DOI] [PMID: 21284395]
[EC 1.14.19.8 created 2012 as EC 1.3.7.10, transferred 2013 to EC 1.14.19.8]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.7     
Accepted name: pentalenene synthase
Reaction: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = pentalenene + diphosphate
For diagram of sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis based on humulene, click here
Glossary: pentalenene = (1R,8aR)-1,4,7,7-tetramethyl-1,2,3,3a,5a,6,7,8-octahydrocyclopenta[c]pentalene
Other name(s): pentalenene synthetase
Systematic name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing, pentalenene-forming)
Comments: Isolated from Streptomyces avermitilis. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of pentalenolactone and related antibiotics. The 9si hydrogen of farnesyl diphosphate undergoes a 1,2-hydride shift where it becomes the 1α hydrogen of pentalenene.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 90597-46-9
References:
1.  Cane, D.E. Cell-free studies of monoterpene and sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 11 (1983) 510–515. [PMID: 6642060]
2.  Cane, D.E. and Tillman, A.M. Pentalenene biosynthesis and the enzymic cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105 (1983) 122–124.
3.  Cane, D.E., Sohng, J.K., Lamberson, C.R., Rudnicki, S.M., Wu, Z., Lloyd, M.D., Oliver, J.S. and Hubbard, B.R. Pentalenene synthase. Purification, molecular cloning, sequencing, and high-level expression in Escherichia coli of a terpenoid cyclase from Streptomyces UC5319. Biochemistry 33 (1994) 5846–5857. [PMID: 8180213]
4.  Cane, D.E., Abell, C., Harrison, P.H., Hubbard, B.R., Kane, C.T., Lattman, R., Oliver, J.S. and Weiner, S.W. Terpenoid biosynthesis and the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalysed allylic addition-elimination reactions. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 332 (1991) 123–129. [DOI] [PMID: 1678531]
5.  Lesburg, C.A., Zhai, G., Cane, D.E. and Christianson, D.W. Crystal structure of pentalenene synthase: mechanistic insights on terpenoid cyclization reactions in biology. Science 277 (1997) 1820–1824. [DOI] [PMID: 9295272]
6.  Zu, L., Xu, M., Lodewyk, M.W., Cane, D.E., Peters, R.J. and Tantillo, D.J. Effect of isotopically sensitive branching on product distribution for pentalenene synthase: support for a mechanism predicted by quantum chemistry. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 (2012) 11369–11371. [DOI] [PMID: 22738258]
[EC 4.2.3.7 created 1989 as EC 4.6.1.5, transferred 2000 to EC 4.2.3.7]
 
 


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