The Enzyme Database

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EC 1.2.1.74     
Accepted name: abieta-7,13-dien-18-al dehydrogenase
Reaction: abieta-7,13-dien-18-al + H2O + NAD+ = abieta-7,13-dien-18-oate + NADH + H+
For diagram of abietadiene, abietate, isopimaradiene, labdadienol and sclareol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: abieta-7,13-dien-18-al = (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carbaldehyde
abieta-7,13-dien-18-oate = (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylate
Other name(s): abietadienal dehydrogenase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: abieta-7,13-dien-18-al:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Comments: Abietic acid is the principle component of conifer resin. This enzyme catalyses the last step of the pathway of abietic acid biosynthesis in Abies grandis (grand fir). The activity has been demonstrated in cell-free stem extracts of A. grandis, was present in the cytoplasm, and required NAD+ as cofactor [1]. The enzyme is expressed constitutively at a high level, and is not inducible by wounding of the plant tissue [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Funk, C. and Croteau, R. Diterpenoid resin acid biosynthesis in conifers: characterization of two cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in abietic acid biosynthesis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 308 (1994) 258–266. [DOI] [PMID: 8311462]
2.  Funk, C., Lewinsohn, E., Vogel, B.S., Steele, C.L. and Croteau, R. Regulation of oleoresinosis in grand fir (Abies grandis) (coordinate induction of monoterpene and diterpene cyclases and two cytochrome P450-dependent diterpenoid hydroxylases by stem wounding). Plant Physiol. 106 (1994) 999–1005. [PMID: 12232380]
[EC 1.2.1.74 created 2009, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.108      
Transferred entry: abieta-7,13-diene hydroxylase. Now EC 1.14.14.144, abieta-7,13-diene hydroxylase
[EC 1.14.13.108 created 2009, modified 2012, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.13.109      
Transferred entry: abieta-7,13-dien-18-ol hydroxylase. Now EC 1.14.14.145, abieta-7,13-dien-18-ol hydroxylase
[EC 1.14.13.109 created 2009, modified 2012, deleted 2018]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.144     
Accepted name: abieta-7,13-diene hydroxylase
Reaction: abieta-7,13-diene + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = abieta-7,13-dien-18-ol + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of abietadiene, abietate, isopimaradiene, labdadienol and sclareol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: abieta-7,13-diene = (4aS,4bR,10aS)-7-isopropyl-1,1,4a-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene
abieta-7,13-dien-18-ol = ((1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthren-1-yl)methanol
Other name(s): abietadiene hydroxylase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: abieta-7,13-diene,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (18-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. This enzyme catalyses a step in the pathway of abietic acid biosynthesis. The activity has been demonstrated in cell-free stem extracts of Abies grandis (grand fir) and Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine). Activity is induced by wounding of the plant tissue [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Funk, C. and Croteau, R. Diterpenoid resin acid biosynthesis in conifers: characterization of two cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in abietic acid biosynthesis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 308 (1994) 258–266. [DOI] [PMID: 8311462]
2.  Funk, C., Lewinsohn, E., Vogel, B.S., Steele, C.L. and Croteau, R. Regulation of oleoresinosis in grand fir (Abies grandis) (coordinate induction of monoterpene and diterpene cyclases and two cytochrome P450-dependent diterpenoid hydroxylases by stem wounding). Plant Physiol. 106 (1994) 999–1005. [PMID: 12232380]
[EC 1.14.14.144 created 2009 as EC 1.14.13.108, modified 2012, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.144]
 
