The Enzyme Database

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EC 2.3.1.202     
Accepted name: UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine N-acetyltransferase
Reaction: acetyl-CoA + UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine = CoA + UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose
Other name(s): PseH
Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine N-acetyltransferase
Comments: Isolated from Helicobacter pylori. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Elucidation of the CMP-pseudaminic acid pathway in Helicobacter pylori: synthesis from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by a single enzymatic reaction. Glycobiology 16 (2006) 8C–14C. [DOI] [PMID: 16751642]
[EC 2.3.1.202 created 2012]
 
 
EC 2.5.1.97     
Accepted name: pseudaminic acid synthase
Reaction: phosphoenolpyruvate + 2,4-bis(acetylamino)-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose + H2O = 5,7-bis(acetylamino)-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid + phosphate
Glossary: pseudaminic acid = 5,7-bis(acetylamino)-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid
Other name(s): PseI; NeuB3
Systematic name: phosphoenolpyruvate:2,4-bis(acetylamino)-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose transferase (phosphate-hydrolysing, 2,7-acetylamino-transfering, 2-carboxy-2-oxoethyl-forming)
Comments: The enzyme requires a divalent metal ion, the highest activity values are observed in the presence of Mn2+ and Co2+ (10 mM).
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Chou, W.K., Dick, S., Wakarchuk, W.W. and Tanner, M.E. Identification and characterization of NeuB3 from Campylobacter jejuni as a pseudaminic acid synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 35922–35928. [DOI] [PMID: 16120604]
[EC 2.5.1.97 created 2011]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.34     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine transaminase
Reaction: UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine + 2-oxoglutarate = UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-hex-4-ulose + L-glutamate
For diagram of legionaminic acid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine = UDP-2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucose = UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine
Other name(s): uridine diphospho-4-amino-2-acetamido-2,4,6-trideoxyglucose aminotransferase; UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine transaminase; UDP-2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxyglucose transaminase; pglE (gene name); UDP-2-acetamido-4-amino-2,4,6-trideoxyglucose:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
Systematic name: UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine, an intermediate in protein glycosylation pathways in several bacterial species, including N-linked glycosylation of certain L-asparagine residues in Campylobacter species [2-4] and O-linked glycosylation of certain L-serine residues in Neisseria species [5].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 37277-89-7
References:
1.  Distler, J., Kaufman, B. and Roseman, S. Enzymic synthesis of a diamino sugar nucleotide by extracts of type XIV Diplococcus pneumoniae. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 116 (1966) 466–478. [DOI] [PMID: 4381351]
2.  Olivier, N.B., Chen, M.M., Behr, J.R. and Imperiali, B. In vitro biosynthesis of UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine by enzymes of the Campylobacter jejuni general protein glycosylation system. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 13659–13669. [DOI] [PMID: 17087520]
3.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Vinogradov, E., Whitfield, D., Young, N.M., Dick, S., Wakarchuk, W.W., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Functional characterization of dehydratase/aminotransferase pairs from Helicobacter and Campylobacter: enzymes distinguishing the pseudaminic acid and bacillosamine biosynthetic pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 723–732. [DOI] [PMID: 16286454]
4.  Rangarajan, E.S., Ruane, K.M., Sulea, T., Watson, D.C., Proteau, A., Leclerc, S., Cygler, M., Matte, A. and Young, N.M. Structure and active site residues of PglD, an N-acetyltransferase from the bacillosamine synthetic pathway required for N-glycan synthesis in Campylobacter jejuni. Biochemistry 47 (2008) 1827–1836. [DOI] [PMID: 18198901]
5.  Hartley, M.D., Morrison, M.J., Aas, F.E., Borud, B., Koomey, M. and Imperiali, B. Biochemical characterization of the O-linked glycosylation pathway in Neisseria gonorrhoeae responsible for biosynthesis of protein glycans containing N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine. Biochemistry 50 (2011) 4936–4948. [DOI] [PMID: 21542610]
[EC 2.6.1.34 created 1972, modified 2013]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.91      
Deleted entry: UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine transaminase. Identical to EC 2.6.1.34, UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine transaminase.
[EC 2.6.1.91 created 2011, deleted 2013]
 
