The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.1.1.305     
Accepted name: UDP-glucuronic acid dehydrogenase (UDP-4-keto-hexauronic acid decarboxylating)
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucuronate + NAD+ = UDP-β-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose + CO2 + NADH + H+
For diagram of UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinose biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): UDP-GlcUA decarboxylase; ArnADH; UDP-glucuronate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucuronate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)
Comments: The activity is part of a bifunctional enzyme also performing the reaction of EC 2.1.2.13 (UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose formyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Breazeale, S.D., Ribeiro, A.A., McClerren, A.L. and Raetz, C.R.H. A formyltransferase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli and the modification of lipid A with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. Identification and function of UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 14154–14167. [DOI] [PMID: 15695810]
2.  Gatzeva-Topalova, P.Z., May, A.P. and Sousa, M.C. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli ArnA (PmrI) decarboxylase domain. A key enzyme for lipid A modification with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose and polymyxin resistance. Biochemistry 43 (2004) 13370–13379. [DOI] [PMID: 15491143]
3.  Williams, G.J., Breazeale, S.D., Raetz, C.R.H. and Naismith, J.H. Structure and function of both domains of ArnA, a dual function decarboxylase and a formyltransferase, involved in 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 23000–23008. [DOI] [PMID: 15809294]
4.  Gatzeva-Topalova, P.Z., May, A.P. and Sousa, M.C. Structure and mechanism of ArnA: conformational change implies ordered dehydrogenase mechanism in key enzyme for polymyxin resistance. Structure 13 (2005) 929–942. [DOI] [PMID: 15939024]
5.  Yan, A., Guan, Z. and Raetz, C.R.H. An undecaprenyl phosphate-aminoarabinose flippase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 36077–36089. [DOI] [PMID: 17928292]
[EC 1.1.1.305 created 2010]
 
 
EC 1.1.1.333     
Accepted name: decaprenylphospho-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosid-2-ulose 2-reductase
Reaction: trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-arabinofuranose + NAD+ = trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosid-2-ulose + NADH + H+
For diagram of decaprenylphosphoarabinofuranose biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): decaprenylphospho-β-D-ribofuranose 2′-epimerase; Rv3791; DprE2
Systematic name: trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-arabinofuranose:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The reaction is catalysed in the reverse direction. The enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis, is involved, along with EC 1.1.98.3, decaprenylphospho-β-D-ribofuranose 2-oxidase, in the epimerization of trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-ribofuranose to trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-arabinoofuranose, the arabinosyl donor for the biosynthesis of mycobacterial cell wall arabinan polymers.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Trefzer, C., Škovierová, H., Buroni, S., Bobovská, A., Nenci, S., Molteni, E., Pojer, F., Pasca, M.R., Makarov, V., Cole, S.T., Riccardi, G., Mikušová, K. and Johnsson, K. Benzothiazinones are suicide inhibitors of mycobacterial decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribofuranose 2′-oxidase DprE1. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 (2012) 912–915. [DOI] [PMID: 22188377]
[EC 1.1.1.333 created 2012]
 
 
EC 1.1.98.3     
Accepted name: decaprenylphospho-β-D-ribofuranose 2-dehydrogenase
Reaction: trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-ribofuranose + FAD = trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-erythro-pentofuranosid-2-ulose + FADH2
For diagram of decaprenylphosphoarabinofuranose biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribofuranose 2′-epimerase; Rv3790; DprE1; decaprenylphospho-β-D-ribofuranose 2-oxidase
Systematic name: trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-ribofuranose:FAD 2-oxidoreductase
Comments: The enzyme, isolated from the bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis, is involved, along with EC 1.1.1.333, decaprenylphospho-D-erythro-pentofuranosid-2-ulose 2-reductase, in the epimerization of trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-ribofuranose to trans,octacis-decaprenylphospho-β-D-arabinofuranose, the arabinosyl donor for the biosynthesis of mycobacterial cell wall arabinan polymers.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ribeiro, A.L., Degiacomi, G., Ewann, F., Buroni, S., Incandela, M.L., Chiarelli, L.R., Mori, G., Kim, J., Contreras-Dominguez, M., Park, Y.S., Han, S.J., Brodin, P., Valentini, G., Rizzi, M., Riccardi, G. and Pasca, M.R. Analogous mechanisms of resistance to benzothiazinones and dinitrobenzamides in Mycobacterium smegmatis. PLoS One 6:e26675 (2011). [DOI] [PMID: 22069462]
2.  Trefzer, C., Škovierová, H., Buroni, S., Bobovská, A., Nenci, S., Molteni, E., Pojer, F., Pasca, M.R., Makarov, V., Cole, S.T., Riccardi, G., Mikušová, K. and Johnsson, K. Benzothiazinones are suicide inhibitors of mycobacterial decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribofuranose 2′-oxidase DprE1. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 (2012) 912–915. [DOI] [PMID: 22188377]
[EC 1.1.98.3 created 2012, modified 2014]
 
 
EC 1.3.1.83     
Accepted name: geranylgeranyl diphosphate reductase
Reaction: phytyl diphosphate + 3 NADP+ = geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 NADPH + 3 H+
For diagram of acyclic diterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): geranylgeranyl reductase; CHL P
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Comments: This enzyme also acts on geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll a. The reaction occurs in three steps. Which order the three double bonds are reduced is not known.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Soll, J., Schultz, G., Rudiger, W. and Benz, J. Hydrogenation of geranylgeraniol : two pathways exist in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 71 (1983) 849–854. [PMID: 16662918]
2.  Tanaka, R., Oster, U., Kruse, E., Rudiger, W. and Grimm, B. Reduced activity of geranylgeranyl reductase leads to loss of chlorophyll and tocopherol and to partially geranylgeranylated chlorophyll in transgenic tobacco plants expressing antisense RNA for geranylgeranyl reductas. Plant Physiol. 120 (1999) 695–704. [PMID: 10398704]
3.  Keller, Y., Bouvier, F., d'Harlingue, A. and Camara, B. Metabolic compartmentation of plastid prenyllipid biosynthesis—evidence for the involvement of a multifunctional geranylgeranyl reductase. Eur. J. Biochem. 251 (1998) 413–417. [PMID: 9492312]
[EC 1.3.1.83 created 2009]
 
 
EC 1.3.7.11     
Accepted name: 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipid reductase
Reaction: a 2,3-bis-(O-phytanyl)-sn-glycero-phospholipid + 16 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster = a 2,3-bis-(O-geranylgeranyl)-sn-glycero-phospholipid + 16 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 16 H+
For diagram of archaetidylserine biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: phytanol = 3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecan-1-ol
Other name(s): AF0464 (gene name); 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase (donor)
Systematic name: 2,3-bis-(O-phytanyl)-sn-glycero-phospholipid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids. It catalyses the reduction of all 8 double bonds in 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipids and all 4 double bonds in 3-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol phospholipids with comparable activity. Unlike EC 1.3.1.101, 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase [NAD(P)H], this enzyme shows no activity with NADPH, and requires a dedicated ferredoxin [4].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Murakami, M., Shibuya, K., Nakayama, T., Nishino, T., Yoshimura, T. and Hemmi, H. Geranylgeranyl reductase involved in the biosynthesis of archaeal membrane lipids in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. FEBS J. 274 (2007) 805–814. [DOI] [PMID: 17288560]
2.  Sato, S., Murakami, M., Yoshimura, T. and Hemmi, H. Specific partial reduction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate by an enzyme from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius yields a reactive prenyl donor, not a dead-end product. J. Bacteriol. 190 (2008) 3923–3929. [DOI] [PMID: 18375567]
3.  Sasaki, D., Fujihashi, M., Iwata, Y., Murakami, M., Yoshimura, T., Hemmi, H. and Miki, K. Structure and mutation analysis of archaeal geranylgeranyl reductase. J. Mol. Biol. 409 (2011) 543–557. [DOI] [PMID: 21515284]
4.  Isobe, K., Ogawa, T., Hirose, K., Yokoi, T., Yoshimura, T. and Hemmi, H. Geranylgeranyl reductase and ferredoxin from Methanosarcina acetivorans are required for the synthesis of fully reduced archaeal membrane lipid in Escherichia coli cells. J. Bacteriol. 196 (2014) 417–423. [DOI] [PMID: 24214941]
[EC 1.3.7.11 created 2013 as EC 1.3.99.34, transferred 2015 to EC 1.3.7.11 ]
 
 
EC 1.3.99.34      
Transferred entry: 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol 1-phosphate reductase (donor). Now classified as EC 1.3.7.11, 2,3-bis-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycero-phospholipid reductase.
[EC 1.3.99.34 created 2013, deleted 2015]
 