 
EC 1.14.14.145     
Accepted name: abieta-7,13-dien-18-ol hydroxylase
Reaction: abieta-7,13-dien-18-ol + 2 [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 2 O2 = abieta-7,13-dien-18-oate + 2 [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + 3 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) abieta-7,13-dien-18-ol + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = abieta-7,13-dien-18,18-diol + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
(1b) abieta-7,13-dien-18,18-diol = abieta-7,13-dien-18-al + H2O (spontaneous)
(1c) abieta-7,13-dien-18-al + [reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = abieta-7,13-dien-18-oate + [oxidized NADPH—hemoprotein reductase] + H2O
For diagram of abietadiene, abietate, isopimaradiene, labdadienol and sclareol biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: abieta-7,13-dien-18-ol = ((1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthren-1-yl)methanol
abieta-7,13-dien-18-al = (1R,4aR,4bR,10aR)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene-1-carbaldehyde
Other name(s): CYP720B1; PtAO; abietadienol hydroxylase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: abieta-7,13-dien-18-ol,[reduced NADPH—hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (18-hydroxylating)
Comments: A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. This enzyme catalyses a step in the pathway of abietic acid biosynthesis. The activity has been demonstrated in cell-free stem extracts of Abies grandis (grand fir) and Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) [1], and the gene encoding the enzyme has been identified in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) [3]. The recombinant enzyme catalyses the oxidation of multiple diterpene alcohol and aldehydes, including levopimaradienol, isopimara-7,15-dienol, isopimara-7,15-dienal, dehydroabietadienol and dehydroabietadienal. It is not able to oxidize abietadiene.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Funk, C. and Croteau, R. Diterpenoid resin acid biosynthesis in conifers: characterization of two cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and an aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in abietic acid biosynthesis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 308 (1994) 258–266. [DOI] [PMID: 8311462]
2.  Funk, C., Lewinsohn, E., Vogel, B.S., Steele, C.L. and Croteau, R. Regulation of oleoresinosis in grand fir (Abies grandis) (coordinate induction of monoterpene and diterpene cyclases and two cytochrome P450-dependent diterpenoid hydroxylases by stem wounding). Plant Physiol. 106 (1994) 999–1005. [PMID: 12232380]
3.  Ro, D.K., Arimura, G., Lau, S.Y., Piers, E. and Bohlmann, J. Loblolly pine abietadienol/abietadienal oxidase PtAO (CYP720B1) is a multifunctional, multisubstrate cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 8060–8065. [DOI] [PMID: 15911762]
[EC 1.14.14.145 created 2009 as EC 1.14.13.109, modified 2012, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.145]
 
 
EC 3.1.7.4      
Deleted entry: Now recognized as two enzymes EC 4.2.1.133, copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase and EC 4.2.3.141 sclareol synthase
[EC 3.1.7.4 created 2008, deleted 2013]
 
 
EC 3.1.7.7      
Transferred entry: (–)-drimenol synthase. Now EC 4.2.3.194, (–)-drimenol synthase
[EC 3.1.7.7 created 2011, deleted 2017]
 