 
EC 2.6.1.92     
Accepted name: UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine transaminase
Reaction: UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine + 2-oxoglutarate = UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hex-4-ulose + L-glutamate
Other name(s): PseC; UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase; UDP-β-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose transaminase; UDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose transaminase
Systematic name: UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine:2-oxoglutarate transaminase
Comments: A pyridoxal 5′-phosphate protein. The enzyme transfers the primary amino group of L-glutamate to C-4′′ of UDP-4-dehydro sugars, forming a C-N bond in a stereo configuration opposite to that of UDP. The enzyme from the bacterium Bacillus cereus has been shown to act on UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hex-4-ulose, UDP-β-L-threo-pentapyranos-4-ulose, UDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose, and UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-hex-4-ulose. cf. EC 2.6.1.34, UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine transaminase, which catalyses a similar reaction, but forms the C-N bond in the same stereo configuration as that of UDP.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Vinogradov, E., Whitfield, D., Young, N.M., Dick, S., Wakarchuk, W.W., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Functional characterization of dehydratase/aminotransferase pairs from Helicobacter and Campylobacter: enzymes distinguishing the pseudaminic acid and bacillosamine biosynthetic pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 723–732. [DOI] [PMID: 16286454]
2.  Schoenhofen, I.C., Lunin, V.V., Julien, J.P., Li, Y., Ajamian, E., Matte, A., Cygler, M., Brisson, J.R., Aubry, A., Logan, S.M., Bhatia, S., Wakarchuk, W.W. and Young, N.M. Structural and functional characterization of PseC, an aminotransferase involved in the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid, an essential flagellar modification in Helicobacter pylori. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 8907–8916. [DOI] [PMID: 16421095]
3.  Mostafavi, A.Z. and Troutman, J.M. Biosynthetic assembly of the Bacteroides fragilis capsular polysaccharide A precursor bactoprenyl diphosphate-linked acetamido-4-amino-6-deoxygalactopyranose. Biochemistry 52 (2013) 1939–1949. [DOI] [PMID: 23458065]
4.  Hwang, S., Li, Z., Bar-Peled, Y., Aronov, A., Ericson, J. and Bar-Peled, M. The biosynthesis of UDP-D-FucNAc-4N-(2)-oxoglutarate (UDP-Yelosamine) in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579: Pat and Pyl, an aminotransferase and an ATP-dependent Grasp protein that ligates 2-oxoglutarate to UDP-4-amino-sugars. J. Biol. Chem. 289 (2014) 35620–35632. [DOI] [PMID: 25368324]
[EC 2.6.1.92 created 2011, modified 2018]
 
 
EC 2.7.7.81     
Accepted name: pseudaminic acid cytidylyltransferase
Reaction: CTP + 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid = diphosphate + CMP-5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid
Glossary: 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid = pseudaminic acid
Other name(s): PseF
Systematic name: CTP:5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-nonulosonic acid cytidylyltransferase
Comments: Mg2+ is required for activity.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Elucidation of the CMP-pseudaminic acid pathway in Helicobacter pylori: synthesis from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by a single enzymatic reaction. Glycobiology 16 (2006) 8C–14C. [DOI] [PMID: 16751642]
[EC 2.7.7.81 created 2012]
 