 
EC 1.4.3.4     
Accepted name: monoamine oxidase
Reaction: RCH2NHR′ + H2O + O2 = RCHO + R′NH2 + H2O2
Other name(s): adrenalin oxidase; adrenaline oxidase; amine oxidase (ambiguous); amine oxidase (flavin-containing); amine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating) (flavin-containing); epinephrine oxidase; MAO; MAO A; MAO B; MAO-A; MAO-B; monoamine oxidase A; monoamine oxidase B; monoamine:O2 oxidoreductase (deaminating); polyamine oxidase (ambiguous); serotonin deaminase; spermidine oxidase (ambiguous); spermine oxidase (ambiguous); tyraminase; tyramine oxidase
Systematic name: amine:oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating)
Comments: A mitochondrial outer-membrane flavoprotein (FAD) that catalyses the oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters and biogenic amines [3]. Acts on primary amines, and also on some secondary and tertiary amines. It differs from EC 1.4.3.21, primary-amine oxidase as it can oxidize secondary and tertiary amines but not methylamine. This enzyme is inhibited by acetylenic compounds such as chlorgyline, 1-deprenyl and pargyline but, unlike EC 1.4.3.21 and EC 1.4.3.22 (diamine oxidase), it is not inhibited by semicarbazide.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9001-66-5
References:
1.  Blaschko, H. Amine oxidase. In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrbäck, K. (Ed.), The Enzymes, 2nd edn, vol. 8, Academic Press, New York, 1963, pp. 337–351.
2.  Dostert, P.L., Strolin Benedetti, M. and Tipton, K.F. Interactions of monoamine oxidase with substrates and inhibitors. Med. Res. Rev. 9 (1989) 45–89. [DOI] [PMID: 2644497]
3.  Edmondson, D.E., Mattevi, A., Binda, C., Li, M. and Hubálek, F. Structure and mechanism of monoamine oxidase. Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (2004) 1983–1993. [PMID: 15279562]
4.  Shih, J.C. and Chen, K. Regulation of MAO-A and MAO-B gene expression. Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (2004) 1995–2005. [PMID: 15279563]
5.  Tipton, K.F., Boyce, S., O'Sullivan, J., Davey, G.P. and Healy, J. Monoamine oxidases: certainties and uncertainties. Curr. Med. Chem. 11 (2004) 1965–1982. [PMID: 15279561]
6.  De Colibus, L., Li, M., Binda, C., Lustig, A., Edmondson, D.E. and Mattevi, A. Three-dimensional structure of human monoamine oxidase A (MAO A): relation to the structures of rat MAO A and human MAO B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 12684–12689. [DOI] [PMID: 16129825]
7.  Youdim, M.B., Edmondson, D. and Tipton, K.F. The therapeutic potential of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7 (2006) 295–309. [DOI] [PMID: 16552415]
8.  Youdim, M.B. and Bakhle, Y.S. Monoamine oxidase: isoforms and inhibitors in Parkinson′s disease and depressive illness. Br. J. Pharmacol. 147 Suppl. 1 (2006) S287–S296. [DOI] [PMID: 16402116]
[EC 1.4.3.4 created 1961, modified 1983 (EC 1.4.3.9 created 1972, incorporated 1984), modified 2008]
 
 
EC 1.5.99.12     
Accepted name: cytokinin dehydrogenase
Reaction: N6-prenyladenine + acceptor + H2O = adenine + 3-methylbut-2-enal + reduced acceptor
Glossary: zeatin = (E)-2-methyl-4-(9H-purin-6-ylamino)but-2-en-1-ol = (E)-N6-(4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl)adenine
N6-prenyladenine = N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)purin-6-amine
Other name(s): N6-dimethylallyladenine:(acceptor) oxidoreductase; 6-N-dimethylallyladenine:acceptor oxidoreductase; OsCKX2; CKX; cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase; N6-dimethylallyladenine:acceptor oxidoreductase
Systematic name: N6-prenyladenine:acceptor oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Catalyses the oxidation of cytokinins, a family of N6-substituted adenine derivatives that are plant hormones, where the substituent is a prenyl group. Although this activity was previously thought to be catalysed by a hydrogen-peroxide-forming oxidase, this enzyme does not require oxygen for activity and does not form hydrogen peroxide. 2,6-Dichloroindophenol, methylene blue, nitroblue tetrazolium, phenazine methosulfate and copper(II) in the presence of imidazole can act as acceptors. This enzyme plays a part in regulating rice-grain production, with lower levels of the enzyme resulting in enhanced grain production [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 55326-39-1
References:
1.  Galuszka, P., Frebort, I., Sebela, M., Jacobsen, S. and Pec, P. Cytokinin oxidase or dehydrogenase? Mechanism of cytokinin degradation in plants. Eur. J. Biochem. 268 (2001) 450–461. [DOI] [PMID: 11168382]
2.  Ashikari, M., Sakakibara, H., Lin, S., Yamamoto, T., Takashi, T., Nishimura, A., Angeles, E.R., Qian, Q., Kitano, H. and Matsuoka, M. Cytokinin oxidase regulates rice grain production. Science 309 (2005) 741–745. [DOI] [PMID: 15976269]
[EC 1.5.99.12 created 2001]
 
 
EC 1.8.3.5     
Accepted name: prenylcysteine oxidase
Reaction: an S-prenyl-L-cysteine + O2 + H2O = a prenal + L-cysteine + H2O2
Other name(s): prenylcysteine lyase
Systematic name: S-prenyl-L-cysteine:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Cleaves the thioether bond of S-prenyl-L-cysteines, such as S-farnesylcysteine and S-geranylgeranylcysteine. N-Acetyl-prenylcysteine and prenylcysteinyl peptides are not substrates. May represent the final step in the degradation of prenylated proteins in mammalian tissues. Originally thought to be a simple lyase so it had been classified as EC 4.4.1.18.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 196717-99-4
References:
1.  Zhang, L., Tschantz, W.R. and Casey, P.J. Isolation and characterization of a prenylcysteine lyase from bovine brain. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 23354–23359. [DOI] [PMID: 9287348]
2.  Tschantz, W.R., Digits, J.A., Pyun, H.J., Coates, R.M. and Casey, P.J. Lysosomal prenylcysteine lyase is a FAD-dependent thioether oxidase. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 2321–2324. [DOI] [PMID: 11078725]
[EC 1.8.3.5 created 2000 as EC 4.4.1.18, transferred 2002 to EC 1.8.3.5]
 
 
EC 1.8.3.6     
Accepted name: farnesylcysteine lyase
Reaction: S-(2E,6E)-farnesyl-L-cysteine + O2 + H2O = (2E,6E)-farnesal + L-cysteine + H2O2
Other name(s): FC lyase; FCLY
Systematic name: S-(2E,6E)-farnesyl-L-cysteine oxidase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). In contrast to mammalian EC 1.8.3.5 (prenylcysteine oxidase) the farnesylcysteine lyase from Arabidopsis is specific for S-farnesyl-L-cysteine and shows no activity with S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Huizinga, D.H., Denton, R., Koehler, K.G., Tomasello, A., Wood, L., Sen, S.E. and Crowell, D.N. Farnesylcysteine lyase is involved in negative regulation of abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant 3 (2010) 143–155. [DOI] [PMID: 19969520]
2.  Crowell, D.N., Huizinga, D.H., Deem, A.K., Trobaugh, C., Denton, R. and Sen, S.E. Arabidopsis thaliana plants possess a specific farnesylcysteine lyase that is involved in detoxification and recycling of farnesylcysteine. Plant J. 50 (2007) 839–847. [DOI] [PMID: 17425716]
[EC 1.8.3.6 created 2011]
 