 
EC 3.1.7.10     
Accepted name: (13E)-labda-7,13-dien-15-ol synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate + H2O = (13E)-labda-7,13-dien-15-ol + diphosphate
For diagram of abietadiene, abietate, isopimaradiene, labdadienol and sclareol biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of sclareol and (13e)-labda-7,13-dien-15-ol biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): labda-7,13E-dien-15-ol synthase
Systematic name: geranylgeranyl-diphosphate diphosphohydrolase [(13E)-labda-7,13-dien-15-ol-forming]
Comments: The enzyme from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii is bifunctional, initially forming (13E)-labda-7,13-dien-15-yl diphosphate, which is hydrolysed to the alcohol.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Mafu, S., Hillwig, M.L. and Peters, R.J. A novel labda-7,13E-dien-15-ol-producing bifunctional diterpene synthase from Selaginella moellendorffii. ChemBioChem 12 (2011) 1984–1987. [DOI] [PMID: 21751328]
[EC 3.1.7.10 created 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.18     
Accepted name: abieta-7,13-diene synthase
Reaction: (+)-copalyl diphosphate = abieta-7,13-diene + diphosphate
For diagram of abietadiene, abietate, isopimaradiene, phyllocladan-16alpha-ol and sclareol biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of reaction, click here
Glossary: (+)-copalyl diphosphate = (2E)-3-methyl-5-[(1S,4aS,8aS)-5,5,8a-trimethyl-2-methylidenedecahydronaphthalen-1-yl]pent-2-en-1-yl trihydrogen diphosphate
abieta-7,13-diene = (4aS,4bR,10aS)-7-isopropyl-1,1,4a-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,10,10a-decahydrophenanthrene
Other name(s): copalyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (cyclizing) (ambiguous); abietadiene synthase (ambiguous)
Systematic name: (+)-copalyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [cyclizing, abieta-7,13-diene-forming]
Comments: Part of a bifunctional enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of abietadiene. See also EC 5.5.1.12, copalyl diphosphate synthase. Requires Mg2+.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 157972-08-2
References:
1.  Peters, R.J., Flory, J.E., Jetter, R., Ravn, M.M., Lee, H.J., Coates, R.M. and Croteau, R.B. Abietadiene synthase from grand fir (Abies grandis): characterization and mechanism of action of the "pseudomature" recombinant enzyme. Biochemistry 39 (2000) 15592–15602. [DOI] [PMID: 11112547]
2.  Peters, R.J., Ravn, M.M., Coates, R.M. and Croteau, R.B. Bifunctional abietadiene synthase: free diffusive transfer of the (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate between two distinct active sites. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123 (2001) 8974–8978. [DOI] [PMID: 11552804]
3.  Peters, R.J. and Croteau, R.B. Abietadiene synthase catalysis: mutational analysis of a prenyl diphosphate ionization-initiated cyclization and rearrangement. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 580–584. [DOI] [PMID: 11805316]
4.  Peters, R.J. and Croteau, R.B. Abietadiene synthase catalysis: conserved residues involved in protonation-initiated cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to (+)-copalyl diphosphate. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 1836–1842. [DOI] [PMID: 11827528]
5.  Ravn, M.M., Peters, R.J., Coates, R.M. and Croteau, R. Mechanism of abietadiene synthase catalysis: stereochemistry and stabilization of the cryptic pimarenyl carbocation intermediates. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 (2002) 6998–7006. [DOI] [PMID: 12059223]
[EC 4.2.3.18 created 2002, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.32     
Accepted name: levopimaradiene synthase
Reaction: (+)-copalyl diphosphate = abieta-8(14),12-diene + diphosphate
For diagram of abietadiene, abietate, isopimaradiene, labdadienol and sclareol biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of abietadiene, levopimaradiene and isopimara-7,15-diene biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: levopimaradiene = abieta-8(14),12-diene
Other name(s): PtTPS-LAS; LPS; copalyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [abieta-8(14),12-diene-forming]
Systematic name: (+)-copalyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [abieta-8(14),12-diene-forming]
Comments: In Ginkgo, the enzyme catalyses the initial cyclization step in the biosynthesis of ginkgolides, a structurally unique family of diterpenoids that are highly specific platelet-activating-factor receptor antagonists [1]. Levopimaradiene is widely distributed in higher plants. In some species the enzyme also forms abietadiene, palustradiene, and neoabietadiene [2].
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Schepmann, H.G., Pang, J. and Matsuda, S.P. Cloning and characterization of Ginkgo biloba levopimaradiene synthase which catalyzes the first committed step in ginkgolide biosynthesis. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 392 (2001) 263–269. [DOI] [PMID: 11488601]
2.  Ro, D.K. and Bohlmann, J. Diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda): functional characterization of abietadiene/levopimaradiene synthase (PtTPS-LAS) cDNA and subcellular targeting of PtTPS-LAS and abietadienol/abietadienal oxidase (PtAO, CYP720B1). Phytochemistry 67 (2006) 1572–1578. [DOI] [PMID: 16497345]
[EC 4.2.3.32 created 2008, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.44     
Accepted name: isopimara-7,15-diene synthase
Reaction: (+)-copalyl diphosphate = isopimara-7,15-diene + diphosphate
For diagram of abietadiene, abietate, isopimaradiene, labdadienol and sclareol biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of abietadiene, levopimaradiene and isopimara-7,15-diene biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: isopimara-7,15-diene = 13α-pimara-7,15-diene
Other name(s): PaTPS-Iso; copalyl diphosphate-lyase (isopimara-7,15-diene-forming)
Systematic name: (+)-copalyl diphosphate-lyase (isopimara-7,15-diene-forming)
Comments: The enzyme only gave isopimara-7,15-diene.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Martin, D.M., Faldt, J. and Bohlmann, J. Functional characterization of nine Norway Spruce TPS genes and evolution of gymnosperm terpene synthases of the TPS-d subfamily. Plant Physiol. 135 (2004) 1908–1927. [DOI] [PMID: 15310829]
[EC 4.2.3.44 created 2009]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.45     
Accepted name: phyllocladan-16α-ol synthase
Reaction: (+)-copalyl diphosphate + H2O = phyllocladan-16α-ol + diphosphate
For diagram of abietadiene, aphidicolanol, sclareol and terpentetriene biosynthesis, click here and for mechanism of reaction, click here
Other name(s): PaDC1
Systematic name: (+)-copalyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase (phyllocladan-16α-ol-forming)
Comments: The adjacent gene PaDC2 codes EC 5.5.1.12 copalyl diphosphate synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Toyomasu, T., Niida, R., Kenmoku, H., Kanno, Y., Miura, S., Nakano, C., Shiono, Y., Mitsuhashi, W., Toshima, H., Oikawa, H., Hoshino, T., Dairi, T., Kato, N. and Sassa, T. Identification of diterpene biosynthetic gene clusters and functional analysis of labdane-related diterpene cyclases in Phomopsis amygdali. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 72 (2008) 1038–1047. [DOI] [PMID: 18391465]
[EC 4.2.3.45 created 2009]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.141     
Accepted name: sclareol synthase
Reaction: (13E)-8α-hydroxylabd-13-en-15-yl diphosphate + H2O = sclareol + diphosphate
For diagram of hydroxylabdenyl diphosphate derived diterpenoids, click here
Glossary: sclareol = (13R)-labd-14-ene-8α,13-diol
(13E)-8α-hydroxylabd-13-en-15-yl diphosphate = 8-hydroxycopalyl diphosphate
Other name(s): SS
Systematic name: (13E)-8α-hydroxylabd-13-en-15-yl-diphosphate-lyase (sclareol-forming)
Comments: Isolated from the plant Salvia sclarea (clary sage). Originally thought to be synthesized in one step from geranylgeranyl diphosphate it is now known to require two enzymes, EC 4.2.1.133, copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase and EC 4.2.3.141, sclareol synthase. Sclareol is used in perfumery.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc
References:
1.  Caniard, A., Zerbe, P., Legrand, S., Cohade, A., Valot, N., Magnard, J.L., Bohlmann, J. and Legendre, L. Discovery and functional characterization of two diterpene synthases for sclareol biosynthesis in Salvia sclarea (L.) and their relevance for perfume manufacture. BMC Plant Biol. 12:119 (2012). [DOI] [PMID: 22834731]
[EC 4.2.3.141 created 2013, modified 2017]
 