 
EC 3.6.1.57     
Accepted name: UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose hydrolase
Reaction: UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose + H2O = 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose + UDP
Glossary: pseudaminic acid = 5,7-diacetylamino-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid
Other name(s): PseG; UDP-6-deoxy-AltdiNAc hydrolase; Cj1312; UDP-2,4-bis(acetamido)-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose hydrolase
Systematic name: UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose hydrolase
Comments: The enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Liu, F. and Tanner, M.E. PseG of pseudaminic acid biosynthesis: a UDP-sugar hydrolase as a masked glycosyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 20902–20909. [DOI] [PMID: 16728396]
2.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Elucidation of the CMP-pseudaminic acid pathway in Helicobacter pylori: synthesis from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by a single enzymatic reaction. Glycobiology 16 (2006) 8C–14C. [DOI] [PMID: 16751642]
[EC 3.6.1.57 created 2011]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.115     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4,6-dehydratase (configuration-inverting)
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hex-4-ulose + H2O
For diagram of UDP-N-acetyl-β-L-fucosamine biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of mechanism, click here
Glossary: pseudaminic acid = 5,7-bis(acetylamino)-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-α-L-manno-2-nonulopyranosonic acid
Other name(s): FlaA1; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 5-inverting 4,6-dehydratase; PseB; UDP-N-acetylglucosamine hydro-lyase (inverting; UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hex-4-ulose-forming)
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine hydro-lyase (inverting; UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-β-L-arabino-hex-4-ulose-forming)
Comments: Contains NADP+ as a cofactor. This is the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of pseudaminic acid [3], a sialic-acid-like sugar that is unique to bacteria and is used by Helicobacter pylori to modify its flagellin. This enzyme plays a critical role in H. pylori’s pathogenesis, being involved in the synthesis of both functional flagella and lipopolysaccharides [1,2]. It is completely inhibited by UDP-α-D-galactose. The reaction results in the chirality of the C-5 atom being inverted. It is thought that Lys-133 acts sequentially as a catalytic acid, protonating the C-6 hydroxy group and as a catalytic base, abstracting the C-5 proton, resulting in the elimination of water. This enzyme belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of enzymes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Ishiyama, N., Creuzenet, C., Miller, W.L., Demendi, M., Anderson, E.M., Harauz, G., Lam, J.S. and Berghuis, A.M. Structural studies of FlaA1 from Helicobacter pylori reveal the mechanism for inverting 4,6-dehydratase activity. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 24489–24495. [DOI] [PMID: 16651261]
2.  Schirm, M., Soo, E.C., Aubry, A.J., Austin, J., Thibault, P. and Logan, S.M. Structural, genetic and functional characterization of the flagellin glycosylation process in Helicobacter pylori. Mol. Microbiol. 48 (2003) 1579–1592. [DOI] [PMID: 12791140]
3.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Elucidation of the CMP-pseudaminic acid pathway in Helicobacter pylori: synthesis from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by a single enzymatic reaction. Glycobiology 16 (2006) 8C–14C. [DOI] [PMID: 16751642]
[EC 4.2.1.115 created 2009]
 
 
EC 4.2.1.135     
Accepted name: UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4,6-dehydratase (configuration-retaining)
Reaction: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-hex-4-ulose + H2O
For diagram of legionaminic acid biosynthesis, click here, and for mechanism, click here
Glossary: N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine = 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose
Other name(s): PglF
Systematic name: UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine hydro-lyase (configuration-retaining; UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-hex-4-ulose-forming)
Comments: Contains NAD+ as a cofactor [2]. This is the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine [1], the first carbohydrate in the glycoprotein N-linked heptasaccharide in Campylobacter jejuni. This enzyme belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of enzymes.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB
References:
1.  Schoenhofen, I.C., McNally, D.J., Vinogradov, E., Whitfield, D., Young, N.M., Dick, S., Wakarchuk, W.W., Brisson, J.R. and Logan, S.M. Functional characterization of dehydratase/aminotransferase pairs from Helicobacter and Campylobacter: enzymes distinguishing the pseudaminic acid and bacillosamine biosynthetic pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (2006) 723–732. [DOI] [PMID: 16286454]
2.  Olivier, N.B., Chen, M.M., Behr, J.R. and Imperiali, B. In vitro biosynthesis of UDP-N,N′-diacetylbacillosamine by enzymes of the Campylobacter jejuni general protein glycosylation system. Biochemistry 45 (2006) 13659–13669. [DOI] [PMID: 17087520]
[EC 4.2.1.135 created 2012]
 
 


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