 
EC 1.12.98.3     
Accepted name: Methanosarcina-phenazine hydrogenase
Reaction: H2 + 2-(2,3-dihydropentaprenyloxy)phenazine = 2-dihydropentaprenyloxyphenazine
Other name(s): methanophenazine hydrogenase; methylviologen-reducing hydrogenase
Systematic name: hydrogen:2-(2,3-dihydropentaprenyloxy)phenazine oxidoreductase
Comments: Contains nickel, iron-sulfur clusters and cytochrome b. The enzyme from some sources contains selenocysteine.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 9027-05-8
References:
1.  Abken, H.J., Tietze, M., Brodersen, J., Bäumer, S., Beifuss, U. and Deppenmeier, U. Isolation and characterization of methanophenazine and function of phenazines in membrane-bound electron transport of Methanosarcina mazei gol. J. Bacteriol. 180 (1998) 2027–2032. [PMID: 9555882]
2.  Deppenmeier, U., Lienard, T. and Gottschalk, G. Novel reactions involved in energy conservation by methanogenic archaea. FEBS Lett. 457 (1999) 291–297. [DOI] [PMID: 10471795]
3.  Beifuss, U., Tietze, M., Baumer, S. and Deppenmeier, U. Methanophenazine: structure, total synthesis, and function of a new cofactor from methanogenic Archaea. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 39 (2000) 2470–2472. [DOI] [PMID: 10941105]
[EC 1.12.98.3 created 2002]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.83     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenylpyruvate oxygenase
Reaction: 3-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)pyruvate + O2 = 4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate + CO2
For diagram of 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 3-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)pyruvate = 3-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)-2-oxopropanoate
4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate = 2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)acetate
prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
Other name(s): CloR
Systematic name: 3-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)pyruvate:oxygen 1,2-oxidoreductase (4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate-forming)
Comments: Requires non-heme-iron(II). Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces roseochromogenes DS 12976. A bifunctional enzyme involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis that also catalyses the activity of EC 1.13.12.23, 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Pojer, F., Kahlich, R., Kammerer, B., Li, S.M. and Heide, L. CloR, a bifunctional non-heme iron oxygenase involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 30661–30668. [DOI] [PMID: 12777382]
[EC 1.13.11.83 created 2017]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.85     
Accepted name: exo-cleaving rubber dioxygenase
Reaction: cis-1,4-polyisoprene + n O2 = n (4Z,8Z)-4,8-dimethyl-12-oxotrideca-4,8-dienal
For diagram of all-cis-polyprenyl diphosphate, click here
Other name(s): roxA (gene name); heme-dependent rubber oxygenase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: cis-1,4-polyisoprene:oxygen dioxygenase [(4Z,8Z)-4,8-dimethyl-12-oxotrideca-4,8-dienal-forming]
Comments: The enzyme, studied mainly from the bacterium Xanthomonas sp. 35Y, catalyses the cleavage of the double bonds in natural and synthetic rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene polymers), generating ends that contain ketone and aldehyde groups. The enzyme from Xanthomonas sp. 35Y contains two c-type cytochromes. It attacks the substrate from its end, producing a single product of 15 carbons.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tsuchii, A. and Takeda, K. Rubber-degrading enzyme from a bacterial culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56 (1990) 269–274. [PMID: 16348100]
2.  Jendrossek, D. and Reinhardt, S. Sequence analysis of a gene product synthesized by Xanthomonas sp. during growth on natural rubber latex. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 224 (2003) 61–65. [DOI] [PMID: 12855168]
3.  Braaz, R., Fischer, P. and Jendrossek, D. Novel type of heme-dependent oxygenase catalyzes oxidative cleavage of rubber (poly-cis-1,4-isoprene). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (2004) 7388–7395. [DOI] [PMID: 15574940]
4.  Braaz, R., Armbruster, W. and Jendrossek, D. Heme-dependent rubber oxygenase RoxA of Xanthomonas sp. cleaves the carbon backbone of poly(cis-1,4-Isoprene) by a dioxygenase mechanism. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 2473–2478. [DOI] [PMID: 15870336]
5.  Seidel, J., Schmitt, G., Hoffmann, M., Jendrossek, D. and Einsle, O. Structure of the processive rubber oxygenase RoxA from Xanthomonas sp. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110 (2013) 13833–13838. [DOI] [PMID: 23922395]
6.  Birke, J. and Jendrossek, D. Rubber oxygenase and latex clearing protein cleave rubber to different products and use different cleavage mechanisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80 (2014) 5012–5020. [DOI] [PMID: 24907333]
[EC 1.13.11.85 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.13.11.87     
Accepted name: endo-cleaving rubber dioxygenase
Reaction: Cleavage of cis-1,4-polyisoprene polymers into a mixture of compounds, including a C20 compound ((4Z,8Z,12Z,16Z,20Z,24Z)-4,8,12,16,20,24-hexamethyl-28-oxononacosa-4,8,12,16,20,24-hexaenal), a C25 compound ((4Z,8Z,12Z,16Z,20Z)-4,8,12,16,20-pentamethyl-24-oxopentacosa-4,8,12,16,20-pentaenal), a C30 compound ((4Z,8Z,12Z,16Z)-4,8,12,16-tetramethyl-20-oxohenicosa-4,8,12,16-tetraenal), and larger isoprenologes such as C35, C40, C45, and higher analogues.
For diagram of all-cis-polyprenyl diphosphate, click here
Other name(s): latex clearing protein; lcp (gene name); roxB (gene name)
Systematic name: cis-1,4-polyisoprene:oxygen dioxygenase (endo-cleaving)
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the cleavage of the double bonds in natural and synthetic rubber, producing a mixture of C20, C25, C30, and higher oligo-isoprenoids with ketone and aldehyde groups at their ends. Two unrelated bacterial enzymes are known to possess this activity - the enzyme from Streptomyces sp. K30 (Lcp) contains a b-type cytochrome, while the enzyme from Xanthomonas sp. 35Y, (RoxB) contains two c-type cytochromes. Both enzymes attack the substrate at random locations, and are not able to cleave the C35 or smaller products into shorter fragments.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Tsuchii, A. and Takeda, K. Rubber-degrading enzyme from a bacterial culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56 (1990) 269–274. [PMID: 16348100]
2.  Jendrossek, D. and Reinhardt, S. Sequence analysis of a gene product synthesized by Xanthomonas sp. during growth on natural rubber latex. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 224 (2003) 61–65. [DOI] [PMID: 12855168]
3.  Braaz, R., Fischer, P. and Jendrossek, D. Novel type of heme-dependent oxygenase catalyzes oxidative cleavage of rubber (poly-cis-1,4-isoprene). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70 (2004) 7388–7395. [DOI] [PMID: 15574940]
4.  Braaz, R., Armbruster, W. and Jendrossek, D. Heme-dependent rubber oxygenase RoxA of Xanthomonas sp. cleaves the carbon backbone of poly(cis-1,4-Isoprene) by a dioxygenase mechanism. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 2473–2478. [DOI] [PMID: 15870336]
5.  Seidel, J., Schmitt, G., Hoffmann, M., Jendrossek, D. and Einsle, O. Structure of the processive rubber oxygenase RoxA from Xanthomonas sp. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110 (2013) 13833–13838. [DOI] [PMID: 23922395]
6.  Birke, J. and Jendrossek, D. Rubber oxygenase and latex clearing protein cleave rubber to different products and use different cleavage mechanisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 80 (2014) 5012–5020. [DOI] [PMID: 24907333]
7.  Birke, J., Röther, W. and Jendrossek, D. RoxB is a novel type of rubber oxygenase that combines properties of rubber oxygenase RoxA and latex clearing protein (Lcp). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 83 (2017) e00721-17. [PMID: 28500046]
[EC 1.13.11.87 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.13.12.23     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate synthase
Reaction: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate + O2 = 4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate + CO2 + H2O
For diagram of 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate = 2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenyl)acetate
prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
Other name(s): CloR; novR (gene name)
Systematic name: 4-hydroxy-3-prenylmandelate:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxy-3-prenylbenzoate forming)
Comments: Isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces roseochromogenes DS 12976. A bifunctional enzyme involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis that also catalyses the activity of EC 1.13.11.83, 4-hydroxy-3-prenylphenylpyruvate oxygenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Pojer, F., Kahlich, R., Kammerer, B., Li, S.M. and Heide, L. CloR, a bifunctional non-heme iron oxygenase involved in clorobiocin biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 30661–30668. [DOI] [PMID: 12777382]
[EC 1.13.12.23 created 2017]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.85      
Transferred entry: glyceollin synthase. Now EC 1.14.14.135, glyceollin synthase
[EC 1.14.13.85 created 2004, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.103      
Transferred entry: 8-dimethylallylnaringenin 2-hydroxylase. Now EC 1.14.14.142, 8-dimethylallylnaringenin 2-hydroxylase
[EC 1.14.13.103 created 2007, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.240     
Accepted name: 2-polyprenylphenol 6-hydroxylase
Reaction: 2-(all-trans-polyprenyl)phenol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 3-(all-trans-polyprenyl)benzene-1,2-diol + NADP+ + H2O
For diagram of ubiquinol biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ubiI (gene name); ubiM (gene name)
Systematic name: 2-(all-trans-polyprenyl)phenol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating)
Comments: Contains FAD. The enzyme from the bacterium Escherichia coli (UbiI) catalyses the first hydroxylation during the aerobic biosynthesis of ubiquinone. The enzyme from the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (UbiM) can also catalyse the two additional hydroxylations that occur in the pathway (cf. EC 1.14.99.60, 3-demethoxyubiquinol 3-hydroxylase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hajj Chehade, M., Loiseau, L., Lombard, M., Pecqueur, L., Ismail, A., Smadja, M., Golinelli-Pimpaneau, B., Mellot-Draznieks, C., Hamelin, O., Aussel, L., Kieffer-Jaquinod, S., Labessan, N., Barras, F., Fontecave, M. and Pierrel, F. ubiI, a new gene in Escherichia coli coenzyme Q biosynthesis, is involved in aerobic C5-hydroxylation. J. Biol. Chem. 288 (2013) 20085–20092. [PMID: 23709220]
2.  Pelosi, L., Ducluzeau, A.L., Loiseau, L., Barras, F., Schneider, D., Junier, I. and Pierrel, F. Evolution of Ubiquinone Biosynthesis: Multiple Proteobacterial Enzymes with Various Regioselectivities To Catalyze Three Contiguous Aromatic Hydroxylation Reactions. mSystems 1 (2016) . [PMID: 27822549]
[EC 1.14.13.240 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.66     
Accepted name: marmesin synthase
Reaction: demethylsuberosin + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (+)-marmesin + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of psoralen biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: demethylsuberosin = 7-hydroxy-6-prenyl-1-benzopyran-2-one
(+)-marmesin = (S)-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-2,3-dihydro-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one
Systematic name: demethylsuberosin,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A P-450 monoxygenase involved in psoralen biosynthesis, see EC 1.14.13.102, psoralen synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Hamerski, D. and Matern, U. Elicitor-induced biosynthesis of psoralens in Ammi majus L. suspension cultures. Microsomal conversion of demethylsuberosin into (+)marmesin and psoralen. Eur. J. Biochem. 171 (1988) 369–375. [PMID: 2828055]
[EC 1.14.14.66 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.135     
Accepted name: glyceollin synthase
Reaction: (1) (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-2-prenylpterocarpan + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = glyceollin II + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O
(2) (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-2-prenylpterocarpan + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = glyceollin III + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O
(3) (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-4-prenylpterocarpan + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = glyceollin I + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O
For diagram of glyceollin biosynthesis (part 2), click here
Glossary: prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
Other name(s): dimethylallyl-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan cyclase
Systematic name: (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxy-2-prenylpterocarpan,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (cyclizing)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein purified from soybean.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Welle, R. and Grisebach, H. Induction of phytoalexin synthesis in soybean: enzymatic cyclization of prenylated pterocarpans to glyceollin isomers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 263 (1988) 191–198. [DOI] [PMID: 3369863]
[EC 1.14.14.135 created 2004 as EC 1.14.13.85, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.135]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.142     
Accepted name: 8-dimethylallylnaringenin 2′-hydroxylase
Reaction: sophoraflavanone B + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = leachianone G + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of sophoraflavanone G biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: dimethylallyl = prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
lavandulyl = 5-methyl-2-(prop-1-en-2-yl)hex-4-en-1-yl
leachianone G = (–)-(2S)-2′-hydroxy-8-prenylnaringenin = (–)-(2S)-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
naringenin = 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one
sophoraflavanone B = (–)-(2S)-8-prenylnaringenin = (–)-(2S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one
Other name(s): 8-DMAN 2′-hydroxylase
Systematic name: sophoraflavanone-B,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (2′-hydroxylating)
Comments: A membrane-bound cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein that is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum [1,2]. This enzyme is specific for sophoraflavanone B as substrate. Along with EC 2.5.1.70 (naringenin 8-dimethylallyltransferase) and EC 2.5.1.71 (leachianone G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase), this enzyme forms part of the sophoraflavanone G biosynthetic pathway.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Yamamoto, H., Yatou, A. and Inoue, K. 8-Dimethylallylnaringenin 2′-hydroxylase, the crucial cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase for lavandulylated flavanone formation in Sophora flavescens cultured cells. Phytochemistry 58 (2001) 671–676. [DOI] [PMID: 11672730]
2.  Zhao, P., Inoue, K., Kouno, I. and Yamamoto, H. Characterization of leachianone G 2′′-dimethylallyltransferase, a novel prenyl side-chain elongation enzyme for the formation of the lavandulyl group of sophoraflavanone G in Sophora flavescens Ait. cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiol. 133 (2003) 1306–1313. [DOI] [PMID: 14551337]
[EC 1.14.14.142 created 2007 asEC 1.14.13.103, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.142]
 