 
EC 4.2.3.194     
Accepted name: (–)-drimenol synthase
Reaction: (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + H2O = (–)-drimenol + diphosphate
For diagram of sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, click here
Glossary: (–)-drimenol = drim-7-en-11-ol
Other name(s): PhDS; VoTPS3; farnesyl pyrophosphate:drimenol cyclase; drimenol cyclase; (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphosphohydrolase (drimenol-forming)
Systematic name: (2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate diphospho-lyase [cyclising, (–)-drimenol-forming]
Comments: Isolated from the plants Valeriana officinalis (valerian) and Persicaria hydropiper (water pepper). The enzyme does not act on farnesol or drimenol diphosphate. Using 18-oxygen labelled water 18-oxygen was incorporated suggesting involvement of a stabilised carbocation or an equivalent species.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 146838-17-7
References:
1.  Banthorp, D.V., Brown, J.T. and Morris, G.S. Partial purification of farnesyl pyrophosphate:drimenol cyclase and geranylgerany pyrophosphate:sclareol cyclase, using cell culture as a source of material. Phytochemistry 31 (1992) 3391–3395.
2.  Kwon, M., Cochrane, S.A., Vederas, J.C. and Ro, D.K. Molecular cloning and characterization of drimenol synthase from valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). FEBS Lett. 588 (2014) 4597–4603. [DOI] [PMID: 25447532]
3.  Henquet, M.GL., Prota, N., van der Hooft, J.JJ., Varbanova-Herde, M., Hulzink, R.JM., de Vos, M., Prins, M., de Both, M.TJ., Franssen, M.CR., Bouwmeester, H. and Jongsma, M. Identification of a drimenol synthase and drimenol oxidase from Persicaria hydropiper, involved in the biosynthesis of insect deterrent drimanes. Plant J. 90 (2017) 1052–1063. [DOI] [PMID: 28258968]
[EC 4.2.3.194 created 2011 as EC 3.1.7.7, transferred 2017 to EC 4.2.3.194]
 