 
EC 1.14.19.48     
Accepted name: tert-amyl alcohol desaturase
Reaction: tert-amyl alcohol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = isoprenyl alcohol + NADP+ + 2 H2O
Glossary: isoprenyl alcohol = 3-methylbut-1-en-3-ol
tert-amyl alcohol = 2-methylbutan-2-ol
Other name(s): mdpJK (gene names)
Systematic name: tert-amyl alcohol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-dehydrogenating)
Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Aquincola tertiaricarbonis, is a Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron oxygenase. It can also act, with lower efficiency, on butan-2-ol, converting it to but-1-en-3-ol. Depending on the substrate, the enzyme also catalyses EC 1.14.13.229, tert-butanol monooxygenase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schafer, F., Schuster, J., Wurz, B., Hartig, C., Harms, H., Muller, R.H. and Rohwerder, T. Synthesis of short-chain diols and unsaturated alcohols from secondary alcohol substrates by the Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron oxygenase MdpJ. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78 (2012) 6280–6284. [DOI] [PMID: 22752178]
2.  Schuster, J., Schafer, F., Hubler, N., Brandt, A., Rosell, M., Hartig, C., Harms, H., Muller, R.H. and Rohwerder, T. Bacterial degradation of tert-amyl alcohol proceeds via hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol by employing the tertiary alcohol desaturase function of the Rieske nonheme mononuclear iron oxygenase MdpJ. J. Bacteriol. 194 (2012) 972–981. [DOI] [PMID: 22194447]
[EC 1.14.19.48 created 2016]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.34     
Accepted name: monoprenyl isoflavone epoxidase
Reaction: 7-O-methylluteone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = dihydrofurano derivatives + NADP+ + H2O
Glossary: luteone = 3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one
naringenin = 4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavan-4-one
Other name(s): monoprenyl isoflavone monooxygenase; 7-O-methylluteone:O2 oxidoreductase; 7-O-methylluteone,NADPH:O2 oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 7-O-methylluteone,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase
Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD) with high specificity for monoprenyl isoflavone. The product of the prenyl epoxidation reaction contains an oxygen atom derived from O2, but not from H2O. It is slowly and non-enzymically converted into the corresponding dihydrofurano derivative. The enzyme in the fungus Botrytis cinerea is induced by the substrate analogue, 6-prenylnaringenin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 198496-86-5
References:
1.  Tanaka, M. and Tahara, S. FAD-dependent epoxidase as a key enzyme in fungal metabolism of prenylated flavonoids. Phytochemistry 46 (1997) 433–439.
[EC 1.14.99.34 created 2000]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.60     
Accepted name: 3-demethoxyubiquinol 3-hydroxylase
Reaction: 6-methoxy-3-methyl-2-(all-trans-polyprenyl)-1,4-benzoquinol + a reduced acceptor + O2 = 3-demethylubiquinol + acceptor + H2O
Glossary: 3-demethylubiquinol = 3-methoxy-6-methyl-5-(all trans-polyprenyl)benzene-1,2,4-triol
Other name(s): 6-methoxy-3-methyl-2-(all-trans-polyprenyl)-1,4-benzoquinol 5-hydroxylase; COQ7 (gene name); clk-1 (gene name); ubiF (gene name)
Systematic name: 6-methoxy-3-methyl-2-(all-trans-polyprenyl)-1,4-benzoquinol,acceptor:oxygen oxidoreductase (5-hydroxylating)
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the last hydroxylation reaction during the biosynthesis of ubiquinone.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Marbois, B.N. and Clarke, C.F. The COQ7 gene encodes a protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae necessary for ubiquinone biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 2995–3004. [PMID: 8621692]
2.  Vajo, Z., King, L.M., Jonassen, T., Wilkin, D.J., Ho, N., Munnich, A., Clarke, C.F. and Francomano, C.A. Conservation of the Caenorhabditis elegans timing gene clk-1 from yeast to human: a gene required for ubiquinone biosynthesis with potential implications for aging. Mamm Genome 10 (1999) 1000–1004. [PMID: 10501970]
3.  Kwon, O., Kotsakis, A. and Meganathan, R. Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli: identification of the ubiF gene. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 186 (2000) 157–161. [PMID: 10802164]
4.  Stenmark, P., Grunler, J., Mattsson, J., Sindelar, P.J., Nordlund, P. and Berthold, D.A. A new member of the family of di-iron carboxylate proteins. Coq7 (clk-1), a membrane-bound hydroxylase involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 33297–33300. [PMID: 11435415]
5.  Tran, U.C., Marbois, B., Gin, P., Gulmezian, M., Jonassen, T. and Clarke, C.F. Complementation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae coq7 mutants by mitochondrial targeting of the Escherichia coli UbiF polypeptide: two functions of yeast Coq7 polypeptide in coenzyme Q biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 16401–16409. [PMID: 16624818]
[EC 1.14.99.60 created 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.99.69     
Accepted name: tRNA 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-isopentenyladenosine37 hydroxylase
Reaction: 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-prenyladenosine37 in tRNA + reduced acceptor + O2 = N6-[(2E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl]-2-(methylsulfanyl)adenosine37 in tRNA + acceptor + H2O
Glossary: 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-prenyladenosine = N6-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-2-(methylsulfanyl)adenosine
Other name(s): miaE (gene name); tRNA 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyl adenosine(37) hydroxylase; tRNA 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-dimethylallyladenosine37 hydroxylase
Systematic name: tRNA 2-(methylsulfanyl)-N6-prenyladenosine37,donor:oxygen 4-oxidoreductase (trans-hydroxylating)
Comments: The enzyme, found only within a small subset of facultative anaerobic bacteria, belongs to the nonheme diiron family. The enzyme from Salmonella typhimurium was shown to catalyse a stereoselective (E)-hydroxylation at the terminal C4-position of the prenyl group.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Persson, B.C. and Bjork, G.R. Isolation of the gene (miaE) encoding the hydroxylase involved in the synthesis of 2-methylthio-cis-ribozeatin in tRNA of Salmonella typhimurium and characterization of mutants. J. Bacteriol. 175 (1993) 7776–7785. [DOI] [PMID: 8253666]
2.  Persson, B.C., Olafsson, O., Lundgren, H.K., Hederstedt, L. and Bjork, G.R. The ms2io6A37 modification of tRNA in Salmonella typhimurium regulates growth on citric acid cycle intermediates. J. Bacteriol. 180 (1998) 3144–3151. [DOI] [PMID: 9620964]
3.  Corder, A.L., Subedi, B.P., Zhang, S., Dark, A.M., Foss, F.W., Jr. and Pierce, B.S. Peroxide-shunt substrate-specificity for the Salmonella typhimurium O2-dependent tRNA modifying monooxygenase (MiaE). Biochemistry 52 (2013) 6182–6196. [DOI] [PMID: 23906247]
[EC 1.14.99.69 created 2020]
 
 
EC 1.17.7.4     
Accepted name: 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate reductase
Reaction: (1) 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl diphosphate + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O = (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+
(2) prenyl diphosphate + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O = (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+
For diagram of Non-Mevalonate terpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: isopentenyl = 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl
prenyl = 3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl
Other name(s): isopentenyl-diphosphate:NADP+ oxidoreductase; LytB; (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate reductase; HMBPP reductase; IspH; LytB/IspH; isopentenyl-diphosphate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Systematic name: 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl-diphosphate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Comments: An iron-sulfur protein that contains either a [3Fe-4S] [6] or a [4Fe-4S] [5] cluster. This enzyme forms a system with a ferredoxin or a flavodoxin and an NAD(P)H-dependent reductase. This is the last enzyme in the non-mevalonate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. This pathway, also known as the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DOXP) or as the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, is found in most bacteria and in plant chloroplasts. The enzyme acts in the reverse direction, producing a 5:1 mixture of 3-methylbut-3-en-1-yl diphosphate and prenyl diphosphate.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 512789-14-9
References:
1.  Rohdich, F., Hecht, S., Gärtner, K., Adam, P., Krieger, C., Amslinger, S., Arigoni, D., Bacher, A. and Eisenreich, W. Studies on the nonmevalonate terpene biosynthetic pathway: Metabolic role of IspH (LytB) protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 1158–1163. [DOI] [PMID: 11818558]
2.  Hintz, M., Reichenberg, A., Altincicek, B., Bahr, U., Gschwind, R.M., Kollas, A.-K., Beck, E., Wiesner, J., Eberl, M. and Jomaa, H. Identification of (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate as a major activator for human T cells in Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 509 (2001) 317–322. [DOI] [PMID: 11741609]
3.  Charon, L., Pale-Grosdemange, C. and Rohmer, M. On the reduction steps in the mevalonate independent 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis. Tetrahedron Lett. 40 (1999) 7231–7234.
4.  Röhrich, R.C., Englert, N., Troschke, K., Reichenberg, A., Hintz, M., Seeber, F., Balconi, E., Aliverti, A., Zanetti, G., Köhler, U., Pfeiffer, M., Beck, E., Jomaa, H. and Wiesner, J. Reconstitution of an apicoplast-localised electron transfer pathway involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis of Plasmodium falciparum. FEBS Lett. 579 (2005) 6433–6438. [DOI] [PMID: 16289098]
5.  Wolff, M., Seemann, M., Bui, T.S.B., Frapart, Y., Tritsch, D., Garcia Estrabot, A., Rodríguez-Concepción, M., Boronat, A., Marquet, A. and Rohmer, M. Isoprenoid biosynthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway: the (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (LytB/IspH) from Escherichia coli is a [4Fe-4S] protein. FEBS Lett. 541 (2003) 115–120. [DOI] [PMID: 12706830]
6.  Gräwert, T., Kaiser, J., Zepeck, F., Laupitz, R., Hecht, S., Amslinger, S., Schramek, N., Schleicher, E., Weber, S., Haslbeck, M., Buchner, J., Rieder, C., Arigoni, D., Bacher, A., Eisenreich, W. and Rohdich, F. IspH protein of Escherichia coli: studies on iron-sulfur cluster implementation and catalysis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (2004) 12847–12855. [DOI] [PMID: 15469281]
[EC 1.17.7.4 created 2003 as EC 1.17.1.2, modified 2009, transferred 2016 to EC 1.17.7.4]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.24      
Deleted entry:  protein-γ-glutamate O-methyltransferase. Now listed as EC 2.1.1.77 protein-L-isoaspartate(D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.80 protein-glutamate O-methyltransferase and EC 2.1.1.100 protein-S-isoprenylcysteine O-methyltransferase
[EC 2.1.1.24 created 1972, modified 1983, modified 1989, deleted 1992]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.64     
Accepted name: 3-demethylubiquinol 3-O-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3-demethylubiquinol-n = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + ubiquinol-n
For diagram of ubiquinol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 3-demethylubiquinol-n = 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methyl-6-(all-trans-polyprenyl)-1,4-benzoquinol
Other name(s): 5-demethylubiquinone-9 methyltransferase; OMHMB-methyltransferase; 2-octaprenyl-3-methyl-5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase; S-adenosyl-L-methionine:2-octaprenyl-3-methyl-5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone-O-methyltransferase; COQ3 (gene name); Coq3 O-methyltransferase; 3-demethylubiquinone-9 3-methyltransferase; ubiG (gene name, ambiguous)
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methyl-6-(all-trans-polyprenyl)-1,4-benzoquinol 3-O-methyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme is involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. Ubiquinones from different organisms have a different number of prenyl units (for example, ubiquinone-6 in Saccharomyces, ubiquinone-9 in rat and ubiquinone-10 in human), and thus the natural substrate for the enzymes from different organisms has a different number of prenyl units. However, the enzyme usually shows a low degree of specificity regarding the number of prenyl units. For example, the human COQ3 enzyme can restore biosynthesis of ubiquinone-6 in coq3 deletion mutants of yeast [3]. The enzymes from yeast, Escherichia coli and rat also catalyse the methylation of 3,4-dihydroxy-5-all-trans-polyprenylbenzoate [3] (a reaction that is classified as EC 2.1.1.114, polyprenyldihydroxybenzoate methyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 63774-48-1
References:
1.  Houser, R.M. and Olson, R.E. 5-Demethylubiquinone-9-methyltransferase from rat liver mitochondria. Characterization, localization, and solubilization. J. Biol. Chem. 252 (1977) 4017–4021. [PMID: 863914]
2.  Leppik, R.A., Stroobant, P., Shineberg, B., Young, I.G. and Gibson, F. Membrane-associated reactions in ubiquinone biosynthesis. 2-Octaprenyl-3-methyl-5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 428 (1976) 146–156. [DOI] [PMID: 769831]
3.  Poon, W.W., Barkovich, R.J., Hsu, A.Y., Frankel, A., Lee, P.T., Shepherd, J.N., Myles, D.C. and Clarke, C.F. Yeast and rat Coq3 and Escherichia coli UbiG polypeptides catalyze both O-methyltransferase steps in coenzyme Q biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 21665–21672. [DOI] [PMID: 10419476]
4.  Jonassen, T. and Clarke, C.F. Isolation and functional expression of human COQ3, a gene encoding a methyltransferase required for ubiquinone biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 12381–12387. [DOI] [PMID: 10777520]
[EC 2.1.1.64 created 1982, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.100     
Accepted name: protein-S-isoprenylcysteine O-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methyl ester
Other name(s): farnesyl cysteine C-terminal methyltransferase; farnesyl-protein carboxymethyltransferase; protein C-terminal farnesylcysteine O-methyltransferase; farnesylated protein C-terminal O-methyltransferase; isoprenylated protein methyltransferase; prenylated protein methyltransferase; protein S-farnesylcysteine C-terminal methyltransferase; S-farnesylcysteine methyltransferase; prenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase [misleading]; prenylcysteine carboxymethyltransferase [misleading]; prenylcysteine methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:protein-C-terminal-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine O-methyltransferase
Comments: C-terminal S-geranylgeranylcysteine and S-geranylcysteine residues are also methylated, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 130731-20-3
References:
1.  Clarke, S., Vogel, J.P., Deschenes, R.J. and Stock, J. Posttranslational modification of the Ha-ras oncogene protein: evidence for a third class of protein carboxyl methyltransferases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85 (1988) 4643–4647. [DOI] [PMID: 3290900]
2.  Ota, I.M. and Clarke, S. Enzymatic methylation of 23-29-kDa bovine retinal rod outer segment membrane proteins. Evidence for methyl ester formation at carboxyl-terminal cysteinyl residues. J. Biol. Chem. 264 (1989) 12879–12884. [PMID: 2753892]
3.  Stephenson, R.C. and Clarke, S. Identification of a C-terminal protein carboxyl methyltransferase in rat liver membranes utilizing a synthetic farnesyl cysteine-containing peptide substrate. J. Biol. Chem. 265 (1990) 16248–16254. [PMID: 2398053]
[EC 2.1.1.100 created 1992 (EC 2.1.1.24 created 1972, modified 1983, modified 1989, part incorporated 1992)]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.114     
Accepted name: polyprenyldihydroxybenzoate methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3,4-dihydroxy-5-all-trans-polyprenylbenzoate = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-5-all-trans-polyprenylbenzoate
For diagram of ubiquinol biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): 3,4-dihydroxy-5-hexaprenylbenzoate methyltransferase; dihydroxyhexaprenylbenzoate methyltransferase; COQ3 (gene name); Coq3 O-methyltransferase; DHHB O-methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,4-dihydroxy-5-all-trans-polyprenylbenzoate 3-O-methyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme is involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. Ubiquinones from different organisms have a different number of prenyl units (for example, ubiquinone-6 in Saccharomyces, ubiquinone-9 in rat and ubiquinone-10 in human), and thus the natural substrate for the enzymes from different organisms has a different number of prenyl units. However, the enzyme usually shows a low degree of specificity regarding the number of prenyl units. For example, the human COQ3 enzyme can restore biosynthesis of ubiquinone-6 in coq3 deletion mutants of yeast [3]. The enzymes from yeast and rat also catalyse the methylation of 3-demethylubiquinol-6 and 3-demethylubiquinol-9, respectively [2] (this activity is classified as EC 2.1.1.64, 3-demethylubiquinol 3-O-methyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 139569-31-6
References:
1.  Clarke, C.F., Williams, W., Teruya, J.H. Ubiquinone biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Isolation and sequence of COQ3, the 3,4-dihydroxy-5-hexaprenylbenzoate methyltransferase gene. J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 16636–16641. [PMID: 1885593]
2.  Poon, W.W., Barkovich, R.J., Hsu, A.Y., Frankel, A., Lee, P.T., Shepherd, J.N., Myles, D.C. and Clarke, C.F. Yeast and rat Coq3 and Escherichia coli UbiG polypeptides catalyze both O-methyltransferase steps in coenzyme Q biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 21665–21672. [DOI] [PMID: 10419476]
3.  Jonassen, T. and Clarke, C.F. Isolation and functional expression of human COQ3, a gene encoding a methyltransferase required for ubiquinone biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 12381–12387. [DOI] [PMID: 10777520]
4.  Xing, L., Zhu, Y., Fang, P., Wang, J., Zeng, F., Li, X., Teng, M. and Li, X. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of UbiG, an O-methyltransferase from Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 67 (2011) 727–729. [DOI] [PMID: 21636923]
[EC 2.1.1.114 created 1999]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.163     
Accepted name: demethylmenaquinone methyltransferase
Reaction: a demethylmenaquinol + S-adenosyl-L-methionine = a menaquinol + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine
For diagram of vitamin-K biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): S-adenosyl-L-methione—DMK methyltransferase; demethylmenaquinone C-methylase; 2-heptaprenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone methyltransferase; 2-demethylmenaquinone methyltransferase; S-adenosyl-L-methione:2-demethylmenaquinone methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methione:demethylmenaquinone methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses the last step in menaquinone biosynthesis. It is able to accept substrates with varying polyprenyl side chain length (the chain length is determined by polyprenyl diphosphate synthase)[1]. The enzyme from Escherichia coli also catalyses the conversion of 2-methoxy-6-octaprenyl-1,4-benzoquinone to 5-methoxy-2-methyl-3-octaprenyl-1,4-benzoquinone during the biosynthesis of ubiquinone [4]. The enzyme probably acts on menaquinol rather than menaquinone.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Koike-Takeshita, A., Koyama, T. and Ogura, K. Identification of a novel gene cluster participating in menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis. Cloning and sequence determination of the 2-heptaprenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone methyltransferase gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 12380–12383. [DOI] [PMID: 9139683]