 
EC 5.5.1.12     
Accepted name: copalyl diphosphate synthase
Reaction: geranylgeranyl diphosphate = (+)-copalyl diphosphate
For diagram of abietadiene, abietate, isopimaradiene, labdadienol and sclareol biosynthesis, click here, for diagram of labdane diterpenoids biosynthesis, click here and for diagram of pimarane diterpenoids biosynthesis, click here
Other name(s): (+)-copalyl-diphosphate lyase (decyclizing)
Systematic name: (+)-copalyl-diphosphate lyase (ring-opening)
Comments: In some plants, such as Salvia miltiorrhiza, this enzyme is monofunctional. In other plants this activity is often a part of a bifunctional enzyme. For example, in Selaginella moellendorffii this activity is catalysed by a bifunctional enzyme that also catalyses EC 4.2.3.131, miltiradiene synthase, while in the tree Abies grandis (grand fir) it is catalysed by a bifunctional enzyme that also catalyses EC 4.2.3.18, abietadiene synthase.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 157972-08-2
References:
1.  Peters, R.J., Ravn, M.M., Coates, R.M. and Croteau, R.B. Bifunctional abietadiene synthase: free diffusive transfer of the (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate between two distinct active sites. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123 (2001) 8974–8978. [DOI] [PMID: 11552804]
2.  Sugai, Y., Ueno, Y., Hayashi, K., Oogami, S., Toyomasu, T., Matsumoto, S., Natsume, M., Nozaki, H. and Kawaide, H. Enzymatic 13C labeling and multidimensional NMR analysis of miltiradiene synthesized by bifunctional diterpene cyclase in Selaginella moellendorffii. J. Biol. Chem. 286 (2011) 42840–42847. [DOI] [PMID: 22027823]
3.  Peters, R.J. and Croteau, R.B. Abietadiene synthase catalysis: mutational analysis of a prenyl diphosphate ionization-initiated cyclization and rearrangement. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99 (2002) 580–584. [DOI] [PMID: 11805316]
4.  Ravn, M.M., Peters, R.J., Coates, R.M. and Croteau, R. Mechanism of abietadiene synthase catalysis: stereochemistry and stabilization of the cryptic pimarenyl carbocation intermediates. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124 (2002) 6998–7006. [DOI] [PMID: 12059223]
5.  Peters, R.J. and Croteau, R.B. Abietadiene synthase catalysis: conserved residues involved in protonation-initiated cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to (+)-copalyl diphosphate. Biochemistry 41 (2002) 1836–1842. [DOI] [PMID: 11827528]
[EC 5.5.1.12 created 2002, modified 2012]
 
 
EC 5.5.1.21      
Transferred entry: copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase. The enzyme was discovered at the public-review stage to have been misclassified and so was withdrawn. See EC 4.2.1.133, copal-8-ol diphosphate hydratase
[EC 5.5.1.21 created 2012, deleted 2012]
 
 


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