2.  Wissenbach, U., Ternes, D. and Unden, G. An Escherichia coli mutant containing only demethylmenaquinone, but no menaquinone: effects on fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide and nitrate respiration. Arch. Microbiol. 158 (1992) 68–73. [PMID: 1444716]
3.  Catala, F., Azerad, R. and Lederer, E. Sur les propriétés de la desméthylménaquinone C-méthylase de Mycobacterium phlei. Int. Z. Vitaminforsch. 40 (1970) 363–373. [PMID: 5450997]
4.  Lee, P.T., Hsu, A.Y., Ha, H.T. and Clarke, C.F. A C-methyltransferase involved in both ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis: isolation and identification of the Escherichia coli ubiE gene. J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 1748–1754. [DOI] [PMID: 9045837]
[EC 2.1.1.163 created 2009]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.201     
Accepted name: 2-methoxy-6-polyprenyl-1,4-benzoquinol methylase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 2-methoxy-6-all-trans-polyprenyl-1,4-benzoquinol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 6-methoxy-3-methyl-2-all-trans-polyprenyl-1,4-benzoquinol
For diagram of ubiquinol biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ubiE (gene name, ambiguous)
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:2-methoxy-6-all-trans-polyprenyl-1,4-benzoquinol 5-C-methyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme is involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. Ubiquinones from different organisms have a different number of prenyl units (for example, ubiquinone-6 in Saccharomyces, ubiquinone-9 in rat and ubiquinone-10 in human), and thus the natural substrate for the enzymes from different organisms has a different number of prenyl units. However, the enzyme usually shows a low degree of specificity regarding the number of prenyl units. For example, when the COQ5 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is introduced into Escherichia coli, it complements the respiratory deficiency of an ubiE mutant [3]. The bifunctional enzyme from Escherichia coli also catalyses the methylation of demethylmenaquinol-8 (this activity is classified as EC 2.1.1.163) [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Lee, P.T., Hsu, A.Y., Ha, H.T. and Clarke, C.F. A C-methyltransferase involved in both ubiquinone and menaquinone biosynthesis: isolation and identification of the Escherichia coli ubiE gene. J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 1748–1754. [DOI] [PMID: 9045837]
2.  Young, I.G., McCann, L.M., Stroobant, P. and Gibson, F. Characterization and genetic analysis of mutant strains of Escherichia coli K-12 accumulating the biquinone precursors 2-octaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and 2-octaprenyl-3-methyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone. J. Bacteriol. 105 (1971) 769–778. [PMID: 4323297]
3.  Dibrov, E., Robinson, K.M. and Lemire, B.D. The COQ5 gene encodes a yeast mitochondrial protein necessary for ubiquinone biosynthesis and the assembly of the respiratory chain. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 9175–9181. [DOI] [PMID: 9083048]
4.  Barkovich, R.J., Shtanko, A., Shepherd, J.A., Lee, P.T., Myles, D.C., Tzagoloff, A. and Clarke, C.F. Characterization of the COQ5 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Evidence for a C-methyltransferase in ubiquinone biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 9182–9188. [DOI] [PMID: 9083049]
[EC 2.1.1.201 created 2011]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.222     
Accepted name: 2-polyprenyl-6-hydroxyphenol methylase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3-(all-trans-polyprenyl)benzene-1,2-diol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 2-methoxy-6-(all-trans-polyprenyl)phenol
For diagram of ubiquinol biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): ubiG (gene name, ambiguous); ubiG methyltransferase (ambiguous); 2-octaprenyl-6-hydroxyphenol methylase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3-(all-trans-polyprenyl)benzene-1,2-diol 2-O-methyltransferase
Comments: UbiG catalyses both methylation steps in ubiquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. The second methylation is classified as EC 2.1.1.64 (3-demethylubiquinol 3-O-methyltransferase) [2]. In eukaryotes Coq3 catalyses the two methylation steps in ubiquinone biosynthesis. However, while the second methylation is common to both enzymes, the first methylation by Coq3 occurs at a different position within the pathway, and thus involves a different substrate and is classified as EC 2.1.1.114 (polyprenyldihydroxybenzoate methyltransferase). The substrate of the eukaryotic enzyme (3,4-dihydroxy-5-all-trans-polyprenylbenzoate) differs by an additional carboxylate moiety.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Poon, W.W., Barkovich, R.J., Hsu, A.Y., Frankel, A., Lee, P.T., Shepherd, J.N., Myles, D.C. and Clarke, C.F. Yeast and rat Coq3 and Escherichia coli UbiG polypeptides catalyze both O-methyltransferase steps in coenzyme Q biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 274 (1999) 21665–21672. [DOI] [PMID: 10419476]
2.  Hsu, A.Y., Poon, W.W., Shepherd, J.A., Myles, D.C. and Clarke, C.F. Complementation of coq3 mutant yeast by mitochondrial targeting of the Escherichia coli UbiG polypeptide: evidence that UbiG catalyzes both O-methylation steps in ubiquinone biosynthesis. Biochemistry 35 (1996) 9797–9806. [DOI] [PMID: 8703953]
[EC 2.1.1.222 created 2011, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.261     
Accepted name: 4-dimethylallyltryptophan N-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 4-prenyl-L-tryptophan = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 4-prenyl-L-abrine
For diagram of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: 4-prenyl-L-tryptophan = 4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-L-tryptophan = 4-dimethylallyl-L-tryptophan (ambiguous);
4-prenyl-L-abrine = 4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-L-abrine = 4-dimethylallyl-L-abrine (ambiguous)
Other name(s): fgaMT (gene name); easF (gene name)
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-L-tryptophan N-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme catalyses a step in the pathway leading to biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids in certain fungi.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Rigbers, O. and Li, S.M. Ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus. Overproduction and biochemical characterization of a 4-dimethylallyltryptophan N-methyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 283 (2008) 26859–26868. [DOI] [PMID: 18678866]
[EC 2.1.1.261 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.295     
Accepted name: 2-methyl-6-phytyl-1,4-hydroquinone methyltransferase
Reaction: (1) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzene-1,4-diol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 2,3-dimethyl-6-phytylbenzene-1,4-diol
(2) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 2-methyl-6-all-trans-nonaprenylbenzene-1,4-diol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + plastoquinol
(3) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 6-geranylgeranyl-2-methylbenzene-1,4-diol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 6-geranylgeranyl-2,3-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diol
For diagram of tocopherol biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of tocotrienol biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): VTE3 (gene name); 2-methyl-6-solanyl-1,4-hydroquinone methyltransferase; MPBQ/MSBQ methyltransferase; MPBQ/MSBQ MT
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:2-methyl-6-phytyl-1,4-benzoquinol C-3-methyltransferase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of plastoquinol, as well as vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Shintani, D.K., Cheng, Z. and DellaPenna, D. The role of 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinone methyltransferase in determining tocopherol composition in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. FEBS Lett. 511 (2002) 1–5. [DOI] [PMID: 11821038]
2.  Cheng, Z., Sattler, S., Maeda, H., Sakuragi, Y., Bryant, D.A. and DellaPenna, D. Highly divergent methyltransferases catalyze a conserved reaction in tocopherol and plastoquinone synthesis in cyanobacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotes. Plant Cell 15 (2003) 2343–2356. [DOI] [PMID: 14508009]
3.  Van Eenennaam, A.L., Lincoln, K., Durrett, T.P., Valentin, H.E., Shewmaker, C.K., Thorne, G.M., Jiang, J., Baszis, S.R., Levering, C.K., Aasen, E.D., Hao, M., Stein, J.C., Norris, S.R. and Last, R.L. Engineering vitamin E content: from Arabidopsis mutant to soy oil. Plant Cell 15 (2003) 3007–3019. [DOI] [PMID: 14630966]
[EC 2.1.1.295 created 2014]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.329     
Accepted name: demethylphylloquinol methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + demethylphylloquinol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + phylloquinol
For diagram of vitamin K biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: demethylphylloquinol = 2-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinol
phylloquinol = 2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinol = vitamin K1
Other name(s): menG (gene name); 2-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinol methyltransferase
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:2-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinol C-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme, found in plants and cyanobacteria, catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of phylloquinone (vitamin K1), an electron carrier associated with photosystem I. The enzyme is specific for the quinol form of the substrate, and does not act on the quinone form [3].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Sakuragi, Y., Zybailov, B., Shen, G., Jones, A.D., Chitnis, P.R., van der Est, A., Bittl, R., Zech, S., Stehlik, D., Golbeck, J.H. and Bryant, D.A. Insertional inactivation of the menG gene, encoding 2-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone methyltransferase of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, results in the incorporation of 2-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone into the A1 site and alteration of the equilibrium constant between A1 and F(X) in photosystem I. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 394–405. [DOI] [PMID: 11772039]
2.  Lohmann, A., Schottler, M.A., Brehelin, C., Kessler, F., Bock, R., Cahoon, E.B. and Dormann, P. Deficiency in phylloquinone (vitamin K1) methylation affects prenyl quinone distribution, photosystem I abundance, and anthocyanin accumulation in the Arabidopsis AtmenG mutant. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 40461–40472. [DOI] [PMID: 17082184]
3.  Fatihi, A., Latimer, S., Schmollinger, S., Block, A., Dussault, P.H., Vermaas, W.F., Merchant, S.S. and Basset, G.J. A dedicated type II NADPH dehydrogenase performs the penultimate step in the biosynthesis of vitamin K1 in Synechocystis and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 27 (2015) 1730–1741. [DOI] [PMID: 26023160]
[EC 2.1.1.329 created 2016]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.338     
Accepted name: desmethylxanthohumol 6′-O-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + desmethylxanthohumol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + xanthohumol
For diagram of xanthohumol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: desmethylxanthohumol = 2′,4,4′,6′-tetrahydroxy-3-prenylchalcone = (2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-[2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one
xanthohumol = 2′,4,4′-trihydroxy-6′-methoxy-3-prenylchalcone = (2E)-1-[2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
Other name(s): OMT1 (ambiguous)
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:desmethylxanthohumol 6′-O-methyltransferase
Comments: Found in hops (Humulus lupulus). The enzyme can also methylate xanthogalenol.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Nagel, J., Culley, L.K., Lu, Y., Liu, E., Matthews, P.D., Stevens, J.F. and Page, J.E. EST analysis of hop glandular trichomes identifies an O-methyltransferase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of xanthohumol. Plant Cell 20 (2008) 186–200. [DOI] [PMID: 18223037]
[EC 2.1.1.338 created 2017]
 
 
EC 2.1.1.339     
Accepted name: xanthohumol 4-O-methyltransferase
Reaction: S-adenosyl-L-methionine + xanthohumol = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 4-O-methylxanthohumol
For diagram of xanthohumol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: xanthohumol = 2′,4,4′-trihydroxy-6′-methoxy-3-prenylchalcone = (2E)-1-[2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
4-O-methylxanthohumol =2′,4′-dihydroxy-4,6′-dimethoxy-3-prenylchalcone = (2E)-1-[2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one
Other name(s): OMT2 (ambiguous); S-adenosyl-L-methionine:xanthohumol 4′-O-methyltransferase (incorrect); xanthohumol 4′-O-methyltransferase (incorrect)
Systematic name: S-adenosyl-L-methionine:xanthohumol 4-O-methyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme from hops (Humulus lupulus) has a broad substrate specificity. The best substrates in vitro are resveratrol, desmethylxanthohumol, naringenin chalcone and isoliquiritigenin.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Nagel, J., Culley, L.K., Lu, Y., Liu, E., Matthews, P.D., Stevens, J.F. and Page, J.E. EST analysis of hop glandular trichomes identifies an O-methyltransferase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of xanthohumol. Plant Cell 20 (2008) 186–200. [DOI] [PMID: 18223037]
[EC 2.1.1.339 created 2017, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.1.2.13     
Accepted name: UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose formyltransferase
Reaction: 10-formyltetrahydrofolate + UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinopyranose = 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate + UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-β-L-arabinopyranose
For diagram of UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinose biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): UDP-L-Ara4N formyltransferase; ArnAFT
Systematic name: 10-formyltetrahydrofolate:UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-β-L-arabinose N-formyltransferase
Comments: The activity is part of a bifunctional enzyme also performing the reaction of EC 1.1.1.305 [UDP-glucuronic acid dehydrogenase (UDP-4-keto-hexauronic acid decarboxylating)].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Breazeale, S.D., Ribeiro, A.A., McClerren, A.L. and Raetz, C.R.H. A formyltransferase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli and the modification of lipid A with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. Identification and function of UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 14154–14167. [DOI] [PMID: 15695810]
2.  Gatzeva-Topalova, P.Z., May, A.P. and Sousa, M.C. Crystal structure and mechanism of the Escherichia coli ArnA (PmrI) transformylase domain. An enzyme for lipid A modification with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose and polymyxin resistance. Biochemistry 44 (2005) 5328–5338. [DOI] [PMID: 15807526]
3.  Williams, G.J., Breazeale, S.D., Raetz, C.R.H. and Naismith, J.H. Structure and function of both domains of ArnA, a dual function decarboxylase and a formyltransferase, involved in 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose biosynthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 23000–23008. [DOI] [PMID: 15809294]
4.  Gatzeva-Topalova, P.Z., May, A.P. and Sousa, M.C. Structure and mechanism of ArnA: conformational change implies ordered dehydrogenase mechanism in key enzyme for polymyxin resistance. Structure 13 (2005) 929–942. [DOI] [PMID: 15939024]
5.  Yan, A., Guan, Z. and Raetz, C.R.H. An undecaprenyl phosphate-aminoarabinose flippase required for polymyxin resistance in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (2007) 36077–36089. [DOI] [PMID: 17928292]
[EC 2.1.2.13 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.3.2.16     
Accepted name: lipid II:glycine glycyltransferase
Reaction: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + glycyl-tRNAGly = MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + tRNAGly
Other name(s): N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:N6-glycine transferase; femX (gene name); alanyl-D-alanine-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine N6-glycyltransferase
Systematic name: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc:glycine N6-glycyltransferase
Comments: The enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus catalyses the transfer of glycine from a charged tRNA to MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphosphoundecaprenyl-GlcNAc (lipid II), attaching it to the N6 of the L-Lys at position 3 of the pentapeptide. This is the first step in the synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide bridge that is used in S. aureus for the crosslinking of different glycan strands to each other. Four additional Gly residues are subsequently attached by EC 2.3.2.17 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase) and EC 2.3.2.18 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-triglycine)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schneider, T., Senn, M.M., Berger-Bachi, B., Tossi, A., Sahl, H.G. and Wiedemann, I. In vitro assembly of a complete, pentaglycine interpeptide bridge containing cell wall precursor (lipid II-Gly5) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol. 53 (2004) 675–685. [DOI] [PMID: 15228543]
[EC 2.3.2.16 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.3.2.17     
Accepted name: N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase
Reaction: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + 2 glycyl-tRNAGly = MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-tri-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + 2 tRNAGly
Other name(s): femA (gene name); N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-ditrans,octacis-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase
Systematic name: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc:glycine glycyltransferase
Comments: This enzyme catalyses the successive transfer of two Gly moieties from charged tRNAs to MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc, attaching them to a Gly residue previously attached by EC 2.3.2.16 (lipid II:glycine glycyltransferase) to the N6 of the L-Lys at position 3 of the pentapeptide. This is the second step in the synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide bridge that is used by Staphylococcus aureus for the crosslinking of different glycan strands to each other. The next step is catalysed by EC 2.3.2.18 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-triglycine)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase). This enzyme is essential for methicillin resistance [1].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Berger-Bachi, B., Barberis-Maino, L., Strassle, A. and Kayser, F.H. FemA, a host-mediated factor essential for methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: molecular cloning and characterization. Mol. Gen. Genet. 219 (1989) 263–269. [PMID: 2559314]
2.  Johnson, S., Kruger, D. and Labischinski, H. FemA of Staphylococcus aureus: isolation and immunodetection. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 132 (1995) 221–228. [DOI] [PMID: 7590176]
3.  Benson, T.E., Prince, D.B., Mutchler, V.T., Curry, K.A., Ho, A.M., Sarver, R.W., Hagadorn, J.C., Choi, G.H. and Garlick, R.L. X-ray crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus FemA. Structure 10 (2002) 1107–1115. [DOI] [PMID: 12176388]
4.  Schneider, T., Senn, M.M., Berger-Bachi, B., Tossi, A., Sahl, H.G. and Wiedemann, I. In vitro assembly of a complete, pentaglycine interpeptide bridge containing cell wall precursor (lipid II-Gly5) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol. 53 (2004) 675–685. [DOI] [PMID: 15228543]
[EC 2.3.2.17 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.3.2.18     
Accepted name: N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-triglycine)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase
Reaction: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-tri-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + 2 glycyl-tRNAGly = MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-penta-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc + 2 tRNAGly
Other name(s): femB (gene name); N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-triglycine)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-ditrans,octacis-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase
Systematic name: MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-tri-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-GlcNAc:glycine glycyltransferase
Comments: This Staphylococcus aureus enzyme catalyses the successive transfer of two Gly moieties from charged tRNAs to MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoglutaminyl-L-Lys-(N6-tri-Gly)-D-Ala-D-Ala-diphosphoundecaprenyl-GlcNAc, attaching them to the three Gly molecules that were previously attached to the N6 of the L-Lys at position 3 of the pentapeptide by EC 2.3.2.16 (lipid II:glycine glycyltransferase) and EC 2.3.2.17 (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-(N6-glycyl)-D-alanyl-D-alanine-diphosphoundecaprenyl-N-acetylglucosamine:glycine glycyltransferase). This is the last step in the synthesis of the pentaglycine interpeptide bridge that is used in this organism for the crosslinking of different glycan strands to each other.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Ehlert, K., Schroder, W. and Labischinski, H. Specificities of FemA and FemB for different glycine residues: FemB cannot substitute for FemA in staphylococcal peptidoglycan pentaglycine side chain formation. J. Bacteriol. 179 (1997) 7573–7576. [DOI] [PMID: 9393725]
2.  Rohrer, S. and Berger-Bachi, B. Application of a bacterial two-hybrid system for the analysis of protein-protein interactions between FemABX family proteins. Microbiology 149 (2003) 2733–2738. [DOI] [PMID: 14523106]
3.  Schneider, T., Senn, M.M., Berger-Bachi, B., Tossi, A., Sahl, H.G. and Wiedemann, I. In vitro assembly of a complete, pentaglycine interpeptide bridge containing cell wall precursor (lipid II-Gly5) of Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Microbiol. 53 (2004) 675–685. [DOI] [PMID: 15228543]
[EC 2.3.2.18 created 2010]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.54     
Accepted name: undecaprenyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-mannose + undecaprenyl phosphate = GDP + D-mannosyl-1-phosphoundecaprenol
Other name(s): guanosine diphosphomannose-undecaprenyl phosphate mannosyltransferase; GDP mannose-undecaprenyl phosphate mannosyltransferase; GDP-D-mannose:lipid phosphate transmannosylase; GDP-mannose:undecaprenyl-phosphate D-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: GDP-α-D-mannose:undecaprenyl-phosphate D-mannosyltransferase
Comments: Requires phosphatidylglycerol.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37277-62-6
References:
1.  Lahav, M., Chiu, T.H. and Lennarz, W.J. Studies on the biosynthesis of mannan in Micrococcus lysodeikticus. II. The enzymatic synthesis of mannosyl-l-phosphoryl-undecaprenol. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 5890–5898. [PMID: 5350943]
2.  Rush, J.S. and Waechter, C.J. Partial purification of mannosylphosphorylundecaprenol synthase from Micrococcus luteus: a useful enzyme for the biosynthesis of a variety of mannosylphosphorylpolyisoprenol products. Methods Mol. Biol. 347 (2006) 13–30. [DOI] [PMID: 17072001]
[EC 2.4.1.54 created 1972]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.78     
Accepted name: phosphopolyprenol glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-glucose + polyprenyl phosphate = UDP + polyprenylphosphate-glucose
Other name(s): uridine diphosphoglucose-polyprenol monophosphate glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:polyprenol monophosphate glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-glucose:phosphopolyprenol D-glucosyltransferase
Comments: Ficaprenyl phosphate is the best substrate; other polyprenols can also act as substrates, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 55576-46-0
References:
1.  Jankowski, W., Mankowski, T. and Chojnacki, T. Formation of polyprenol monophosphate glucose in Shigella flexneri. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 337 (1974) 153–162. [DOI] [PMID: 4373050]
[EC 2.4.1.78 created 1976]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.83     
Accepted name: dolichyl-phosphate β-D-mannosyltransferase
Reaction: GDP-α-D-mannose + dolichyl phosphate = GDP + dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate
For diagram of glycoprotein biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): GDP-Man:DolP mannosyltransferase; dolichyl mannosyl phosphate synthase; dolichyl-phospho-mannose synthase; GDP-mannose:dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase; guanosine diphosphomannose-dolichol phosphate mannosyltransferase; dolichol phosphate mannose synthase; dolichyl phosphate mannosyltransferase; dolichyl-phosphate mannose synthase; GDP-mannose-dolichol phosphate mannosyltransferase; GDP-mannose-dolichylmonophosphate mannosyltransferase; mannosylphosphodolichol synthase; mannosylphosphoryldolichol synthase
Systematic name: GDP-mannose:dolichyl-phosphate β-D-mannosyltransferase
Comments: Acts only on long-chain polyprenyl phosphates and α-dihydropolyprenyl phosphates that are larger than C35.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 62213-44-9
References:
1.  Babczinski, P., Haselbeck, A. and Tanner, W. Yeast mannosyl transferases requiring dolichyl phosphate and dolichyl phosphate mannose as substrate. Partial purification and characterization of the solubilized enzyme. Eur. J. Biochem. 105 (1980) 509–515. [DOI] [PMID: 6989607]
2.  Bretthauer, R.K., Wu, S. and Irwin, W.E. Enzymatic transfer of mannose from guanosine diphosphate mannose to dolichol phosphate in yeast (Hansenula holstii). A possible step in mannan synthesis. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 304 (1973) 736–747. [DOI] [PMID: 4726855]
3.  Haselbeck, A. Purification of GDP mannose:dolichyl-phosphate O-β-D-mannosyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eur. J. Biochem. 181 (1989) 663–668. [DOI] [PMID: 2659345]
4.  Palamarczyk, G., Lehle, L., Mankowski, T., Chojnacki, T. and Tanner, W. Specificity of solubilized yeast glycosyl transferases for polyprenyl derivatives. Eur. J. Biochem. 105 (1980) 517–523. [DOI] [PMID: 6445267]
5.  Richards, J.B. and Hemming, F.W. The transfer of mannose from guanosine diphosphate mannose to dolichol phosphate and protein by pig liver endoplasmic reticulum. Biochem. J. 130 (1972) 77–93. [PMID: 4655455]
[EC 2.4.1.83 created 1976, modified 1983]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.109     
Accepted name: dolichyl-phosphate-mannose—protein mannosyltransferase
Reaction: (1) dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate + L-threonyl-[protein] = dolichyl phosphate + 3-O-(α-D-mannosyl)-L-threonyl-[protein]
(2) dolichyl β-D-mannosyl phosphate + L-seryl-[protein] = dolichyl phosphate + 3-O-(α-D-mannosyl)-L-seryl-[protein]
For diagram of glycoprotein biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): dolichol phosphomannose-protein mannosyltransferase; protein O-D-mannosyltransferase; dolichyl-phosphate-D-mannose:protein O-D-mannosyltransferase; dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase; dolichyl-D-mannosyl-phosphate:protein O-D-mannosyltransferase
Systematic name: dolichyl β-D-mannosyl-phosphate:L-threonyl/L-seryl-[protein] O-D-mannosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme transfers mannosyl residues to the hydroxy group of serine or threonine residues, producing cell-wall mannoproteins. It acts only on long-chain α-dihydropolyprenyl derivatives, larger than C35.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 74315-99-4
References:
1.  Babczinski, P., Haselbeck, A. and Tanner, W. Yeast mannosyl transferases requiring dolichyl phosphate and dolichyl phosphate mannose as substrate. Partial purification and characterization of the solubilized enzyme. Eur. J. Biochem. 105 (1980) 509–515. [DOI] [PMID: 6989607]
2.  Palamarczyk, G., Lehle, L., Mankowski, T., Chojnacki, T. and Tanner, W. Specificity of solubilized yeast glycosyl transferases for polyprenyl derivatives. Eur. J. Biochem. 105 (1980) 517–523. [DOI] [PMID: 6445267]
[EC 2.4.1.109 created 1983, modified 2014]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.117     
Accepted name: dolichyl-phosphate β-glucosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-α-D-glucose + dolichyl phosphate = UDP + dolichyl β-D-glucosyl phosphate
Other name(s): polyprenyl phosphate:UDP-D-glucose glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose dolichyl-phosphate glucosyltransferase; uridine diphosphoglucose-dolichol glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:dolichol phosphate glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:dolicholphosphoryl glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:dolichyl monophosphate glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:dolichyl phosphate glucosyltransferase; UDP-glucose:dolichyl-phosphate β-D-glucosyltransferase
Systematic name: UDP-α-D-glucose:dolichyl-phosphate β-D-glucosyltransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: Solanesyl phosphate and ficaprenyl phosphate can act as acceptors, but more slowly.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 71061-42-2
References:
1.  Behrens, N.H. and Leloir, L.F. Dolichol monophosphate glucose: an intermediate in glucose transfer in liver. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 66 (1970) 153–159. [DOI] [PMID: 5273893]
2.  Herscovics, A., Bugge, B. and Jeanloz, R.W. Glucosyltransferase activity in calf pancreas microsomes. Formation of dolichyl D[14C]glucosyl phosphate and 14C-labeled lipid-linked oligosaccharides from UDP-D-[14C]glucose. J. Biol. Chem. 252 (1977) 2271–2277. [PMID: 849929]
3.  Villemez, C.L. and Carlo, P.L. Properties of a soluble polyprenyl phosphate: UDP-D-glucose glucosyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 254 (1979) 4814–4819. [PMID: 438216]
[EC 2.4.1.117 created 1984]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.129     
Accepted name: peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase
Reaction: [GlcNAc-(1→4)-Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)]n-diphosphoundecaprenol + GlcNAc-(1→4)-Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol = [GlcNAc-(1→4)-Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)]n+1-diphosphoundecaprenol + undecaprenyl diphosphate
Glossary: Mur2Ac = N-acetylmuramic acid
Other name(s): PG-II; bactoprenyldiphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-pentapeptide:peptidoglycan N-acetylmuramoyl-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase; penicillin binding protein (3 or 1B); peptidoglycan transglycosylase; undecaprenyldiphospho-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-muramoylpentapeptide):undecaprenyldiphospho-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-muramoylpentapeptide) disaccharidetransferase
Systematic name: [poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-(N-acetyl-D-muramoylpentapeptide)]-diphosphoundecaprenol:[N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-D-muramoylpentapeptide]-diphosphoundecaprenol disaccharidetransferase
Comments: The enzyme also works when the lysine residue is replaced by meso-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate (meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, A2pm) combined with adjacent residues through its L-centre, as it is in Gram-negative and some Gram-positive organisms. The undecaprenol involved is ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol (for definitions, click here). Involved in the synthesis of cell-wall peptidoglycan.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 79079-04-2
References:
1.  Taku, A., Stuckey, M. and Fan, D.P. Purification of the peptidoglycan transglycosylase of Bacillus megaterium. J. Biol. Chem. 257 (1982) 5018–5022. [PMID: 6802846]
2.  Goffin, C. and Ghuysen, J.-M. Multimodular penicillin-binding proteins: an enigmatic family of orthologs and paralogs. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62 (1998) 1079–1093. [PMID: 9841666]
3.  van Heijenoort, J. Formation of the glycan chains in the synthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan. Glycobiology 11 (2001) 25. [DOI] [PMID: 11320055]
[EC 2.4.1.129 created 1984, modified 2002]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.180     
Accepted name: lipopolysaccharide N-acetylmannosaminouronosyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosaminouronate + N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = UDP + N-acetyl-β-D-mannosaminouronyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol
Glossary: N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol = lipid I = GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol = ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyl-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl diphosphate
Other name(s): ManNAcA transferase; uridine diphosphoacetylmannosaminuronate-acetylglucosaminylpyrophosphorylundecaprenol acetylmannosaminuronosyltransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-β-D-mannosaminouronate:lipid I N-acetyl-β-D-mannosaminouronosyltransferase (incorrect)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosaminouronate:lipid I N-acetyl-α-D-mannosaminouronosyltransferase
Comments: Involved in the biosynthesis of common antigen in Enterobacteriaceae.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 113478-30-1
References:
1.  Barr, K., Ward, S., Meier-Dieter, U., Mayer, H. and Rick, P.D. Characterization of an Escherichia coli rff mutant defective in transfer of N-acetylmannosaminuronic acid (ManNAcA) from UDP-ManNAcA to a lipid-linked intermediate involved in enterobacterial common antigen synthesis. J. Bacteriol. 170 (1988) 228–233. [DOI] [PMID: 3275612]
[EC 2.4.1.180 created 1990, modified 2011]
 
 
EC 2.4.1.227     
Accepted name: undecaprenyldiphospho-muramoylpentapeptide β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol = UDP + β-D-GlcNAc-(1→4)-Mur2Ac(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol
For diagram of peptidoglycan biosynthesis (part 2), click here
Other name(s): MurG transferase; UDP-N-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-α-D-muramyl(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminlytransferase; UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-α-D-muramyl(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminlytransferase
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:N-acetyl-α-D-muramyl(oyl-L-Ala-γ-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala)-diphosphoundecaprenol 4-β-N-acetylglucosaminlytransferase (configuration-inverting)
Comments: The enzyme also works when the lysine residue is replaced by meso-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate (meso-2,6-diaminopimelate, A2pm) combined with adjacent residues through its L-centre, as it is in Gram-negative and some Gram-positive organisms. The undecaprenol involved is ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol (for definitions, click here).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 60976-26-3
References:
1.  van Heijenoort, J. Recent advances in the formation of the bacterial peptidoglycan monomer unit. Nat. Prod. Rep. 18 (2001) 503–519. [PMID: 11699883]
[EC 2.4.1.227 created 2002]
 
 


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